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Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
Atmosphere elearn
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Atmosphere elearn

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  • 1. ObjectiveDiscuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment:• the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings. KNOWING OUR RAIN! Type of Pure Rainwater Acid water water rain pH 7 5.6 4
  • 2. ObjectiveDiscuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment:• the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings. 1 2 and 3 4 houses FACTORY LAKE 5
  • 3. ObjectiveDiscuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment:• the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings. 1 2 and 3 4 houses FACTORY LAKE 5• Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides gases are released into the air by factories and vehicles. The gases then react with air and water in the clouds to form ACID RAIN
  • 4. ObjectiveDiscuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment:• the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings. 1 2 and 3 4 houses FACTORY LAKE 5• Sulphur dioxide reacts with air and water to form sulphuric acid.Chemical Equation: 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O  2H2SO43. Nitrogen dioxide reacts with air and water to form nitric acid. Chemical Equation:4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O  4HNO3
  • 5. ObjectiveDiscuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment:• the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings. 1 2 and 3 4 houses FACTORY LAKE 54. The acid rain corrodes limestone buildings and metal structures.5. Soils and lakes become too acidic. Acid rain kills fish. Acid rain leaches nutrients from soils and destroys plants.
  • 6. ObjectiveDiscuss some of the effects of these pollutants on health and on the environment:• the role of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide in the formation of ‘acid rain’ and its effects on respiration and buildings. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides also cause irritation of the eyes and breathing difficulties by irritating the lungs
  • 7. ObjectiveDescribe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some of thepollutants• the use of calcium carbonate to reduce the effect of acid rain Cure for ACID RAIN! The lakes contaminated by acid rain can be neutralised by calcium hydroxide (limewater) or calcium carbonate (limestone).
  • 8. Objective Describe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some of the pollutants • flue gas desulphurisation Prevention of ACID RAIN Prevention is absolutely better than cure. But how do we make it possible? • removing sulphur dioxide from waste gases (from industries and power stations) before they are released into the air known as flue gas desulfurisation. Sulphur dioxide is removed by reacting with calcium carbonate (or calcium oxide) to form calcium sulphite. CaCO3 (s) + SO2 (g) CaSO3 (s) + CO2 (g) The calcium sulphite is further oxidised to form calcium sulphate. 2CaSO3(s) + O2 (g)  2CaSO4 (s)
  • 9. ObjectiveDescribe the reactions used in possible solutions to the problems arising from some of thepollutants• the redox reactions in catalytic converters to remove combustion pollutants. Removal pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from car exhaust This can be done by installing a catalytic converter in the vehicles CO2 + N2 When the exhaust gases pass over the catalyst in the converter, a redox reaction occurs and the harmful Catalytic pollutants are changed into harmless gases. Converter The carbon monoxide is oxidised to carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen reduced to nitrogen gas CO + NO 2NO(g) + 2CO (g)  N2 (g) + 2CO2 (g)
  • 10. Objective: Discuss the importance of ozone layer and the problems involvedwith the depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine containing compounds,chlorofluorocarbon, (CFCs)Importance of OZONE LAYEROzone is an element with molecular formula O3. The ozone layer in theatmosphere acts as a shield to filter out the harmful uv radiation from thesun. SUN Ozone layer filters out harmful uv light If this harmful uv radiation is allowed to reach the surface of the earth, there would be an increase in • skin cancer • eye damage e.g. cataract • genetic mutation
  • 11. Objective: Discuss the importance of ozone layer and the problems involvedwith the depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine containing compounds,chlorofluorocarbon, (CFCs) What causes the depletion of ozone layer in the atmosphere? Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs
  • 12. Objective: Discuss the importance of ozone layer and the problems involved with the depletion of ozone by reaction with chlorine containing compounds, chlorofluorocarbon, (CFCs) 3 In the presence of sunlight, CFCs decompose to form chlorine atoms2CFCs reach theatmosphere where theozone layer is found 4 Chlorine atoms react with ozone molecules in the ozone layer to form chlorine oxide 5 and oxygen, thus Ozone layer is destroying the ozone destroyed layer 1 Propellent from aerosols release 6 CFCs into the Harmful uv light reaches atmosphere earth through the holes in the ozone layer
  • 13. Objective: Describes the carbon cycle in simple terms, to include combustion,respiration and photosynthesis What is the carbon cycle? The mechanisms that maintain the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  • 14. Objective: Describes the carbon cycle in simple terms , to include combustion,respiration and photosynthesis and how carbon cycle regulates the amount ofCO2 in the atmosphere 3 main processes in the carbon cycle that maintains the level of carbon dioxide in the air are: Atmospheric carbon  Combustion of fuel dioxide Carbon dioxide is produced  Respiration  Photosynthesis Carbon dioxide is removed. During photosynthesis, green plants convert carbon dioxide and water into Carbon dioxide is produced. food (glucose) and oxygen in the It is a process in which food presence of sunlight taken in by living things are 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2 converted into carbon dioxide glucose and water C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
  • 15. Objective: State that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases andmay contribute to global warming Some radiation escapes into space Some radiation absorbs by the gases in the Solar radiation atmosphere atmosphere They are called greenhouse gases. Examples : carbon dioxide & methane The earth’s surface is heated by radiation from the sun. Some gases in the air trap this heat radiation and prevent much of it from escaping into space. The energy retained in the atmosphere produces a warming effect known as the greenhouse effect. This leads to an increase in the earth’s temperature or global warming. Is the greenhouse effect important? Yes, without the greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold for life to exist. It is the excessive greenhouse gases that leads to global warming
  • 16. Objective: State that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases andmay contribute to global warming, give the sources of these gases Reasons for increase in CO2 and methane in the atmosphere Deforestation – when trees grow, they absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. If there are less trees, more carbon dioxide will remain in the atmosphere. In addition, when trees are burnt, carbon dioxide is also given off. Burning of carbon containing fuel in factories. Bacteria decay of vegetation and wastes produce methane gas
  • 17. Objective: State that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases andand discuss the possible consequences of an increase in global warming Effects of increase in Global warming  a decrease in crop yield worldwide. Areas covered by vegetation may become deserts. melting of ice in the North and South Poles. Low lying countries will be flooded. rapid evaporation of water from the earth surface. When this happen, carbon dioxide dissolved in the ocean will be driven out into the atmosphere.

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