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7thCamTESOL International Conference 2011 “A short and easy way to teach vocabulary effectively” Speaker: Sovann KHLEANG National Institute of Education, Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia Date of February 26-27, 2011
Contents Why Teach Vocabulary? Concepts of T & L Vocabulary What to Teach? Traditional Ways of Teaching Creative Ways of Teaching Traditional Ways of Learning Creative Ways of Learning Theory of STM and LTM Five Ways to Teach Vocabulary 3 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objectives After the presentation SWBAT: Utilize the concepts of Teaching and Learning vocabulary in the real class; Apply the creative ways of teaching approach in the real class; Apply the additional five ways of teaching vocabulary in the real class; Provide the creative ways of learning approach to the students; and Facilitate students to move words from their STM to LTM. 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com 4
Why teach vocabulary? Vocabulary knowledge accounts for over 80% of the variance in reading comprehension. In the 4th grade, 70% of the problem in reading comprehension is vocabulary. Vocabulary is causally related to reading comprehension. “Indeed, one of the most enduring findings in reading research is the extent to which students’ vocabulary knowledge relates to their reading comprehension.” (Osborn & Hiebert, 2004) 5 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Concepts of Learning Vocab. “With grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.”, Wilkins “You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almosteverything with words.”, Dellar and Hocking Swan and Walter said that “vocabulary acquisition is the largest and mostimportant task facing the language learner”. 6 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com
What to teach #1? Theresearchshows that successful learners have to learn the High-Frequency Words (2,000 words) first. The first 1,000 words account for 75 % of the successive words in a text. The second 1,000 words account for 5 % of the successive words in a text. 570 academic words account for 10 % of the successive words in a academic text. 7 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org HFW#1 HFW#2 HFW#3
The effects of vocab. size on language comprehension 8 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com
The most frequent word in English? the What are the 10 most frequently spoken words in English? 1) the 6) to 2) and 7) a 3) I 8) that 4) you 9) it 5) uh 10) of 9 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A plan to build a series of escalators on the mountainside next to Tai Shue Wan was approved yesterday. The new escalators will provide a second entrance to Ocean Park. They will offer an alternative way of reaching the three main attractions on the headland. Ocean Park manager Kitty Chan said she was absolutely delighted with the news. She hopes that it will help arrest the decline in visitor numbers seen over the past two years. 10 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com
What to teach #2? Meaning of the word Spoken and written forms Word parts (prefix, suffix, and “root” from) Grammatical Behavior (word class) Collocations Register Associations (similar or opposite words) Connotations Frequency 11 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
12 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com meaning What to teach #3? pronunciation memory aid VOCABULARY spelling collocations usage form
Example: ‘top’ Synonyms highest, best.
Antonyms bottom, lowest, worst.
Different meanings ‘she’s wearing a blue top.’ ‘put the top on the bottle.’
Creative Ways of Learning Focus on vocabulary Offer variety Repeat and recycle Provide opportunities to organize vocab. Make vocabulary Learning personally Don’t overdo teach Use strategic vocabulary in class 18 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Next
Recording new vocabulary 19 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com
Theory of STM and LTM To move words from STM to LTM, S need to mentally process them by making decision, making personal association and multisensory experiences. Short-Term Memory (STM) receives patterns of images and sounds Long-Term Memory (LTM) is boosted by using a schema (structure for organizing information or concepts) combined with scripts (which stores a common behavioral sequence). 20 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Making decision - identifying: finding collocations in a text or passage - selecting: choosing a collocation based upon some criteria - matching: pairing words to create a collocation or pairing collocations which are similar in some ways - sorting: categorizing collocations by meaning, pattern, usage and topic - ranking and sequencing: put collocations in some types of order 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com 21
Five Ways to Teach Vocabulary: A. Teach Directly by: 1. Giving examples and non-examples “This line is curved.” “This line is NOT curved.” 2. Giving synonyms “Masticate means chew.” 3. Giving definitions “Monarchy is a country which has a king or queen.” 22 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Five Ways to Teach Vocabulary: B. Teach Indirectly by: 4. Using context to suggest meaning of a new word“The fan oscillated from side to side. The fan MOVED from side to side. So oscillate probably means to…” 5. Morpheme (word part) analysis “Inspire. In means to put something inside. Spir means spirit. So, to inspire means to…… spur, stimulate, encourage or influence” 23 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com
Larry Bell’s 12 Powerful Words 1. Trace List in steps 2. Analyze Break apart 3. Infer Read between the lines 4. Evaluate Judge 5. Formulate Create 6. Describe Tell all about 7. Support Back up with details 8. Explain Tell how 9. Summarize Give the short version 10. Compare All the ways they are alike 11. Contrast All the ways they are different 12. Predict What will happen next 24 03-02-2011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
“If a student doesn’t learn the way you teach – you must teach the way she learns.” 25 03-02-2011 E-mail: email@example.com Thank You For Participation !
Carten J. (2007), Teaching vocabulary: Lessons from the corpus; lessons for the classroom. Cambridge university press
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocabularyon February 01, 2011
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