Nanomedicines (3)


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Nanomedicines (3)

  1. 1. Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  2. 2. By Mahnoor KhawajaKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  3. 3. Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  4. 4. Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of nanotechnology.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  5. 5. Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  6. 6.  Diagnostic nanomachines could be employed to monitor the internal chemistry of the body. Mobile nanorobots, equipped with wireless transmitters, could circulate in the blood and lymph systems, and send out warnings when chemical imbalances occur or worsen. Similar fixed nanomachines could be planted in the nervous system to monitor pulse, brain-wave activity, and other functions. Implanted nanotechnology devices could dispense drugs or hormones as needed in people with chronic imbalance or deficiency states. In heart defibrillators and pacemakers, nanomachines could affect the behavior of individual cells. Artificial antibodies, artificial white and red blood cells, and antiviral nanorobots might be devised.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  7. 7. 50454035 Cardiovasculars30 CNS products25 Anti-inflammatories20 Anticancers15 Anti-infectives10 Other applications 5 0 2009 2010 2011 2016Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  8. 8.  Drug Delivery Systems Prescription Drugs Disease Prosthetics Future AdvancesKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  9. 9.  Economic Upheaval Privacy and Security Ethical IssuesKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  10. 10. By Ramlah EjazKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  11. 11.  Cyclic peptides Dendrimers Detoxification agents Fullerenes Functional drug carriers MRI scanning (nanoparticles) Nano barcodes Nano emulsions Nano fibers Nanoparticles Nano shells Carbon nanotubes Non carbon nanotubes Quantum dotsKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  12. 12.  Dendrimers: Dendrimers are manmade molecules having a tree like structure. They are prepared generation by generation in a series of controlled steps that increases the number of small branching molecules around a central core molecule. Dendrimers measure between 2-20 nanometers across and are branching molecules with the branching beginning at the core. The core generally consists of an amine core, but sugars and other molecules can be used as well. All core molecules share the characteristic of having multiple reaction sites that are identical. Dendrimers are the ideal building block for creating biologically active Nano materials because of their consistency of structure. The Center for Biologic Nanotechnology has been running tests of functioning biologic Nano devices based on dendrimers especially of Nano device called anticancer therapeutic Nano device. These tests confirm that this Nano device will work as therapeutic agent. It will perform cancer cell recognition, diagnosis of cancer cause, drug delivery, reporting drug levels in tumors and reporting cancer cell death.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  13. 13.  Nano Shells: Nano shells have a core of silica and a metallic outer layer. These Nano shells can be linked to antibodies that can recognize tumor cells. Once the cancer cells take them up, by applying a near infra red light that is absorbed by the Nano shells, it is possible to create intense heat that selectively kills the tumor cells and not the neighboring healthy cells.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  14. 14.  Nano Particles: Nanoparticles can be engineered to target cancer cells for use in the molecular imaging of a malignant lesion. Large numbers of nanoparticles are safely entered in to the body and they preferentially bind to the cancer cell, finding the anatomical counter of the lesion and making it visible. These nanoparticles give us the ability to see cells and molecules that we otherwise cannot detect through conventional imaging.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  15. 15.  Quantum Dots: Quantum dots Nano crystals are used to tag biological molecules and would have applications in medical diagnostics, targeted therapeutics, and high-throughput drug screening. They will allow, for the first time, direct imaging of small numbers of dying cells in degenerative eye diseases. They will also greatly enhance imaging during surgical removal of lymph nodes associated with cancerous tumors, thereby improving the prognosis for cancer patients and saving lives while simultaneously reducing the cost and training required for the procedures. They can also bind to short DNA strands to detect mutations inside cells.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  16. 16.  Platelets and clottocytes Nano tubes Nano Sensors Carbon NanotubesKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  17. 17.  Platelets and Clottocytes: The artificial mechanical platelet or CLOTTOCYTES may allow complete hemostasis in as little as ~1 second, even in moderately large wounds. This response time is 100-1000 times faster than the natural system. The clottocyte is a Serum Oxyglucose-Powered Spherical Nano robot about 2 microns in diameter containing a fiber mesh that is compactly folded onboard. Upon command from its control computer, the device promptly unfurls its mesh packet in the immediate vicinity of an injured blood vessel. Blood cells are immediately trapped in the overlapping artificial nettings released by multiple neighboring activated clottocytes, and bleeding halts at once. Clottocytes may perform a clotting function that is equivalent in its essentials to that performed by biological platelets -- but at only ~0.01% of the bloodstream concentration of those cells. Hence clottocytes appear to be ~10,000 times more effective as clotting agents than an equal volume of natural platelets.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  18. 18.  Nano Tubes: Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, California developed NANOTUBES. The nanotubes are made up of amino acid subunits very similar to those found in our bodies, but with one important difference; alternating subunits have a structure that is the mirror image of the structure of our own amino acids. The strings of subunits therefore form small disks, which under right conditions can stack to form tubes. These nanotubes are used to punch holes in bacteria. With holes in their membranes bacteria become leaky and die quickly, hence they are used as ANTI-BACTERIAL DRUGS.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  19. 19.  Nano Sensors: They were first developed by T. Vo-Dinh et al, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. They are diagnostics and therapeutics based on intracellular sensors. They have the capability to monitor biochemical processes in a single cell. They are also used for early detection of Diseases, Tumors and InfectionsKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  20. 20.  Carbon Nanotubes: Single-wall carbon nanotubes tiny hollow rods that are one- atom-thick sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders 10,000 times smaller in diameter than a human hair are prized for their extraordinary optical, mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. They are being used to produce lightweight and extremely strong materials, which enhance the capabilities of devices such as sensors, and provide a novel means of delivering drugs with great specificity.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  21. 21. By Hafiza Maleeha AhmadKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  22. 22.  Nervous system tracking Drugs dispersion Heart and ECG machine Artificial antibodiesKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  23. 23.  Nervous system tracking: Nanomedicine has also helped doctors to better understand the phenomenal changes in the human nervous systems. Fixed nanomachines could be inserted in the nervous system of the human body to monitor pulse rate, brain activity, and other important functions. Drugs Dispersion: Live saving drugs are one of the important ingredients in the latest medicines but its unusual and its excess usage could cause death. Nanomedicine also has successful applications for the reduction of extra drugs from human body. Implantation of nanomedicine devices could disperse drugs or hormones as required in people with chronic imbalance or deficiency states.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  24. 24.  Heart and ECG Machine: Advanced and fully equipped nanomedical heart trackers are present in the major hospitals to accurately track the heart beat and it‟s down falls and also for treating it as needed in the body. In human heart defibrillators and pacemakers, nanodevices could influence the behavior of individual cells. Artificial Antibodies: Nanomedicine was the first to conceptualize the artificial red and white blood cells and later on it successfully showed the positive results.Cancer patients are now treated by injecting artificial red blood cells to balance the human body blood level. Artificial antibodies, white & red blood cells and antiviral nanorobots could be considered as successful applications of nanomedicine.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  25. 25.  Nanobots Nanoparticles NanobiotixKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  26. 26.  Nanobots: Nanobots can scan each of the body‟s cells for cancerous tendencies, and subject any suspicious cells to careful analysis; if a cancer is detected, they can wipe it out quickly, using more focused and vigorous tactics than the immune system is designed for. Given such molecular tools, a small device can be designed to identify and kill cancer cells. The device would have a small computer, several binding sites to determine the concentration of specific molecules, and a supply of some poison which could be selectively released and able to kill a cell identified as cancerous. The device would circulate freely throughout the body and would periodically sample its environment by determining whether the binding sites were occupied or not.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  27. 27.  Nanoparticles: Investigators constructed synthetic “protocells” that were used to kill liver tumor cells without adversely affecting healthy cells. Protocells are made by enclosing highly porous silica nanoparticles, 100-150 nanometers in diameter, with a lipid bilayer thus mimicking a cell membrane. The bilayer includes protein ligands that specifically target tumor cells, and the porous core is preloaded with anti-cancer drugs. Upon binding to its target, the protocell enters the tumor cell and releases its cargo, thereby killing the cancerous cell. Protocells can carry high concentrations and different combinations of cargo, such as drugs, small interfering RNAs, and other toxins. The cargo capacity and time course of release can be controlled by changing the pore size and chemistry of the silica core, but the protocell is designed to release the cargo only upon entry into the target cell. In the future, protocells may be designed to efficiently and effectively target and kill various types of cancer cells, depending on the cargo loaded inside and the targeting molecules used on the surface of the protocell.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  28. 28.  Nanobiotix: Nanobiotix is focused on the development of NanoXray, a pipeline of patented products, which are based on the physical mechanism of action of the nanoparticles interacting with X-rays and maximizing radiation effect into tumor cells.NanoXray products aim at enhancing the efficacy of the radiotherapy in the tumor without increasing damage to healthy tissues. They are meant to be used with existing standard radiation equipment available in almost every hospital worldwide.NanoXray products aim to target the major indications of cancers (breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer).Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  29. 29.  Microsphere for oral insulin production Artificial Pancreas The NanopumpKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  30. 30.  Microsphere for oral insulin production: The most promising strategy to achieve oral insulin is the use of a microsphere system which is inherently a combination strategy. Microspheres act both as protease inhibitors by protecting the encapsulated insulin from enzymatic degradation within its matrix and as permeation enhancers by effectively crossing the epithelial layer after oral administration.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  31. 31.  Artificial Pancreas: Development of artificial pancreas could be the permanent solution for diabetic patients.The original idea was first described in 1974. The concept of its work is simple a sensor electrode repeatedly measures the level of blood glucose;this information feeds into a small computer that energizes an infusion pump, and the needed units of insulin enter the bloodstream from a small reservoir.Another way to restore body glucose is the use of a tiny silicon box that contains pancreatic beta cells taken from animals. The box is surrounded by a material with a very specific nanopore size (about 20 nanometers in diameter).These pores are big enough to allow for glucose and insulin to pass through them, but small enough to impede the passage of much larger immune system molecules. These boxes can be implanted under the skin of diabetes patients.This could temporarily restore the body‟s delicate glucose control feedback loop without the need of powerful immunosuppressant that can leave the patient at a serious risk of infection.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  32. 32.  Nanopump: The nanopump is a powerful device and has many possible applications in the medical field. The first application of the pump, introduced by Debiotech, is Insulin delivery. The pump injects Insulin to the patients body in a constant rate, balancing the amount of sugars in his or her blood. The pump can also administer small drug doses over a long period of time.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  33. 33.  Nanorobots Tooth repair Tooth repositioningKinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  34. 34.  Nanorobots: Dental nanorobots might use specific motility mechanisms to crawl or swim through human tissue with navigational precision, acquire energy,sense, and manipulate their surroundings, achieve safe cytopenetration and use any of the multitude techniques to monitor, interrupt, or alter nerve impulse traffic in individual nerve cells in real time.These nanorobot functions may be controlled by an onboard nanocomputer that executes preprogrammed instructions in response to local sensor stimuli.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  35. 35.  Tooth Repair: Nanorobotic manufacture and installation of a biologically autologous whole replacement tooth that includes both mineral and cellular components, that is, „complete dentition replacement therapy‟.Scientists took advantage of these latest developments in the area of nanotechnology to simulate the natural biomineralization process to create the hardest tissue in the human body, dental enamel, by using highly organized microarchitectural units of nanorod-like calcium hydroxyapatite crystals arranged roughly parallel to each other.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013
  36. 36.  Tooth Repositioning: Orthodontic nanorobots could directly manipulate the periodontal tissues, allowing rapid and painless tooth straightening, rotating and vertical repositioning within minutes to hours.Kinnaird College for Women 3/11/2013