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Demystifying Ontologies

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Presentation in Ontology and Classification: Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge, The Hague, September 2011

Presentation in Ontology and Classification: Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge, The Hague, September 2011

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  • specification/precisionAd hoc structures hardly has any semantics
  • Boundary Object: This is an analytic concept of those scientific objects which both inhabit severalIntersecting social worlds and satisfy the informational requirements of each of them. Boundaryobjects are objects which are both plastic enough to adapt to local needs and the constraints of the several parties employing them, yet robust enough to maintain a common identity across sites. They are weakly structured in common use, and become strongly structured in individual site use. These objects may be abstract or concrete.They have different meanings in different social worlds but their structure is common enough to more than one world to make them recognizable, a means of translation. The creation and management of boundary objects is a key process in developing and maintaining coherence across intersecting social worlds.Star, S. L., & Griesemer, J. R. (1989). Institutional Ecology, `Translations’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907-39. Social Studies of Science, 19(3), 387 -420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001
  • Transcript

    • 1. Demystifying Ontology
      International UDC Seminar 2011 “Classification & Ontology:
      Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge”
      19 Sept 2011
      Emad Khazraee, Drexel University
      Xia Lin, Drexel University
    • 2. Agenda
      Introduction
      What is Ontology?
      Ontology Spectra
      Ontology Gamut
      Conclusion
      Q & A Discussion
      19 September 2011
      2
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    • 3. 19 September 2011
      3
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Introduction
      This talk is aimed to be a motivation for a discussion
      The term “ontology” is used in different communities multifariously
      Scientific practice needs communication and cooperation
      Ontologies as a “Boundary Objects”
    • 4. 19 September 2011
      4
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Introduction
      A cool ontology!
    • 5. 19 September 2011
      5
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      What is Ontology (or ontology)?
      Metaphysics, first philosophy
      Ontos and logos (being and word)
      Early 17th century
      Jacob Lorhard
      Rudolf Göckel
      Formal ontology used by Husserl in Logical Investigation. Formal vs Formalized!!
      In 1980’s it emerged in computer & information community
    • 6. 19 September 2011
      6
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      What is Ontology (or ontology)?
      Ontology as a discipline (“O”)
      The attempt to answer the question of “what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations” (Smith & Welty)
      Definitive and exhaustive classification
      Ontology as artifact (“o”)
      An knowledge engineering artifact
      Designed for a purpose ,
      Enable knowledge modeling,
      Uses a formal language
    • 7. 19 September 2011
      7
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      What is Ontology (or ontology)?
      Formal in two senses:
      First, deals with general categories such as thing, process, and matter— and deploys these categories to codify what exists
      the use of symbolism in a deductive system
      Formal ontology and formalized ontology
      ontology-as-categorial-analysis (ontology_c) and ontology-as-technology (ontology_t) (Poli & Obrst)
    • 8. 19 September 2011
      8
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      What is Ontology (or ontology)?
      “A formal specification of a conceptualization”
      (Gruber,1993)
      Kinds and Structures as categories
      A set of terms or vocabulary can be structured to form a hierarchy or lattice
      “A dictionary of terms formulated in a canonical syntax and with commonly accepted definitions designed to yield a lexical framework for knowledge-representation which can be shared by different communities” (Smith, 2003)
      Definitions and a supporting framework of axioms.
    • 9. 19 September 2011
      9
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Spectra
      Ontology spectrum based on formal semantics
      Adapted from (Daconta, Obrst & Smith, 2003)
    • 10. Ontology spectrum based on formal structure
      adapted from (McGuinness, 2003)
      19 September 2011
      10
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Spectra
    • 11. Ontology spectrum based on formal complexity
      adopted from (Smith & Welty, 2001)
      19 September 2011
      11
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Spectra
    • 12. Ontology spectrum based on formality
      adopted from (Guarino, Oberle & Staab, 2009)
      19 September 2011
      12
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Spectra
    • 13. 19 September 2011
      13
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Spectra
      “A set of axioms, i.e. a logical theory designed to capture the intended models corresponding to a certain conceptualization and to exclude unintended ones” (Guarino, Oberle & Staab)
      “An ontology is a formal theory within which not only definitions but also a supporting framework of axioms is included” (Smith)
    • 14. 19 September 2011
      14
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Gamut
      Each spectra underline one dimension
      Degree of semantics, expressivity, formality and complexity
      Semantic richness
      They are not necessarily positively correlated
      We propose to use two dimensions to have a better description (degree of formalization and semantic richness)
      Why not three?
    • 15. 19 September 2011
      15
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Gamut
    • 16. 19 September 2011
      16
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Gamut
      What do these dimensions mean?
      Difference in semantic richness and semantic specification (clearly refer to something)
      Three ontology families
      Main community of users of each family
      Audience of each family
    • 17. 19 September 2011
      17
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Gamut
      This gamut can be considered as a clan of knowledge engineering artifacts
      This clan consists of three families of ontologies which have relations and shared interest
      Ontology as a discipline can be seen as the neighboring community
      Mutual benefits of this neighborhood
    • 18. 19 September 2011
      18
      Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
      Ontology Gamut
      To what extent we can specify these two dimensions to be used operationally?
      How can we use ontologies as boundary objects?
      Boundary objects have different meanings in different social worlds but their structure is common enough to more than one world to make them recognizable, a means of translation. The creation and management of boundary objects is a key process in developing and maintaining coherence across intersecting social worlds.
      (Star, & Griesemer, 1989)
    • 19. Demystifying Ontology
      International UDC Seminar 2011 “Classification & Ontology:
      Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge”
      19 Sept 2011
      Thank You
      Questions & Discussion?
      emad@drexel.edu
      xlin@drexel.edu

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