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  • 1. SME MINING ENGINEERING HANDBOOK
  • 2. THIRD EDITION VOLUM E ONE E D I T E D B Y P E T E R D A R L I N G Published by Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. SME MINING ENGINEERING HANDBOOK
  • 3. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME) (303) 948-4200 / (800) 763-3132 www.smenet.org SME advances the worldwide mining and minerals community through information exchange and professional development. With members in more than 70 countries, SME is the world’s largest association of mining and minerals professionals. Copyright © 2011 Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. Supported by the Seeley W. Mudd Memorial Fund of AIME. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Information contained in this work has been obtained by SME, Inc., from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither SME nor its authors and editors guarantee the accuracy or complete- ness of any information published herein, and neither SME nor its authors and editors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that SME and its authors and editors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. Any statement or views presented herein are those of individual authors and editors and are not nec- essarily those of SME. The mention of trade names for commercial products does not imply the approval or endorsement of SME. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN 978-0-87335-264-2 Ebook 978-0-87335-341-0 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data SME mining engineering handbook / edited by Peter Darling. -- 3rd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-87335-264-2 1. Mining engineering--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Darling, Peter, 1956- II. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (U.S.) III. Title: Mining engineering handbook. TN145.S56 2011 622--dc22 2010050815
  • 4. v Contents Foreword ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ix Preface ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� xi About the Managing Editor ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������xiii Contributing Authors �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� xv Technical Reviewers����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� xxi PART 1:  Mining: Setting the Scene 1.1 Mining: Ancient, Modern, and Beyond������������������������������������������������������������������ 3 1.2 Current Trends in Mining ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 1.3 Future Trends in Mining �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 PART 2:  Market Economics 2.1 Economics of the Minerals Industry�������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 2.2 Pricing and Trading in Metals and Minerals�������������������������������������������������������� 49 2.3 Market Capitalization ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 65 2.4 Investment Analysis���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 73 PART 3:  Exploration 3.1 Geological Features and Genetic Models of Mineral Deposits���������������������������� 83 3.2 Minerals Prospecting and Exploration���������������������������������������������������������������� 105 3.3 Geophysics Prospecting�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 113 3.4 Geochemical Prospecting ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 127 PART 4:  Deposit Assessment 4.1 Geological Data Collection�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 145 4.2 Geologic Interpretation, Modeling, and Representation ������������������������������������ 173 4.3 Sample Preparation and Assaying���������������������������������������������������������������������� 187 4.4 Ore-Body Sampling and Metallurgical Testing�������������������������������������������������� 193 4.5 Mineral Resource Estimation������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 203 4.6 Valuation of Mineral Properties�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 219 4.7 Mineral Property Feasibility Studies������������������������������������������������������������������ 227 4.8 Cost Estimating for Underground Mines������������������������������������������������������������ 263 4.9 Cost Estimating for Surface Mines�������������������������������������������������������������������� 281 PART 5:  Management and Administration 5.1 Mine Economics, Management, and Law���������������������������������������������������������� 297 5.2 Economic Principles for Decision Making �������������������������������������������������������� 309 5.3 Management, Employee Relations, and Training ���������������������������������������������� 317 5.4 A Global Perspective on Mining Legislation������������������������������������������������������ 331 PART 6:  Mining Method Selection 6.1 Evaluation of Mining Methods and Systems������������������������������������������������������ 341 6.2 Mining Methods Classification System�������������������������������������������������������������� 349 6.3 Selection Process for Hard‑Rock Mining ���������������������������������������������������������� 357 6.4 Selection Process for Underground Soft‑Rock Mining�������������������������������������� 377 6.5 Comparison of Underground Mining Methods �������������������������������������������������� 385 6.6 Comparison of Surface Mining Methods������������������������������������������������������������ 405
  • 5. vi PART 7:  Rock Breaking Methods 7.1 Mechanical Rock Breaking �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 417 7.2 Blasthole Drilling ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 435 7.3 Explosives and Blasting�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 443 PART 8:  Ground Mechanics 8.1 Introduction to Ground Mechanics �������������������������������������������������������������������� 463 8.2 Soil Mechanics �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 471 8.3 Slope Stability���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 495 8.4 Rock Mechanics ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 527 8.5 Geotechnical Instrumentation���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 551 8.6 Hard-Rock Ground Control with Steel Mesh and Shotcrete ������������������������������ 573 8.7 Soft-Rock Ground Control���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 595 8.8 Ground Control Using Cable and Rock Bolting ������������������������������������������������ 611 8.9 Mine Subsidence������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 627 8.10 Tailings Impoundments and Dams���������������������������������������������������������������������� 645 8.11 Waste Piles and Dumps�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 667 PART 9:  Infrastructure and Services 9.1 Electric Power Distribution and Utilization�������������������������������������������������������� 683 9.2 Compressed Air�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 705 9.3 Mine Communications, Monitoring, and Control���������������������������������������������� 717 9.4 Mine Surveying�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 731 9.5 Dewatering Surface Operations�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 743 9.6 Dewatering Underground Operations ���������������������������������������������������������������� 765 9.7 Physical Asset Management ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 781 9.8 Automation and Robotics ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 805 9.9 Mine Infrastructure Maintenance������������������������������������������������������������������������ 825 9.10 Systems Engineering������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 839 PART 10:  Surface Extraction 10.1 Introduction to Open‑Pit Mining������������������������������������������������������������������������ 857 10.2 Open-Pit Planning and Design���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 877 10.3 Mechanical Extraction, Loading, and Hauling �������������������������������������������������� 903 10.4 Selection and Sizing of Excavating, Loading, and Hauling Equipment�������������� 931 10.5 In-Pit Crushing �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 941 10.6 Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Haul Roads�������������������������������������� 957 10.7 Surface Ore Movement, Storage, and Recovery Systems���������������������������������� 977 10.8 Strip Mining ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 989 10.9 Strip Mine Planning and Design���������������������������������������������������������������������� 1013 10.10 Highwall Mining���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1027 10.11 Quarrying���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1031 PART 11:  Hydraulic and Pipeline Mining 11.1 Hydraulic Mining �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1049 11.2 Placer Mining and Dredging���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1057 11.3 Heap Leaching�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1073 11.4 Surface Techniques of Solution Mining������������������������������������������������������������ 1087 11.5 In-Situ Techniques of Solution Mining������������������������������������������������������������ 1103 11.6 Coal-Bed Methane Production�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1121 PART 12:  Underground Development 12.1 Introduction to Underground Mine Planning���������������������������������������������������� 1135 12.2 Hard-Rock Equipment Selection and Sizing���������������������������������������������������� 1143 12.3 Soft-Rock Equipment Selection and Sizing������������������������������������������������������ 1157 12.4 Underground Horizontal and Inclined Development Methods�������������������������� 1179 12.5 Subsurface Mine Development������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1203 12.6 Construction of Underground Openings and Related Infrastructure���������������� 1223 12.7 Tunnel Boring Machines in Mining������������������������������������������������������������������ 1255 12.8 Underground Ore Movement���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1271 12.9 Hoisting Systems���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1295
  • 6. vii PART 13:  Underground Extraction 13.1 Room-and-Pillar Mining in Hard Rock������������������������������������������������������������ 1327 13.2 Room-and-Pillar Mining in Coal���������������������������������������������������������������������� 1339 13.3 Shrinkage Stoping�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1347 13.4 Sublevel Stoping���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1355 13.5 Cut-and-Fill Mining������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1365 13.6 Backfill Mining������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1375 13.7 Cave Mining ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1385 13.8 Longwall Mining���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1399 13.9 Sublevel Caving������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1417 13.10 Block Caving���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1437 PART 14:  Mineral Processing 14.1 Introduction to Mineral Processing������������������������������������������������������������������ 1455 14.2 Crushing, Milling, and Grinding���������������������������������������������������������������������� 1461 14.3 Classification by Screens and Cyclones������������������������������������������������������������ 1481 14.4 Gravity Concentration and Heavy Medium Separation������������������������������������ 1507 14.5 Fundamental Principles of Froth Flotation ������������������������������������������������������ 1517 14.6 Magnetic and Electrostatic Separation�������������������������������������������������������������� 1533 14.7 Dewatering Methods���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1547 PART 15:  Health and Safety 15.1 Mine Safety������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1557 15.2 Health and Medical Issues in Global Mining���������������������������������������������������� 1567 15.3 Mine Ventilation ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1577 15.4 Gas and Dust Control �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1595 15.5 Heat, Humidity, and Air Conditioning�������������������������������������������������������������� 1611 15.6 Radiation Control �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1625 15.7 Noise Hazards and Controls ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1633 PART 16:  Environmental Issues 16.1 Site Environmental Considerations������������������������������������������������������������������ 1643 16.2 Mining and Sustainability�������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1665 16.3 Impacts and Control of Blasting ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 1689 16.4 Water and Sediment Control Systems�������������������������������������������������������������� 1705 16.5 Mitigating Acid Rock Drainage������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1721 16.6 Waste Disposal and Contamination Management�������������������������������������������� 1733 16.7 Closure Planning���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1753 PART 17:  Community and Social Issues 17.1 Community Issues�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1767 17.2 Social License to Operate �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1779 17.3 Cultural Considerations for Mining and Indigenous Communities������������������ 1797 17.4 Management of the Social Impacts of Mining�������������������������������������������������� 1817 Appendices A Web Sites Related to Mining���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1827 B Coal Mine Gas Chart���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1833 C Conversion Chart���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1835 Index������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������I-1
  • 7. viii Dedication With deep appreciation for his contributions to the mining industry, we dedicate this 3rd edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook to the memory of Richard E. Gertsch, 1945–2005. Richard provided the initial leadership and direction for this edition. His guidance allowed others to carry on with his vision. Richard was a widely respected and admired mining engineer enjoying an illustrious career spanning decades of work both in industry and academia. Richard served on the SME Board of Directors and as the Chair of the ME Division. He was active on many committees working on important SME functions such as peer review, programming, membership, publications, nominations, scholarships, and awards. He received the Distinguished Service Award in 1991.
  • 8. ix Foreword Mining engineers throughout the world are the salt of the earth, and this third edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook will be their bible. It builds on the grand tradition begun by highly respected leaders of the mining industry—Peele (1918, 1927, and 1941) and continued by Cummins and Given (1973) and then Hartman (1992). Handbooks by their nature are often hard to read, but this one is a striking exception. Its readability immediately stands out and allows one to quickly absorb and comprehend its con- tent—not only the text, but also the many tables, figures, and photographs. Artwork has been substantially upgraded and is especially appealing. The superb presentation reflects the manag- ing editor’s technical writing background, as well as the input and skills of Jane Olivier, SME’s manager of book publishing, who spent a decade urging a new edition, and Diane Serafin, an editing specialist, who delved doggedly into the tedious details. The bar of excellence in the quality and scope of material is well maintained and at a high level throughout. Often a work involving numerous experts can lead to conflicting views on countless aspects. However, the clashing of ideas is notably a hallmark of serious thinking. The clear beneficiary of the high standard is the reader, which in this case is the practicing mining engineer in the worldwide mining industry, as well as others in academia and government. The strength of this handbook lies clearly in the quality of the chapter authors and peer reviewers. They are indeed talented experts in their specialized technical fields. A decided trend toward internationalism, paralleling similar trends in the supply and demand of mineral and energy raw materials, is evidenced by a cursory perusal of the lists of contributing authors and technical reviewers. Almost half of them are working and living outside the United States. In total, ten countries are represented—primarily English-speaking ones. Such a diverse cadre of individuals offers wide-ranging views of the worldwide mining industry’s multifaceted problems and potential solutions in a period of accelerated technological and social change. The broad scope is another strength for which no unanimity of thought can be expected or anticipated when taking a global perspective on the various issues. Carryover material from previous editions is strictly limited, and when included, it is updated to be genuinely contemporary and purposeful. Practical and useful instead of merely theoretical and interesting are the watchwords throughout the work. Comprehensiveness is an important feature not to be overlooked in a world-class handbook. This edition sets the standard and will be emulated far into the future. Much attention has been given to what can be instead of what is past. Productiveness received authoritative treatment. Specific emphasis has been given to broad topics that will continue to confront the industry in the years ahead, such as environmental issues, public concerns, health and safety matters, and sustainability. This handbook provides a pathway for the synthesis and solution of many of the complex issues and problems the mining industry is facing in the 21st century. Raymond L. Lowrie Editor of the SME Mining Reference Handbook Recipient of the 2004 SME President’s Citation February 2011
  • 9. xi Preface It was Robert Peele who gathered a group of 46 specialists almost a century ago to write the now classic Mining Engineers’ Handbook, published in 1918 by John Wiley Sons, with second and third editions published in 1927 and 1941. When Wiley declined to publish further editions, SME began publication of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook. SME published the first edition in 1973 and a second edition in 1992. From that initial publication in 1918, the handbook has been acknowledged as the reposi- tory of all essential information and useful, practical detail relating to virtually every aspect of mining. From the beginning of my mining career, I have relied heavily on this book as a source of inspiration and information. With the honor of being asked to take on the somewhat challenging role of managing editor for this third edition, I owe a debt of professional gratitude to several generations of managing editors, authors, and technical reviewers who set the seemingly impos- sible high standards in the previous editions of the handbook. From the onset, several objectives were established. These objectives included (1) to pro- duce a book that would stand shoulder to shoulder as an equal alongside previous editions, (2) to maintain its tradition of being the “handbook of choice” for every practicing mining engineer, (3) to be practical rather than theoretical in its content and approach, and (4) to be international in its appeal and examples. Mining is an international business, and the importance of sharing experiences, knowledge, and examples from around the world cannot be overemphasized. A water “problem” in one part of the world may be considered “normal” in another. A “deep” mine on one continent may connote “very deep” on another. Tailings dams in some countries need to be earthquake proof, whereas in other countries they must be free draining. This edition attempts to take the best of the best from around the world and package it in a standard and logical format for the benefit of the global industry. This internationalism is shown by the subjects covered in each chapter as well as by the nationalities of the world-class authors and technical reviewers represented. It is noteworthy that most significant mining operations have graciously shared their knowledge, techniques, experience, and alternative viewpoints. The handbook has moved with the times to cover the issues that are exercising the industry, the innovations that are exciting, and how the industry is dealing with changing attitudes toward a number of its constituents such as energy (both electrical generation and carbon/petroleum based), water management, resource maintenance, and the whole subject of sustainable develop- ment. One of the significant areas in which this handbook differs from previous editions is that it includes several chapters on both the social and environmental issues often associated with min- ing, and, more importantly, how these issues and their impacts can be mitigated and managed. It is important to note that this is a handbook and not an encyclopedia of everything mining. Several subjects previously included as dedicated chapters are now covered in less detail within other chapters. This move was not designed to marginalize or dilute the importance of certain subjects but was done to acknowledge the significant shifts in the way mining has changed as a result of new technologies. It also reflects how the work and the responsibilities of today’s min- ing engineer have changed and developed.
  • 10. xii Attempts to encapsulate the essence of so diverse a discipline as mining engineering could not have been possible without the unselfish contributions of the hundreds of authors, coauthors, technical reviewers, and mentors who are very much the unsung heroes of this publication. Much gratitude and thanks are due to the many talented and world-class professionals who have given so freely, patiently, and enthusiastically of their time, hard-earned experiences, and masterful knowledge on a plethora of mining and related subjects to ensure that this handbook was pro- duced on time and to the meteoric standards that the industry has come to expect. One of the many delights of managing this project has been the acquaintance (usually elec- tronically) of so many helpful, patient, enthusiastic, and friendly people from within the various mining associations, academic establishments, mining companies, and consultancies, as well as retired engineers and specialist editors—everyone an expert in their field. Without their coopera- tion, steady guidance, constructive comment, and encouragement, the managing of this edition would have been an impossible task. I cannot name them all, and to mention some but not others would be ungracious, but tremendous appreciation is due. These experts are headed by the authors themselves, almost every one of whom is a world leader in their specialist field. Often with the briefest of guidance and without any form of remu- neration, they have passionately undertaken their writing tasks. Their enthusiasm, commitment, and professionalism formed the bedrock on which the handbook has been based, and, as a result, they have produced superb and exceptional texts. I salute and thank you all. Next, I acknowledge the many technical reviewers who, often at short notice and, as this project progressed, with an ever shortening lead time, have been called on to read through many drafts before articulating and listing their comments, suggestions, and observations. It typically was not an easy task and often may have been a marathon requiring skills, diplomacy, and knowledge that went well beyond their original brief. I apologize and thank you. Thanks are extended to SME’s book publishing team who have been thoroughly profes- sional and efficient in their handling of this edition. This team has checked every comma, word, phrase, sentence, and illustration. They have ensured that copyright rules have not been flaunted in the quest for expedience, checked and rechecked references, standardized units of measure, and performed a hundred and one other tasks to ensure that this finished product is a source of information in a format that at best pleases and at worst does not annoy. Their attention to detail in this exacting task is very much appreciated. I also thank SME for affording me this opportunity to repay some of the debt that I believe is owed to an industry that has kept me fed, watered, enthralled, and enthused for more than three decades. Finally, I trust that any errors in opinion, facts, or perceptions in the handbook are few in number and will not overtly detract from the usefulness of and, I dare say, enjoyment of this third edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook. Peter Darling February 2011
  • 11. xiii Peter Darling, managing editor of the third edition of the SME Mining Engineering Handbook, has more than 30 years of experience as a mining engineer and journalist. A graduate of the Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, London, Darling worked as an oil industry engineer on offshore projects in Gabon, Congo, Angola, the Gulf of Guinea, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Sea, Tunisia, Egypt, and Abu Dhabi. He was also involved in underground platinum mines in South Africa and open-pit tin operations in Brazil. Darling then embarked on a career as a technical writer and editor. His assignments took him to mines, quarries, tunnels, and construction sites stretching from Chile to China, Alaska to Australia, Peru to Papua New Guinea, and Russia to La Reunion. During this period he served as editor for a variety of respected industry publications, including International Mining, Engineering and Mining Journal, Rock Products, Tunnels Tunnelling International, International Construction, The Cement Edition, Construction Asia, and Coal (North America). Darling also served as the press officer for Rio Tinto in London. As a Royal Air Force Reserve officer, Darling was deployed to Gulf War II and twice to Afghanistan where he completed the final edit of the handbook. He is a Chartered Engineer and member of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and a member of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. Darling is currently a freelance technical editor, journalist, reporter, and speech writer spe- cializing in mining, quarrying, oil and gas, tunneling, heavy construction, and engineering. Peter Darling BEng (Hons), ARSM, CEng Gothic House, Aylsham, Norfolk, England www.peterdarling.co.uk peter@peterdarling.co.uk About the Managing Editor
  • 12. xv Contributing Authors L. Adler Professor West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia, USA Tom Albanese Chief Executive Officer Rio Tinto Ltd. London, United Kingdom Breanna L. Alexander Metallurgical Engineer Lyntek, Inc. Lakewood, Colorado, USA Derek B. Apel Professor, School of Mining Petroleum Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Odd G. Askilsrud President Tunnel Engineering and Applications, Inc. Renton, Washington, USA William F. Bawden Pierre Lassonde Chair in Mining Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Scott Beer Chief Operating Officer Rajant Corporation Malvern, Pennsylvania, USA Eric N. Berkhimer Senior Applications Engineer PH Mining Equipment Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA Stephen L. Bessinger Engineering Manager BHP Billiton–San Juan Coal Company Farmington, New Mexico, USA Evelyn L. Jessup Bingham Group Manager, Closure Waste BHP Billiton Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Martyn Bloss Manager Long Term Planning, Olympic Dam BHP Billiton Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Ernest Bohnet Vice President of Mining and Geological Services Pincock Allen Holt Denver, Colorado, USA Richard K. Borden Principal Advisor Environment Rio Tinto South Jordan, Utah, USA Robert G. Boutilier President Boutilier Associates Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and Cuernavaca, Mexico Charles A. Brannon Manager Underground Planning Freeport-McMoRan Copper Gold Inc. Phoenix, Arizona, USA Ian Brown National Production Manager Lafarge Aggregates, Mountsorrel Quarry Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Richard L. Bullock Professor Emeritus, Mining Nuclear Engineering Missouri University of Science and Technology Rolla, Missouri, USA Jeremy Busfield Principal Consultant MineCraft Consulting Pty Ltd. Queensland, Australia Felipe Calizaya Associate Professor University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Gordon K. Carlson Chief Mine Engineer Henderson Mine, Climax Molybdenum Empire, Colorado, USA Peter G. Carter Manager of Mining Engineering BHP Billiton Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Timothy P. Casten Director, Underground Planning Freeport-McMoRan Copper Gold Inc. Phoenix, Arizona, USA
  • 13. xvi Joe Cline Lead Discipline Engineer Cementation USA, Inc. Sandy, Utah, USA L. Graham Closs Associate Professor, Dept. of Geology Geological Engrg. Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado, USA Mark Colwell Principal Colwell Geotechnical Services Queensland, Australia Ivan A. Contreras Vice President Barr Engineering Company Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA J. Alan Coope (Deceased) Former Director of Geochemistry Newmont Exploration Ltd. Denver, Colorado, USA Phillip C.F. Crowson Honorary Professor Professorial Research Fellow Centre for Energy, Petroleum Mineral Law Policy University of Dundee, Scotland Michael J. Cruickshank Consulting Marine Mining Engineer Marine Minerals Technology Center Associates Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Kadri Dagdelen Professor of Mining Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado, USA Donald A. Dahlstrom (Deceased) Former Professor Emeritus University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Diana Dalton Lawyer and Independent Consultant in Mining Law Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Peter Darling Managing Editor and Freelance Technical Writer Aylsham, Norfolk, United Kingdom J.A.J. (Barry) de Wet Director and Consulting Geophysicist BDW Geophysics Consulting Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Malcolm G. Dorricott Principal Consultant AMC Consultants Pty Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Charles Dowding Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois, USA Geoff Dunstan Mining Manager Newcrest Mining Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Gary Dyer Manager Strategy BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Erik Eberhardt Professor of Geological Engineering University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada A.J. (Joe) Erickson Jr. (Retired) Mining Geology Consultant Anaconda, UPCM Co., AMAX, EXXON Coal Minerals Co. Houston, Texas, USA Reinhold A. Errath Technology Manager for Drives ABB Switzerland Ltd. Baden, Switzerland Robin Evans Senior Research Fellow, University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Inst., Centre for Social Resp. in Mining Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Brian Flintoff Senior VP Tech. Dev., Equipment Systems Business Line Metso Mining Construction Technology Kelowna, BC, Canada Frank H. Fox Head of Occupational Health Anglo American plc Johannesburg, South Africa Daniel M. Franks Research Fellow, University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Inst., Centre for Social Resp. in Mining Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Russell Frith Adjunct Professor, School of Mining Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Maurice C. Fuerstenau Newmont Professor of Minerals Engineering University of Nevada Reno, Nevada, USA Rajive Ganguli Professor of Mining Engineering University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska, USA Ginger Gibson Adjunct Professor University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Don Grant Superintendent Life of Asset Planning, Olympic Dam BHP Billiton Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 14. xvii Jedediah D. Greenwood Senior Geotechnical Engineer Barr Engineering Company Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Ed Grygiel Manager of Six Sigma Engineering Jim Walter Resources Brookwood, Alabama, USA Bernard J. Guarnera President and Chairman of the Board of Directors Behre Dolbear Group, Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA John Hadjigeorgiou Director, Lassonde Mineral Engineering Program and Lassonde Institute for Engrg. Geosciences, Univ. of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Douglas F. Hambley Associate Agapito Associates, Inc. Golden, Colorado, USA Kenneth N. Han Professor Emeritus South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City, South Dakota, USA Jack Haptonstall Mining Consultant Pincock Allen Holt Lakewood, Colorado, USA John P. Harrison Lassonde Institute, Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Paul Harvey President Ekati BHP Billiton Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada Zaher Hashisho Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Environmental Engrg. University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Richard Herrington Researcher, Economic Geology Natural History Museum London, United Kingdom Ken Hill Managing Director Xenith Consulting Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Walter E. Hill Jr. (Deceased) Former Chief Chemist AMAX Exploration, Inc. Lakewood, Colorado, USA R. Anthony Hodge President, International Council on Mining Metals Professor, Mining Sustainability, Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Lok Home President The Robbins Company Solon, Ohio, USA John Hooper Managing Director Joem Promotions Deal, Kent, United Kingdom Paul B. Hughes Research Assistant, Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada James D. Humphrey Market Professional–Mining Caterpillar, Inc., Global Mining Division Decatur, Illinois, USA David Humphreys Independent Consultant Former Chief Economist at Rio Tinto Norilsk Nickel London, United Kingdom Partha V. Iyer Consultant Reading, Pennsylvania, USA Jeffrey A. Jaacks President Geochemical Applications International, Inc. Centennial, Colorado, USA Andrew Jarosz Associate Professor, Curtin University Western Australian School of Mines Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, Australia Daniel W. Kappes President Kappes, Cassiday and Associates Reno, Nevada, USA S. Komar Kawatra Professor of Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan, USA Deanna Kemp Senior Research Fellow, University of Queensland Sustainable Minerals Inst., Centre for Social Resp. in Mining Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Thomas Kerr President Knight Piésold and Company Denver, Colorado, USA Philip King Technical Director Truro, Cornwall, United Kingdom Charles A. Kliche Professor of Mining Engineering South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City, South Dakota, USA
  • 15. xviii Peter Knights BMA Chair and Professor of Mining Engineering University of Queensland Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abby Korte Project Hydrologist Lidstone and Associates, Inc. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Ronald Kuehl II General Manager, Vibrating Equip. Systems Business Line Metso Mining Construction Technology Columbia, South Carolina, USA Uday Kumar Professor of Operation and Maintenance Engineering Luleå University of Technology Luleå, Sweden Mahinda Kuruppu Senior Lecturer Curtin University of Technology Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, Australia John I. Kyle Vice President Lyntek, Inc. Lakewood, Colorado, USA Dennis H. Laubscher Mining Consultant Bushmans River Mouth, South Africa David Laurence Acting Director, School of Mining Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney, New South Wales, Australia G. Aubrey Lee Senior Consultant SESCO Management Consultants Bristol, Tennessee, USA José L. Lee-Moreno Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona, USA Jennifer B. Leinart CostMine Division Manager InfoMine USA Spokane Valley, Washington, USA Paul Lever Prof. and CRCMining Chair, Mech. Mining Engrg. School University of Queensland Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Christopher D. Lidstone President Lidstone and Associates, Inc. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Braden Lusk Assistant Professor, Mining Engineering Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky, USA Alistair MacDonald Environmental Assessment Specialist SENES Consultants Limited Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Travis J. Manning Metallurgical Engineeer Kappes, Cassiday Associates Reno, Nevada, USA John Marks Consultant Lead, South Dakota, USA Michael D. Martin Senior Associate Behre Dolbear Company (USA), Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA Douglas K. Maxwell Senior Process Engineer Lyntek, Inc. Lakewood, Colorado, USA Peter L. McCarthy Chairman and Principal Mining Consultant AMC Consultants Pty Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia John McGagh Head of Innovation Rio Tinto Ltd. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia John Mosher Executive Vice President–Operations PT Freeport Indonesia Tembagapura, Papua, Indonesia Michael G. Nelson Department Chair, Mining Engineering College of Mines Earth Sciences, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Jerry M. Nettleton Environmental Manager Peabody Energy Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA Antonio Nieto Associate Professor, Energy and Minerals Engineering Dept. Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania, USA Alan C. Noble Principal Engineer and Owner Ore Reserves Engineering Lakewood, Colorado, USA Ciaran O’Faircheallaigh Professor, Politics and Public Policy Griffith University Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Marc Orman Senior Geotechnical Engineer Ausenco Vector Grass Valley, California, USA
  • 16. xix Jeffrey T. Padgett Consulting Geologist Monterey Coal Company Carlinville, Illinois, USA Rimas T. Pakalnis Associate Professor, Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Rich Peevers Senior Engineer Ausenco Vector Grass Valley, California, USA Paul R. Peppers Supt. Central Maintenance Projects, Sierrita Operations Freeport-McMoRan Copper Gold Co. Green Valley, Arizona, USA Fiona Perrott-Humphrey Consultant to NM Rothschild (mining team) Dir. of AIM Mining Research PURE P-H Strategic Consulting London, United Kingdom Edwin V. Post (Retired) Former President of Skyline Labs, Inc. Wheat Ridge, Colorado, USA Yves Potvin Director of the Australian Centre for Geomechanics University of Western Australia Perth, Western Australia, Australia Gavin Power Director Power Geotechnical Pty Ltd. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Marc Rademacher Director, Western Operations, Minerals Services Div. SGS North America, Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA Marcus Randolph Group Executive Chief Executive, Ferrous Coal BHP Billiton Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Michael Rawlinson Director and Head of Mining and Metals Liberum Capital London, United Kingdom Mark Richards Mines Manager Imerys Minerals Limited Cornwall, United Kingdom Jamal Rostami Assistant Professor, Energy and Mineral Engineering Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania, USA Cameron Routley Superintendent Five Year Planning, Olympic Dam BHP Billiton Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Ian Runge Founder Runge Ltd. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Kristin Sample Staff Engineer Ausenco Vector Fort Collins, Colorado, USA W. Joseph Schlitt President Hydrometal, Inc. Knightsen, California, USA Ross Seedsman Director Seedsman Geotechnics Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia Ian Sherrell Business Development Engineer Outotec Jacksonville, Florida, USA Ernest T. Shonts Jr. Senior Mining Engineer Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Rod Stace Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering University of Nottingham Nottingham, United Kingdom Doug Stead Professor of Resource Geoscience and Geotechnics Simon Fraser University Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Scott A. Stebbins President Aventurine Mine Cost Engineering Spokane, Washington, USA George Stephan Senior Consulting Engineer Stantec Mining Tempe, Arizona, USA Nimal Subasinghe Associate Professor of Minerals Engineering Curtin University (Western Australian School of Mines) Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, Australia Pramod Thakur Manager, Coal Seam Degasification CONSOL Energy, Inc. Morgantown, West Virginia, USA Roger J. Thompson Professor of Mining Engineering Curtin University (Western Australian School of Mines) Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, Australia S.D. Thompson Assistant Professor University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Champaign, Illinois, USA
  • 17. xx Ian Thomson Principal On Common Ground Consultants, Inc. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Jerry C. Tien Department of Mining and Nuclear Energy Missouri University of Science and Technology Rolla, Missouri, USA Peter Tiley Consulting Engineer G.L. Tiley Associates Ltd. Flamborough, Ontario, Canada Michael A. Tuck Associate Professor of Mining Engineering University of Ballarat Ballarat, Victoria, Australia Bryan Ulrich Senior Vice President Knight Piésold and Company Elko, Nevada, USA Ronald W. Utley Consultant FLSmidth, Inc. Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA Klaas Peter van der Wielen Research Assistant Camborne School of Mines (University of Exeter) Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom Rens Verburg Principal Geochemist Golder Associates, Inc. Redmond, Washington, USA Joshua D. Wagner Marketing Product Consultant Caterpillar, Inc., Global Mining Division Peoria, Illinois, USA Gary E. Walter Principal Consultant Primo Safety and Health Services, LLC Wilmington, Delaware, USA Mark Watson Technical Services Group Alliance Coal LLC Lexington, Kentucky, USA Andrew Wetherelt Senior Lecturer in Mining Engrg., Prog. Dir. BEng Mining Engrg. Camborne School of Mines (University of Exeter) Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom David Whittle Global Manager, Planning Leadership Program BHP Billiton Melbourne, Victoria, Australia John Woodhouse Chief Executive The Woodhouse Partnership Ltd. Kingsclere, Berkshire, United Kingdom Paul Worsey Professor, Mining and Nuclear Engineering Department Missouri University of Science and Technology Rolla, Missouri, USA Sergio Zamorano Technical Director of Conveyor Technologies FLSmidth Spokane, Washington, USA
  • 18. xxi David M. Abbott Jr. Senior Associate and Principal Behre Dolbear Company (USA), Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA Mark Adams Chief Operating Officer Barminco Hazelmere, Western Australia, Australia Hugh E.K. Allen Mining Consultant Allen Associates Harrow-on-the Hill, London, United Kingdom Timothy D. Arnold General Manager General Moly, Inc. Eureka, Nevada, USA Doug Austin Senior Vice President M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation Tucson, Arizona, USA Peter Balka Chief Mining Engineer Tigers Realm Minerals Pty Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia John C. Barber Technical Director and Principal Mining Engineer AMEC E C Mesa, Arizona, USA Michael Barber Self-Employed Blasting Consultant Parker, Colorado, USA William F. Bawden Pierre Lassonde Chair in Mining Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada John Baz-Dresch Manager–Technical Services Cia. Minera del Cubo S.A. de C.V. Guanajuato, GTO, Mexico Douglas L. Beahm Principal Engineer BRS Engineering Riverton, Wyoming, USA Carmen Bernedo Lead/Supervising Engineer MWH Americas, Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA Stephen L. Bessinger Engineering Manager BHP Billiton–San Juan Coal Company Farmington, New Mexico, USA Patricia Billig Environmental Toxicologist Boulder, Colorado, USA Christopher Bise Professor and Chairman, Mining Engineering Department West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia, USA Steve Boydston Senior Consultant DNV Business Assurance Centennial, Colorado, USA Bill Bradford (Retired) Mineral Processing Consultant Formerly with Selection Trust Ltd. UN Dev. Prog. Tring, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom Wade W. Bristol General Manager–Nevada Underground Newmont Mining Corporation Carlin, Nevada, USA Richard L. Bullock Professor Emeritus, Mining Nuclear Engineering Missouri University of Science and Technology Rolla, Missouri, USA Al Campoli Vice President Special Projects Jennmar Corporation Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Mark Chalmers Chair Uranium Council of Australia Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Rebecca Chouinard Regulatory Specialist Wek’eezhii Land and Water Board Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada Technical Reviewers
  • 19. xxii Phillip C.F. Crowson Honorary Professor Professorial Research Fellow Centre for Energy, Petroleum Mineral Law Policy University of Dundee, Scotland James Davidson General Manager Urtek LLC Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Gary Davison Managing Director MiningOne Pty Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Fred Delabbio Gen. Mgr. Innovation–Underground, Technology and Innovation Rio Tinto Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Phil Dight Winthrop Professor of Geotechnical Engineering Australian Ctr. for Geomechanics, Univ. of Western Australia Perth, Western Australia, Australia Mal G. Dorricott Principle Consultant AMC Consultants Pty Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Sjoerd Rein Duim Director, Principal Consultant (Mining) SRK Consulting Perth, Western Australia, Australia W. Scott Dunbar Professor, Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Roger Ellis Minerals Industry Consultant Senior Geological Associate with ACA Howe International Hertfordshire, United Kingdom Richmond Fenn Director Resource Development Freeport-McMoRan Copper Gold, Inc. Oro Valley, Arizona, USA Courtney Fidler Department of Geography and Planning University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Russell Frith Adjunct Professor, School of Mining Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Steven Gardner President and CEO Engineering Consulting Services, Inc. Lexington, Kentucky, USA Barry Gass General Manager Asset Management Rio Tinto Copper Projects Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Mike Gleason Energy Superintendent Climax Molybdenum Company Empire, Colorado, USA John Grieves Project Manager New Hope Group Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Douglas F. Hambley Associate Agapito Associates, Inc. Golden, Colorado, USA Jack Haptonstall Mining Consultant Pincock Allen Holt Lakewood, Colorado, USA Alex Hathorn Vice President Technical Services and Continuous Improvement Peabody Energy Australia Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Bruce Hebblewhite Professor Head of the School of Mining Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Michael G. Hester Vice President Independent Mining Consultants, Inc. Tucson, Arizona, USA Ronald R. Hewitt Cohen Professor of Environmental Science and Engineering Colorado School of Mines Denver, Colorado, USA Evert Hoek (Retired) Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Kevin Holley Principal Geotechnical Engineer, Director SRK Consulting Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Steven Holmes General Manager–Ray Operations Asarco LLC Hayden, Arizona, USA David Hull Chair, Educational Advisory Committee to the South Africa Council for Professional and Technical Surveyors Johannesburg, South Africa Louie Human Senior Consultant (Rock Mechanics) SRK Consulting Australasia Perth, Western Australia, Australia David Humphreys Independent Consultant Former Chief Economist at Rio Tinto Norilsk Nickel London, United Kingdom
  • 20. xxiii Conrad Huss Chairman of the Board M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation Tucson, Arizona, USA Nils I. Johansen Pott College of Science and Engineering University of Southern Indiana Evansville, Indiana, USA Daniel W. Kappes President Kappes, Cassiday and Associates Reno, Nevada, USA Patrick Killeen (Retired) Research Scientist Geological Survey of Canada Ompah, Ontario, Canada Linton Kirk Senior Principal and Chief Mining Engineer Coffey Mining Belo Horizonte, Brazil Charles A. Kliche Professor of Mining Engineering South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City, South Dakota, USA David Krizek Principal Tetra Tech Tucson, Arizona, USA Stanley T. Krukowski Industrial Minerals Geologist IV Oklahoma Geological Survey Norman, Oklahoma, USA Katherine Laudon Vice President Lidstone and Associates, Inc. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Christopher D. Lidstone President Lidstone and Associates, Inc. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Joe Luxford Principal Luxford Mine Management Services Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Michael D. Martin Senior Associate Behre Dolbear Company (USA), Inc. Denver, Colorado, USA Bill McAuley Former Managing Director British Oxygen Corporation (BOC) Group Camberley, Surrey, United Kingdom Michael K. McCarter Professor, Department of Mining Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Peter L. McCarthy Chairman and Principal Mining Consultant AMC Consultants Pty Ltd. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Stefan Muller Principal Hydrogeologist SRK Consulting Perth, Western Australia, Australia Jan M. Mutmansky Professor Emeritus of Mining Engineering Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania, USA Michael G. Nelson Department Chair, Mining Engineering College of Mines Earth Sciences, University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Dave Osborne Group Manager (Coal Technology–Business Development) Xstrata Coal Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Paul R. Peppers Supt. Central Maintenance Projects, Sierrita Operations Freeport-McMoRan Copper Gold Co. Green Valley, Arizona, USA Clyde Peppin Consulting Engineer Stantec – Mining (Formerly Mcintosh Engineering) Tempe, Arizona, USA Fiona Perrott-Humphrey Consultant to NM Rothschild (mining team) Dir. of AIM Mining Research PURE P-H Strategic Consulting London, United Kingdom Gavin Power Director Power Geotechnical Pty Ltd. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Jerry Ran Manager of Geotechnical Engineering Barrick Gold Corporation Toronto, Ontario, Canada Donald E. Ranta President and CEO Rare Elements Resources Ltd. Golden, Colorado, USA Larry Reimann Manager Technical Services Cameco Resources Casper, Wyoming, USA Abani Samal Geologist/Geostatistician Pincock Allen Holt Denver, Colorado, USA Lee W. Saperstein Dean Emeritus, School of Mines and Metallurgy Missouri University of Science and Technology Rolla, Missouri, USA
  • 21. xxiv Scott A. Stebbins President Aventurine Mine Cost Engineering Spokane, Washington, USA Doug Stiles Assistant General Manager Carlota Copper Company–QuadraFnx Mining Globe, Arizona, USA Barton Stone Chief Geologist Pincock Allen Holt Lakewood, Colorado, USA Nimal Subasinghe Associate Professor of Minerals Engineering Curtin University (Western Australian School of Mines) Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, Australia Edward Thomas Professor (private practice) Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Tom Vandergrift Senior Associate Agapito Associates, Inc. Golden, Colorado, USA Gary E. Walter Principle Consultant Primo Safety and Health Services, LLC Wilmington, Delaware, USA Bill Warfield Product Manager (Ground Engineering Products) Atlas Copco Construction Mining Technique Roseville, California, USA Alan Weakly Consultant Innovative Mining Solutions Story, Wyoming, USA Andrew Wetherelt Senior Lecturer in Mining Engrg., Prog. Dir. BEng Mining Engrg. Camborne School of Mines (University of Exeter) Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom David Whittle Global Manager, Planning Leadership Program BHP Billiton Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Anne L. Williamson Principle Scientist/Senior Project Manager URS Corporation Phoenix, Arizona, USA Johnny Zhan Senior Environmental Manager (Hydrology) Barrick Gold Corporation Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

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