Sub: Mahayana Sutra
Lect: Dr. B. Sudarat
Year: 3rd Year
• Introduction – Author, Date, Theme,
• Story overview
• Chapter I – Buddha/Pure Land
• Chapter II - Skillful Means
• Chapter III – Reluctance of the Disciples
• Chapter IV – Reluctance of the Bodhisattvas
• Chapter V – Manjuri’s Visit to Vimalakirti
• Chapter VI - Inconceivable Liberation
• Chapter VII – Viewing Sentient Beings
• About the text:
• The text contains fourteen
• The text is composed in dialogue
forms with many characters.
• Layman teaching dharma
• Spiritual potential of womanhood.
• The sutra was probably composed during 100 CE.
• 188 CE by Kuṣāṇa monk Lokakṣema from
Gnadhara to China but lost
• Six times in translations to Chinese
• And later around 406 CE , translated by
Kumarajiva to Chinese Yao Quin Dynasty.
• The philosophical aspect of this sutra: Non-duality and
• Non-duality philosophy teaches no judgment of
things, characteristic etc.
- Good and bad is duality, no generation of good and bad
- Self and non-self
- Wisdom and ignorance…
- Even itself duality and non-duality
• “Duality is constituted by perceptual
manifestation. Nonduality is objectlessness.
Therefore, nongrasping and nonrejection is
the entrance into nonduality.”
• Vaisali- Buddha and Vimalakirti
• Pretended to be sick
• Buddha’s requests to disciples and
• Reluctant because unparallel knowledge of
• Manjusri discussion on non-duality chance
Chapter 1 – Buddha/Pure Land
• The venue of scenario begins with monks and
Boddhisattvas in the garden of Amrapali near Vaisali.
• Licchavi Ratnakara uttered verses in praise of the
• The Buddha preached on the purity of the Buddha land
requested by Ratnakara.
• Bodhisattva’s pure land; Profound mind, Six
perfections, Four Brahmaviharas, Four means of
attractions, Skillful means, Thirty-seven factors of
• Buddha and Brahma Sikhin clearing doubts of ven.
• The Buddha said “Sariputra, this buddha-field is always thus
pure, but the Tathagata makes it appear to be spoiled by
many faults, in order to bring about the maturity of the
inferior living beings.”
• Example of nectar in Trayastimsa heaven(taste according
their degree of merits) viewing the Buddha-land.
• “We cannot see it as a pure land because our minds are
impure. When our minds are impure, even paradise may
seem like hell.” – Robert Thurman, commentary
Chapter II - Skillful Means
• Vimalakirti was a lay
Bodhisattva, lived for the sake of
• He pretended to be sick as means
of skillful means to teach dharma
• The body of the Nirmanakaya(for
ordinary) is subject to suffering.
• Therefore, Vimalakirti urged to
gain the body of the Buddha and
Chapter III – Reluctance of the
• Reading the thought of Vimalakirti, “ I am lying sick in
bed. How can the world-honored one, He of Great
Sympathy, not take pity on me.”
• The Buddha told to visit Vimakiriti to different
Sariputta, Mahamaudalyayana, Mahakasyapa, Subhuti,
Purna, Mahakatyayana, Aniruddha, Upali, Rahula, Ana
nda untill 500 great disciples.
• Every disciples were reluctant to see as they
recollected their past incidents.
• Vimalakirti attacked with words to experts of specific
• “ O Katyayana, do not explain the Dharma of the true
characteristic using mental process of the generation
-“ Katyayana, the dharmas are ultimately neither
generated nor extinguished: this is the meaning of
-“The five skandhas are empty throughout, with no
arising: this is the meaning of suffering.”
- “The dharmas ultimately does not exist: this is the
meaning of emptiness.”
- “There is no self in self, yet no duality: this is meaning of
Chapter IV – Reluctance of the
• Afterward, the Buddha
approached to all the
Bodhisattvas and they all
• To Maitreya: taking his
example of future
Buddha, the suchness
/buddha-nature in all
sentient beings for anuttara
• To Jagatimdhara: and mara women
- “Sisters, a single lamp may light
hundreds of thousands of lamps
without itself being diminished.
Likewise, sisters, a single bodhisattva
may establish many hundreds of
thousands of living beings in
enlightenment without his mindfulness
• Woman spiritual potentialities in
• To Suddatta: the greatest gift of dharma
than the material wealth.
Chapter V – Manjuri’s Visit to
• Manjusri a accepted the Buddha’s request to visit
• Vimalakirti answered the questions of Manjusri
as way of preaching.
- What is the cause from which this illness arise?
Has it been affecting you long? How will it be
- Stupidity, and extinguished of all sentient beings.
Chapter VI - Inconceivable Liberation
• By reading the thought of Sariputta, Vimalakirti
preached “ inconceivable liberation”
• “ O Sariputta, in the seeking the dharma one
should not be attached to the Buddha in
seeking, nor be attached to the dharma in
• Explaining about the dharma and its way of
• The inconceivable emancipation of bodhisattvas;
Sumera mountain into mustard seed without any
changes, four great oceans into one pore,
• “ A bodhisattva who resides in inconceivable
emancipation can take the sentient beings of a
buddha land in the right palm and fly to all ten
• Thus description is in such mystical and magical.
• Therefore it is “ inconceivable”
Chapter VII – Viewing Sentient Beings
• This chapter interestingly defining some buddhist
terms in a philosophical manner.
• Vimalakirti answered to the question of Manjusri
• “ How should the bodhisattva view sentient
- like moon in the water, image in the mirror, sixth
• How should practice sympathy to sentient
- Practice sympathy of peace and joy, because
of causing to attain the joy of Buddhahood.
• What is compassion?
- “ the merits achieved by the bodhisattva.
• What is the fundamental basis of body