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  • 1. Founders and Contributors
    • Edmund Husserl
    • Alfred Schutz
    • Leo Strauss
    • Binswanger
    • Martin Heidegger
    • Max Scheler
    • Karl Jaspers
    • Brentano
    • Merleau-Ponty
    • Immanuel Kant
    • Hwa Yol Jung
    • Harold Garfinkel
    • Don Zimmerman
    • David Sudnow
    • Leveque-Lopman
  • 2. Founders and Contributors
    • Moynihan
    • McLane
    • Kockelmans
    • Casey
    • Clifton
    • Heritage
    • Castaneda
    • Davis
    • Fischer
    • Laing
    • Ihde
    • Seamon
    • Mugerauer
    • Sartre
  • 3. The Philosophers...
    • Edmund Husserl is know to be the founder of Phenomenology
      • Influenced and trained Max Scheler, Eugene Fink, Alexander Pfander, Alfred Schutz, and Martin Heidegger Studied psychology but found it only describes how we think but not why we think a certain way
      • Believed epistemology was the real starting point for all philosophical reflection
      • Interested in the subjective experience
      • Came up with the notion of intentionality and wanted to study inner experiences as if they were objects of consciousness
      • Developed the notion of lifeworlds and how we all have our own experiences of internal reality
      • Hoped Heidegger would carry on the phenomenological perspective but he did not
      • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
  • 4.
    • Martin Heidegger
      • Influenced by Jaspers, Husserl, Leibniz, Kant, Bultmann, Hartmann, Natorp, and more
      • Fundamentally impacted the development of theory and practice in psychotherapy
      • Provided the foundations for phenomenology in his famous “Letter on Humanism”
      • Member of the Nazi party and highly involved in politics leading to much critic of his theories
      • Studied the relation of language and Being
      • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
  • 5.
    • Max Scheler
      • “ the first in a long series of existential phenomenological thinkers who subjected Freud’s ideas to sustained and sympathetic scrutiny, creating a fertile climate of discussion at the interstices of philosophy and psychotherapy.” (p.130)
      • Influenced by Dilthey, Freud, Nietzsche, and Henri Bergson
      • Started exploring mental illness from a phenomenological frame but later strayed into a more biological approach
      • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
  • 6.
    • Karl Jaspers
      • Influenced by Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Husserl, Heggel, Scheler, Weber, Freud, Kant, Heidegger and more
      • Approach to psychotherapy was based on human freedom and responsibility
      • Studied human experience and saw it as being transcendent
      • (Burston & Frie, 2006)
  • 7.
    • Alfred Schutz
      • Influenced by Husserl’s notion of the lifeworld and expanded on this
      • Analyzed the structures of people’s lifeworlds and discussed the multiple realities that exist within humans
      • Developed the notion called the we-relationship to describe the relationships we share with others and how they change overtime
      • (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998)
  • 8.
    • Leo Strauss
      • Expanded on the phenomenological critique from a political science viewpoint
    • Harold Garfinkel
      • Developed the notion of Ethnomethodology from Phenomenological theories
    • Don Zimmerman
      • Used conversion methods to study how people handle emergencies
      • (Bentz & Shapiro, 1998)
  • 9. Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research
    • Pay attention to context, perception and subjective experience
    • Understand one’s own consciousness prior to research
    • Get beneath your subject and take a look at the structures that underlie experience
    • Pay attention to cultural assumptions
    • Use empathic understanding when interacting with participants
  • 10. Aspects of Phenomenology that may enhance your research
    • Act to prevent the data from being prematurely structured into existing categories of thinking
    • Question your own judgement
    • Use empathic immersion – slow down the process and dwell on the topic; magnify and amplify the situation
    • Keep a research journal for your own reflections and insights.