Models of Teaching• Introduction• Categories of Variables• Teacher Characteristics• Models of Teaching and Learning (Image)• Students Characteristics
Objektif• Pada akhir sesi, peserta akan dapat:• Menyenaraikan jenis-jenis model-model pengajaran yang digunakan di dalam aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran• Membezakan jenis model-model pengajaran dan kesan terhadap pengajaran dan pembelajaran
Skop• Objektif• Definisi• Jenis Model Pengajaran• Implikasi dan Kesan• Rumusan
Definisi• Maksud Model• Maksud Pengajaran• Rumusan Model Pengajaran
Jenis Model Pengajaran• Model pemprosesan maklumat• Model behavioral• Model social• Model personal
Aktiviti 1- Berdasarkan perbincangan tadi berikan huraian ringkas dan apakah implikasimodel-model pengajaran ini terhadap pengajaran dan pembelajaran di dalam bilik darjah
Implikasi Model Pengajaran• Implikasi Model pemprosesan maklumat• Implikasi Model behavioral• Implikasi Model sosial• Implikasi Model personal
Models of TeachingDraw and discuss the significant aspects ofthe model of the teaching/learning processpresented in class (or discussed in one ofthe required readings), giving specificexamples of the types of variablesconsidered in educational psychology.Describe relationships among variablesyou discuss.Developed by: Azizi, 2013
Categories of Variables Factors outside of the classroom Context that provide the environment for the teaching and learning process Qualities/characteristics of teachers Input and students that they bring with them to the classroom experience Teacher and student behaviors in theClassroom classroom as well as some otherProcesses variables such as classroom climate and teacher/ student relationships Output Measures of student learning taken apart from the normal instructional process
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessThe third major category of variables, Input,refers to descriptions of teachers and studentsprior to their coming into the classroom.There are again two important subcategories: • Teacher Characteristics and • Student Characteristics.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessSome important subcategories of teachercharacteristics include • the teachers values and beliefs, • knowledge, thinking and communication skills, • performance skills, and • personality.Of course, there are many more possiblesubcategories, but these seem to be the mostimportant.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessThe most important teacher characteristic (interms of predicting how well teachers willperform in the classroom as well as studentachievement) seems to be the teachers valuesand belief or more particularly Teacher Efficacy(Ashton, 1984). This variable is a measure of theteachers belief that students can learn and thathe/she can teach.Ashton, P. (1984, Sept/Oct.) Teacher efficacy: A motivational paradigm foreffective teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education. 28-32.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessProctor (1986) has developed a model of theteaching/ learning process that highlights therole of teacher expectations.Proctor, C. (1984, March). Teacher expectations: A model for school improvement.The Elementary School Journal, 469-481.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessAnother important set of teacher characteristicsincludes the teachers knowledge with respect to: • the content domain (knowledge of subject matter to be taught), • human growth and development (theories, topics, and stages), • learning theory (behavioristic, cognitive, humanistic, social cognition), and • the teaching/learning process (concepts and principles as well as their application in formal and informal environments).
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessAs you have already had a course in humangrowth and development, this course isdesigned to review that area and provideadditional instruction in two others: • learning theory, and • the teaching/learning process.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessA teachers knowledge is evaluated through thecompletion of college-level courses and passingthe appropriate Praxis II test administered by theEducational Testing Service.At IPG KBA, a teachers thinking andcommunication skills is evaluated by successfullycompleting specific English courses as well asupper division core classes.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessPerformance skills are measured through arequirement of student teaching and anannual evaluation
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessWhile there is no single personality that seemsto make the "best" teacher, it is certainly avariable that has attracted a lot of interest.One measure of personality that has becomepopular in education circles is the KeirseyTemperament Scale (a version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator).
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessThere are a wide variety of StudentCharacteristics that have been related toclassroom behavior and student achievement.In general, research has shown that when timeavailable for learning (a context variable) isheld constant, as it is in most learningenvironments in the United States, then astudents intelligence or academic ability is thebest student characteristic variable that willpredict student achievement.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessHowever, researchers such as Bloom and hiscolleagues (e.g, Anderson & Block, 1977; Bloom,1971)* have shown that when time to learn isallowed to vary, a students prior knowledge is abetter student characteristic to predict studentachievement.* Anderson, L., & Block, J. (1977). Mastery learning. In D. Treffinger, J. Davis, & R.Ripple (eds.), Handbook on teaching educational psychology. New York: AcademicPress.* Bloom, B. (1971). Mastery learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, Inc.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessIt is not difficult to see why this might bethe case. Intelligence is a measure of one’sspeed to learn; when time is held constant,those who learn faster learn more.When time is allowed to vary, and speed is nolonger as important, then most students canlearn all required content.
Model of the Teaching/Learning ProcessThis issue of "time to learn" is very important.If we truly believe that everyone can learnand that it is important to learn, then itwould seem we would make a greater effortto provide the appropriate time to learn.However, if we believe that ability is moreimportant and that only the most capableindividuals can learn all we want them to learn,then the present system will continue toproduce a result that verifies that expectation.
Model of the Teaching/Learning Process Other student characteristics that have been found to be important include: • Study habits, • Age, • Sex/Gender, • Motivation, • Learning Style, • Cognitive development, • Socioemotional development, • Moral and character development, and • Race/Ethnicity.
Model of the Teaching/Learning Process In fact, the list of important studentcharacteristics is so long entire books havebeen written on them.A good example is • Bloom, B. (1983). Human characteristics and school learning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.