Solubility <ul><li>Amount of a substance that dissolves in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature to produce a saturated solution. Ex. sodium sulphate @ 0 o C 4.76 g/100 mL </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated solution: max. amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature. </li></ul>
(a) A solid solute is added to a fixed quantity of water. (b) After a few minutes, the solution is colored due to the dissolved solute, and there is less undissolved solute than in (a). (c) After a longer time, the solution color has deepened, and the quantity of undissolved solute is further diminished from that in (b). The solution in (b) must be unsaturated because more can dissolve. (d) Still later, the solution color and the quantity of undissolved solute appear to be the same as that in (c). Dynamic equilibrium must have been attained in (c) and persists in (d). In both (c) and (d), the solution is saturated.
Solubility <ul><li>Supersaturated solution: a solution that contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>If the solution is agitated or a seed crystal is placed in the solution crystallization will occur. </li></ul>
Rate of Dissolution <ul><li>Agitation: increases rate of dissolution. (rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: increase in temperature increases dissolution. (rate and amount) </li></ul><ul><li>Particle size: increase in particle size increases dissolution. (rate) </li></ul>
Solubility of Liquids <ul><li>Dynamic Equilibrium: number of particles dissolving is equal to the number of particles forming. </li></ul>