Founders and Contributors <ul><li>Edmund Husserl </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><...
Founders and Contributors <ul><li>Moynihan </li></ul><ul><li>McLane </li></ul><ul><li>Kockelmans </li></ul><ul><li>Casey <...
The Philosophers... <ul><li>Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced and...
<ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, ...
<ul><li>Max Scheler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjec...
<ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber,...
<ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this </li></ul...
<ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint </l...
Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research <ul><li>Pay attention to context, perception and subjective experi...
Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research <ul><li>Act to prevent the data from being prematurely structured ...
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Part #2

  1. 1. Founders and Contributors <ul><li>Edmund Husserl </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><ul><li>Binswanger </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><li>Max Scheler </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><li>Brentano </li></ul><ul><li>Merleau-Ponty </li></ul><ul><li>Immanuel Kant </li></ul><ul><li>Hwa Yol Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Garfinkel </li></ul><ul><li>Don Zimmerman </li></ul><ul><li>David Sudnow </li></ul><ul><li>Leveque-Lopman </li></ul>
  2. 2. Founders and Contributors <ul><li>Moynihan </li></ul><ul><li>McLane </li></ul><ul><li>Kockelmans </li></ul><ul><li>Casey </li></ul><ul><li>Clifton </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Castaneda </li></ul><ul><li>Davis </li></ul><ul><li>Fischer </li></ul><ul><li>Laing </li></ul><ul><li>Ihde </li></ul><ul><li>Seamon </li></ul><ul><li>Mugerauer </li></ul><ul><li>Sartre </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Philosophers... <ul><li>Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced and trained Max Scheler, Eugene Fink, Alexander Pfander, Alfred Schutz, and Martin Heidegger Studied psychology but found it only describes how we think but not why we think a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed epistemology was the real starting point for all philosophical reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in the subjective experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came up with the notion of intentionality and wanted to study inner experiences as if they were objects of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the notion of lifeworlds and how we all have our own experiences of internal reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped Heidegger would carry on the phenomenological perspective but he did not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, and more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentally impacted the development of theory and practice in psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided the foundations for phenomenology in his famous “Letter on Humanism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of the Nazi party and highly involved in politics leading to much critic of his theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied the relation of language and Being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Max Scheler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjected Freud’s ideas to sustained and sympathetic scrutiny, creating a fertile climate of discussion at the interstices of philosophy and psychotherapy.” (p.130) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Dilthey, Freud, Nietzsche, and Henri Bergson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started exploring mental illness from a phenomenological frame but later strayed into a more biological approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber, Freud, Kant, Heidegger and more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach to psychotherapy was based on human freedom and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied human experience and saw it as being transcendent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Burston & Frie, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Alfred Schutz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed the structures of people’s lifeworlds and discussed the multiple realities that exist within humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the notion called the we-relationship to describe the relationships we share with others and how they change overtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bentz & Shapiro, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Leo Strauss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harold Garfinkel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the notion of Ethnomethodology from Phenomenological theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don Zimmerman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used conversion methods to study how people handle emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bentz & Shapiro, 1998) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research <ul><li>Pay attention to context, perception and subjective experience </li></ul><ul><li>Understand one’s own consciousness prior to research </li></ul><ul><li>Get beneath your subject and take a look at the structures that underlie experience </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to cultural assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Use empathic understanding when interacting with participants </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research <ul><li>Act to prevent the data from being prematurely structured into existing categories of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Question your own judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Use empathic immersion – slow down the process and dwell on the topic; magnify and amplify the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a research journal for your own reflections and insights. </li></ul>
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