Demystifying Ontologies
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Demystifying Ontologies

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Presentation in Ontology and Classification: Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge, The Hague, September 2011

Presentation in Ontology and Classification: Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge, The Hague, September 2011

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  • specification/precisionAd hoc structures hardly has any semantics
  • Boundary Object: This is an analytic concept of those scientific objects which both inhabit severalIntersecting social worlds and satisfy the informational requirements of each of them. Boundaryobjects are objects which are both plastic enough to adapt to local needs and the constraints of the several parties employing them, yet robust enough to maintain a common identity across sites. They are weakly structured in common use, and become strongly structured in individual site use. These objects may be abstract or concrete.They have different meanings in different social worlds but their structure is common enough to more than one world to make them recognizable, a means of translation. The creation and management of boundary objects is a key process in developing and maintaining coherence across intersecting social worlds.Star, S. L., & Griesemer, J. R. (1989). Institutional Ecology, `Translations’ and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907-39. Social Studies of Science, 19(3), 387 -420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001

Transcript

  • 1. Demystifying Ontology
    International UDC Seminar 2011 “Classification & Ontology:
    Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge”
    19 Sept 2011
    Emad Khazraee, Drexel University
    Xia Lin, Drexel University
  • 2. Agenda
    Introduction
    What is Ontology?
    Ontology Spectra
    Ontology Gamut
    Conclusion
    Q & A Discussion
    19 September 2011
    2
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
  • 3. 19 September 2011
    3
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Introduction
    This talk is aimed to be a motivation for a discussion
    The term “ontology” is used in different communities multifariously
    Scientific practice needs communication and cooperation
    Ontologies as a “Boundary Objects”
  • 4. 19 September 2011
    4
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Introduction
    A cool ontology!
  • 5. 19 September 2011
    5
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    What is Ontology (or ontology)?
    Metaphysics, first philosophy
    Ontos and logos (being and word)
    Early 17th century
    Jacob Lorhard
    Rudolf Göckel
    Formal ontology used by Husserl in Logical Investigation. Formal vs Formalized!!
    In 1980’s it emerged in computer & information community
  • 6. 19 September 2011
    6
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    What is Ontology (or ontology)?
    Ontology as a discipline (“O”)
    The attempt to answer the question of “what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations” (Smith & Welty)
    Definitive and exhaustive classification
    Ontology as artifact (“o”)
    An knowledge engineering artifact
    Designed for a purpose ,
    Enable knowledge modeling,
    Uses a formal language
  • 7. 19 September 2011
    7
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    What is Ontology (or ontology)?
    Formal in two senses:
    First, deals with general categories such as thing, process, and matter— and deploys these categories to codify what exists
    the use of symbolism in a deductive system
    Formal ontology and formalized ontology
    ontology-as-categorial-analysis (ontology_c) and ontology-as-technology (ontology_t) (Poli & Obrst)
  • 8. 19 September 2011
    8
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    What is Ontology (or ontology)?
    “A formal specification of a conceptualization”
    (Gruber,1993)
    Kinds and Structures as categories
    A set of terms or vocabulary can be structured to form a hierarchy or lattice
    “A dictionary of terms formulated in a canonical syntax and with commonly accepted definitions designed to yield a lexical framework for knowledge-representation which can be shared by different communities” (Smith, 2003)
    Definitions and a supporting framework of axioms.
  • 9. 19 September 2011
    9
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Spectra
    Ontology spectrum based on formal semantics
    Adapted from (Daconta, Obrst & Smith, 2003)
  • 10. Ontology spectrum based on formal structure
    adapted from (McGuinness, 2003)
    19 September 2011
    10
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Spectra
  • 11. Ontology spectrum based on formal complexity
    adopted from (Smith & Welty, 2001)
    19 September 2011
    11
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Spectra
  • 12. Ontology spectrum based on formality
    adopted from (Guarino, Oberle & Staab, 2009)
    19 September 2011
    12
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Spectra
  • 13. 19 September 2011
    13
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Spectra
    “A set of axioms, i.e. a logical theory designed to capture the intended models corresponding to a certain conceptualization and to exclude unintended ones” (Guarino, Oberle & Staab)
    “An ontology is a formal theory within which not only definitions but also a supporting framework of axioms is included” (Smith)
  • 14. 19 September 2011
    14
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Gamut
    Each spectra underline one dimension
    Degree of semantics, expressivity, formality and complexity
    Semantic richness
    They are not necessarily positively correlated
    We propose to use two dimensions to have a better description (degree of formalization and semantic richness)
    Why not three?
  • 15. 19 September 2011
    15
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Gamut
  • 16. 19 September 2011
    16
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Gamut
    What do these dimensions mean?
    Difference in semantic richness and semantic specification (clearly refer to something)
    Three ontology families
    Main community of users of each family
    Audience of each family
  • 17. 19 September 2011
    17
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Gamut
    This gamut can be considered as a clan of knowledge engineering artifacts
    This clan consists of three families of ontologies which have relations and shared interest
    Ontology as a discipline can be seen as the neighboring community
    Mutual benefits of this neighborhood
  • 18. 19 September 2011
    18
    Classification & Ontology, The Hague, Netherlands
    Ontology Gamut
    To what extent we can specify these two dimensions to be used operationally?
    How can we use ontologies as boundary objects?
    Boundary objects have different meanings in different social worlds but their structure is common enough to more than one world to make them recognizable, a means of translation. The creation and management of boundary objects is a key process in developing and maintaining coherence across intersecting social worlds.
    (Star, & Griesemer, 1989)
  • 19. Demystifying Ontology
    International UDC Seminar 2011 “Classification & Ontology:
    Formal Approaches and Access to Knowledge”
    19 Sept 2011
    Thank You
    Questions & Discussion?
    emad@drexel.edu
    xlin@drexel.edu