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Part #2

Part #2






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    Part #2 Part #2 Presentation Transcript

    • Founders and Contributors
      • Edmund Husserl
      • Alfred Schutz
      • Leo Strauss
      • Binswanger
      • Martin Heidegger
      • Max Scheler
      • Karl Jaspers
      • Brentano
      • Merleau-Ponty
      • Immanuel Kant
      • Hwa Yol Jung
      • Harold Garfinkel
      • Don Zimmerman
      • David Sudnow
      • Leveque-Lopman
    • Founders and Contributors
      • Moynihan
      • McLane
      • Kockelmans
      • Casey
      • Clifton
      • Heritage
      • Castaneda
      • Davis
      • Fischer
      • Laing
      • Ihde
      • Seamon
      • Mugerauer
      • Sartre
    • The Philosophers...
      • Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology
        • Influenced and trained Max Scheler, Eugene Fink, Alexander Pfander, Alfred Schutz, and Martin Heidegger Studied psychology but found it only describes how we think but not why we think a certain way
        • Believed epistemology was the real starting point for all philosophical reflection
        • Interested in the subjective experience
        • Came up with the notion of intentionality and wanted to study inner experiences as if they were objects of consciousness
        • Developed the notion of lifeworlds and how we all have our own experiences of internal reality
        • Hoped Heidegger would carry on the phenomenological perspective but he did not
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Martin Heidegger
        • Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, and more
        • Fundamentally impacted the development of theory and practice in psychotherapy
        • Provided the foundations for phenomenology in his famous “Letter on Humanism”
        • Member of the Nazi party and highly involved in politics leading to much critic of his theories
        • Studied the relation of language and Being
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Max Scheler
        • “ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjected Freud’s ideas to sustained and sympathetic scrutiny, creating a fertile climate of discussion at the interstices of philosophy and psychotherapy.” (p.130)
        • Influenced by Dilthey, Freud, Nietzsche, and Henri Bergson
        • Started exploring mental illness from a phenomenological frame but later strayed into a more biological approach
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Karl Jaspers
        • Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber, Freud, Kant, Heidegger and more
        • Approach to psychotherapy was based on human freedom and responsibility
        • Studied human experience and saw it as being transcendent
        • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
      • Alfred Schutz
        • Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this
        • Analyzed the structures of people’s lifeworlds and discussed the multiple realities that exist within humans
        • Developed the notion called the we-relationship to describe the relationships we share with others and how they change overtime
        • (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998)
      • Leo Strauss
        • Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint
      • Harold Garfinkel
        • Developed the notion of Ethnomethodology from Phenomenological theories
      • Don Zimmerman
        • Used conversion methods to study how people handle emergencies
        • (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998)
    • Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research
      • Pay attention to context, perception and subjective experience
      • Understand one’s own consciousness prior to research
      • Get beneath your subject and take a look at the structures that underlie experience
      • Pay attention to cultural assumptions
      • Use empathic understanding when interacting with participants
    • Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research
      • Act to prevent the data from being prematurely structured into existing categories of thinking
      • Question your own judgement
      • Use empathic immersion – slow down the process and dwell on the topic; magnify and amplify the situation
      • Keep a research journal for your own reflections and insights.