HARDWARE ISSUES
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HARDWARE ISSUES

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HARDWARE ISSUES HARDWARE ISSUES Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 03 –Hardware Issues
  • Overview
  • The Central Processing UnitThe motherboard should be thought of as the computer’s centralnervous system, and the microprocessor chip as the brain. View slide
  • So how do you choose theright motherboard?  Size, or form factor The most popular motherboard form factor today is ATX. Almost all computers use this type.  A chipset controls the flow of information in the motherboard.  It cannot be upgraded without upgrading the whole board.  NVidia and Via make chipsets for both AMD and Intel processors.  AMD and Intel only make chipsets compatible with their own processors. View slide
  • What are Microprocessors? Microprocessors consist of a system of transistors, which act as on/off switches (or 1/0 in binary language) to represent different kinds of data.  The size of your processor is measured in 0s or 1s, called bits. 8 bits = 1 byte 1,000 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB) 1,000,000 bytes = 1 megabyte (MB) …and so on.
  • PC Vs. Macintosh  Microsoft Windows are designed to run on Intel processors, Apple computers use Motorola-type chips. • The PowerPC chip, by Apple, IBM, and Motorola, allowed for Macintosh computers to run PC software as well. • In 2005, Apple decided to convert solely to Intel processor chips by June 2007. • These means more compatibility options.
  • Moore’s Law In 1965, Gordon E. Moore published a paper that proposes: The number of transistors packed onto a chip doubles every 18 months, while the price remains the Moores law. (2008, September 22). In Wikipedia, The Free same. Encyclopedia. Retrieved 00:22, September 25, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moore%27s_law&oldid=24 0240004
  • Processor Speed Processor speed is measured by a system clock. The clock rate is measured in hertz. 1981 Today The original 2002 Up to tetra hertz, orIBM computer’s Intel Pentium 4 trillions of clock speed up to 3 GHz. cycles perwas at 4.7 MHz. second.
  • Thermal Design Power (TDP) Because of these high speeds, systems often become overheated. • Fans and modes of heat transfer have helped. • But much of today’s software require a high number of processes to occur rapidly, such as in large networks or in games.
  • Multi-Core Processors Divides the processing load over two or more processors to prevent sluggishness and overheating. This means improved multi-tasking performance. “Understanding Processor Performance” (2008). Alienware Corporation. Retrieved 23 September 2008 at http://www.alienware.com/intro_pages/processors_101.aspx
  • Short-Term MemoryWhat is it and why is it important toconsider when buying a computer?What amount of RAM isrecommended for a new system?
  •  Holds the data before and after processing Critical for a system to run smoothly and its software to work well RAM size is usually measured in megabytes or gigabytes
  • B.K. Williams & S.C.Sawyer, (2007). Usinginformation Technology 128 megabytes for students At least 256 megabytes or possibly 512 megabytes if you want to handle graphics files As memory size required for additional software continues to grow, the library might want to buy for future
  •  DDR-SDRAM is a more recent development and most often found in personal computers so the staff would probably want to make sure they bought a system with this type of memory
  • Michael J. Miller, (Nov.11, 2004) “Your Next PC.” PCMagazine Recommends 512 MB of RAM as an inexpensive item that will do more to improve how a computer works than a more powerful processor For games, 1 gigabyte of RAM
  • Kristopher Kubicki, . (March 19,2006) “Vista and the Quest forMore Memory.” Daily Tech. Noticed a drop in price for more RAM every time a new Windows operating system is launched Expects to see 2 gigabytes as the norm for new computer systems
  • Jason Cross, (Sept. 13, 2006)“The Best PC for the Money.”PC Magazine. Recommends 2 gigabytes of memory with newer operating systems, especially Vista You could get by with 1 but price makes this too good a bargain to pass up, especially with whatever technology comes next
  • Russell Hitchcock. (July17, 2007) "Memory andStorage: Part 2.“WindowsNetworking.com Discuss newer type of chip called Magneto- resistive Random Access Memory , or MRAM, which uses magnetic storage Expensive and not readily available
  • Schenone, Ron. (March29, 2007) “Vista – How MuchRam Is Really Enough?” TheBlade by Ron Schenone, MVP. Microsoft always low-balls the amount of RAM needed Found Microsoft XP ran fine with 1 gigabyte of RAM Vista ran faster and smoother with 2 gigabytes. No noticeable difference with 4 gigabytes
  • Jeff Tyson and DaveCoustan, (2008). “How RAMWorks,” How Stuff Works. RAM needs depend on system you are running Microsoft recommends 128 megabytes with Windows XP, 256 megabytes for optimal performance
  • Joel Santo Domingo, CiscoCheng, Laarni AlmendralaRagaza. (September 2008)“Best PCs on Campus”PC Magazine Some colleges require computers with 2 gigabytes of RAM Best new computers have 2 gigabytes, some 3 or 4.
  • Summary While books may provide a good introduction to what you might need for purchasing, technology changing so rapidly that information quickly obsolete Online articles and blogs and even print magazines seem a better source for the latest recommendations Standard now seems to be at least 1or 2 gigabytes, but probably won’t be long before 3 or 4 is the norm
  • Long-Term MemoryLong-term memory is traditionally known as Secondary Storage.
  • Two Things to Consider1. Raw Capacity – the amount of data that can be stored.2. Density – the amount of data that can be stored per unit of size.
  • Secondary Storage Methods Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Floppy Disk Zip Disk Optical Disk  Compact Disk (CD)  Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)  Blu-Ray Disc Flash Memory
  • Hard Disk Drive (HDD)
  • Floppy Disk
  • Optical Disk
  • Flash Memory
  • Future Technology One example is holographic memory storage:
  • Conclusion In magazines or online, you will find the latest information about differenttechnologies. The books may give youan overview but change comes rapidly.
  • Questions andPossible Answers?