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Discusses all the major and trace minerals found in food. including their sources, toxicity and deficiencies

Discusses all the major and trace minerals found in food. including their sources, toxicity and deficiencies

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Minerals Minerals Presentation Transcript

  • Section 1Fundamentals of Nutrition Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company
  • Chapter 8Minerals Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company
  • Objectives List at least two food sources of given minerals List one or more functions of given minerals Describe the recommended method of avoiding mineral deficienciesChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 3
  • Facts Human body made up of specific chemical elements. Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up 96% of body weight. Remaining elements, minerals, represent 4% of body weight. Minerals are essential for good health.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 4
  • Facts Inorganic elements are necessary to build tissues, regulate body fluids, and assist in various body functions. Found in all body tissues. Cannot provide energy by themselves. Contribute to production of energy within the body.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 5
  • Facts Enriched foods are foods to which nutrients, usually B vitamins and iron, have been added to improve their nutritional value.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 6
  • Classification Major minerals • Required in amounts greater than 100 mg a day Trace minerals • Needed in amounts smaller than 100 mg a dayChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 7
  • Electrolytes Ions • Electrically charged atoms resulting from chemical reactions • Positively charged called cations • Negatively charged called anions • Must be balanced within body • These ions are known as electrolytesChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 8
  • Electrolytes Maintain the body’s fluid balance, contribute to electrical balance, assist in transmission of nerve impulses and contraction of muscles, help regulate the body’s acid-base balance.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 9
  • Stop and Share What is the best way to receive an adequate intake of minerals?Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 10
  • Stop and Share A balanced diet is the only safe way of including minerals in the amounts necessary to maintain health!Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 11
  • Toxicity Toxicity occurs when concentrated forms of minerals are taken regularly over time. Excessive amount of one mineral may lead to deficiency of another mineral. Hair loss and changes in blood, hormones, bones, muscles, blood vessels, and nearly all tissues may result. Concentrated minerals only if prescribed.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 12
  • Major minerals Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Magnesium, SulfurChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 13
  • Calcium (Ca) Human body contains more calcium than any other mineral. • 99% found in skeleton and teeth • 1% found in bloodChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 14
  • Calcium: Functions In combination with phosphorus, gives strength and hardness to bones and teeth. Bones provide storage for calcium. Needed for normal nerve and muscle action, blood clotting, heart function, and cell metabolism.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 15
  • Calcium: Regulation Hormonal system regulates delivery of calcium to cells. Every cell needs calcium and normal blood calcium levels are maintained even if intake is poor.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 16
  • Calcium: Regulation Parathyroid glands release a hormone telling the kidneys to retrieve calcium before it is excreted when blood calcium levels drop. This hormone, works with calcitriol causing increased release of calcium from bones by stimulating activity of osteoclasts. Both actions increase blood calcium levels.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 17
  • http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQmE1PuOqnA1IYC3z11cBzE_L_PDCSIyMSLB-ykMC-nzwElzgh3ww Chapter 8 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Calcium_regulation.png18 /250px-Calcium_regulation.png
  • Calcium: Regulation Bones become increasingly fragile as calcium is withdrawn from them. Osteoporosis may result from years of low calcium intake.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 19
  • Calcium: Regulation Osteoblasts increase bone mass if blood calcium level is high until one is age 30-35 years old. Bone mass will remain stable in women until menopause with adequate consumption of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 20
  • Calcium: Sources Milk and milk productsDark green, leafy vegetables • When vegetables contain oxalic acid, as spinach and Swiss chard do, the calcium remains unavailable because the oxalic acid binds it and prevents it from being absorbed Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 21
  • Calcium: Sources Fiber • When the intake of fiber exceeds 35g a day, calcium will also bind with phytates (phosphorus compounds found in some high-fiber cereal), which also limits its absorptionChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 22
  • Calcium: Sources Enhances absorption of calcium • Vitamin D • Calcium-to-phosphorus ratio that includes no more phosphorus than calcium • Presence of lactose Retards absorption • Lack of weight-bearing exerciseChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 23
  • Calcium: Requirements 0-6 months 210 mg 6-12 months 270 mg 1-3 years 500 mg 4-8 years 800 mg 9-18 years 1,300 mg 19-50 years 1,000 mg 51-70+ years 1,200 mgChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 24
  • Calcium: Requirements Pregnant women • 14-18 years 1,300 mg • 19-50 years 1,000 mg Lactating women same as nonlactating women of same age Source: Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences-Institute of Medicine, 1997Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 25
  • Calcium: Supplements Calcium carbonate, form found in calcium- based antacid tablets, has highest concentration of bioavailable calcium. Appear to be absorbed most efficiently when consumed in doses of 500 mg. Check for USP-approved products, which are unlikely to contain lead.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 26
  • Calcium: SupplementsChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 27
  • Calcium: Deficiency Rickets results in poorly formed bone structure and causes bowed legs, “pigeon breast”, enlarged wrists or ankles, and stunted growth.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 28
  • “Adult rickets” (osteomalacia) causes bones to become soft. Tetany, characterized by involuntary muscle movement, results from insufficient calcium in blood.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 29
  • Calcium: Excess Excessive intake may: • Cause constipation • Cause kidney stones • Inhibit the absorption of iron and zincChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 30
  • Phosphorus (P) Constituent of all body cells. Necessary for the formation of strong, rigid bones and teeth; metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; proper acid-base balance; and effective action of several B vitamins. Stored in bones, absorption is increased in the presence of vitamin D.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 31
  • Phosphorus: Sources Protein-rich foods such as milk, cheese, meats, poultry, and fish. Cereals, legumes, nuts, soft drinksChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 32
  • Phosphorus: Requirements Adequate Intake 0-6 months 100 mg 6-12 months 275 mg Estimated Average Requirements 1-3 years 380 mg 4-8 years 405 mg 9-18 years 1,055 mgChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 33
  • Phosphorus: Requirements 19-70+ years 580 mg Pregnant and Same as for lactating women nonpregnant and nonlactating women Source: Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences-Institute of Medicine, 1997Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 34
  • Phosphorus: Deficiency Deficiency is rare. Excessive use of antacids affect absorption. Symptoms of deficiency include bone demineralization (loss of minerals), fatigue, and anorexia.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 35
  • Potassium (K) Found primarily in intracellular fluid. Essential for fluid balance and osmosis. Maintains fluid level within the cell. Necessary for transmitting nerve impulses and muscle contractions.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 36
  • Potassium: Sources Fruits–especially melons, oranges, bananas, peaches Vegetables–mushrooms, brussel sprouts, potatoes, tomatoes, winter squash, lima beans, carrotsChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 37
  • winter squash lima beans Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 38
  • brussel sproutsChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 39
  • Potassium: Deficiency Hypokalemia • Caused by diarrhea, vomiting, diabetic acidosis, severe malnutrition, or excessive use of laxatives or diuretics • Symptoms of deficiency include nausea, anorexia, fatigue, muscle weakness, heart abnormalitiesChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 40
  • Potassium: Excess Hyperkalemia • Caused by dehydration, renal failure, excessive intake • Cardiac failure can resultChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 41
  • Sodium Primary function is the control of fluid balance in the body. Maintains acid-base balance. Participates in the transmission of nerve impulses essential for normal muscle function.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 42
  • Sodium: Sources Table salt contains 40% sodium. One teaspoon of table salt contains 2,000 mg of sodium. Naturally available in animal foods.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 43
  • Sodium: Requirements 0-5 months 120 mg 6-11 months 200 mg 1 year 225 mg 2-5 years 300 mg 6-9 years 400 mg 10-18 years 500 mg > 18 years 500 mg Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Copyright 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences. Courtesy of the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 44
  • Sodium: Deficiency Caused by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and heavy perspiration. Can upset the acid-base balance. Tetany due to alkalosis may develop.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 45
  • Sodium: Excess May cause edema and resulting hypertension. Associated with hypertension and congestive heart failure. Treatment includes sodium-restricted diets; 3-4g (no-added salt, or NAS) or 1-2g sodium-restricted diet. Diets below 1g rarely prescribed.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 46
  • Chloride (Cl) Essential for maintenance of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. Found in hydrochloric acid, cerebrospinal fluid, and muscle and nerve tissue. Helps blood carry carbon dioxide to the lungs and is necessary during immune responses when white blood cells attack foreign cells.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 47
  • Chloride Found almost exclusively in table salt or in foods containing sodium chloride. Estimated minimum requirement for normal adults is 750 mg a day. Deficiency is rare. Can occur with severe vomiting, diarrhea, excessive use of diuretics, and alkalosis.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 48
  • Magnesium (Mg) Vital to both hard and soft body tissues. Essential for metabolism. Regulates nerve and muscle function. Plays a role in the blood-clotting process.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 49
  • Magnesium: Sources Found primarily in plant foods. Green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains, some fruits (avocados and bananas) Milk in sufficient quantitiesChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 50
  • Magnesium: Requirements Adequate Intake 0-6 months 30 mg 6-12 months 75 mg Boys and girls 1-3 years 80 mg 4-8 years 130 mg 9-13 years 240 mgChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 51
  • Magnesium: Requirements Boys 14-18 years 410 mg Girls 14-18 years 360 mg Men 19-30 years 400 mg Women 19-30 years 310 mg Men 31-70+ years 420 mg Women 31-70+ years 320 mgChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 52
  • Magnesium: Requirements Pregnant women 14-18 years 400 mg 19-30 years 350 mg 31-50 years 360 mg Lactating women 14-18 years 360 mg 19-30 years 310 mg 31-50 years 320 mg Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences-Institute of Medicine, 2001.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 53
  • Magnesium: Deficiency Deficiency among people on normal diets is unknown. Experimentally induced symptoms include nausea, mental, emotional, muscular disorders.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 54
  • Sulfur (S) Necessary to all body tissue and is found in all body cells. Contributes to the characteristic odor of burning hair and tissue. Necessary for metabolism.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 55
  • Sulfur Component of some amino acids. Found in protein-rich foods. Neither the amount of sulfur required by the human body nor its deficiency is known.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 56
  • Trace minerals Iron, Iodine, Zinc, Selenium, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium, MolybdenumChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 57
  • Iron (Fe) Delivers oxygen to body tissues. Component of hemoglobin. Component of myoglobin, a protein compound in muscles that provides oxygen to cells. Utilized by enzymes that are involved in making amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 58
  • Iron: Sources Meat, poultry, and fish are the best sources of iron. Animal flesh contains heme iron, which is absorbed more than twice as efficiently as nonheme iron. Nonheme iron is found in whole grain cereals, enriched grain products, vegetables, fruit, eggs, meat, fish, and poultry.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 59
  • Factors that Affect Iron Absorption Increase Decrease Acid in the stomach Phytic acid (in fiber) Heme iron Oxalic acid High body demand for Polyphenols in tea and red blood cells (blood coffee loss, pregnancy)Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 60
  • Factors that Affect Iron Absorption Increase Decrease Low body stores of Full body stores of iron iron Excess of other Meat protein factor minerals (Zn, Mn, Ca) (MPF) Some antacids Vitamin CChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 61
  • Iron: Requirements Men lose approximately 1 mg/day. Women lose approximately 1.5 mg/day. RDA for men is 10 mg, and for women age eleven through childbearing is 15 mg. RDA doubled during pregnancy; difficult to meet by diet alone. Iron supplement commonly prescribed during pregnancy. Heavy need during infancy and teens.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 62
  • Iron: Deficiency Caused by insufficient intake, malabsorption, lack of stomach acid, or excessive blood loss. Most common nutrient deficiency worldwide is iron-deficiency anemia. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, irritability, shortness of breath, pale skin, and spoon-shaped fingernails.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 63
  • spoon-shaped fingernailsChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 64
  • Iron: Excess Hemochromatosis is a condition due to an inborn error of metabolism and causes excessive absorption of iron. Untreated, can damage liver, spleen, heart. To control buildup of iron, patients with this condition must give blood on a regular basis.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 65
  • Iodine (I) Component of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Necessary for the normal functioning of thyroid gland, which determines rate of metabolism. Sources include iodized salt, seafood, and some plant foods grown in soil bordering the sea.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 66
  • Iodine RDA for adults is 150 µg a day. Additional amounts needed during pregnancy and lactation. Lack of iodine results in decrease in thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Gland grows, forming a lump on the neck called a goiter.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 67
  • Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 68
  • Iodine Myxedema is a condition of hypothyroidism in adults. Cretinism is low thyroid in a child; retards physical and mental development.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 69
  • Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 70
  • Zinc (Zn) Cofactor for more than 300 enzymes. Essential for growth, wound healing, taste acuity, glucose tolerance, and mobilization of vitamin A within the body. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, wheat germ, and legumes.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 71
  • Wheat germChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 72
  • Zinc RDA for normal adult males is 11 mg. RDA for normal adult females is 8 mg. Increased requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Symptoms of deficiency include decreased appetite, taste acuity, delayed growth, dwarfism, hypogonadism, poor wound healing, anemia, acnelike rash, impaired immune response.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 73
  • Selenium (Se) Constituent of most body tissues. Concentrated in liver, kidneys, and heart. Component of an enzyme that acts as an antioxidant, thereby protecting cells against oxidation and sparing vitamin E. Sources include seafood, kidney, liver, muscle meats.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 74
  • Hair analysis test http://www.eidon.com/images/hair_profile.gifChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 75
  • Selenium (Se) RDA for adult male is 70 µg. RDA for adult female is 55 µg. Selenium supplements appear to be effective in treating Keshan disease High doses are toxic causing vomiting, loss of hair and nails, and skin lesions.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 76
  • Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 77
  • Copper (Cu) Found in all tissues; heaviest concentration in the liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. Helps in formation of hemoglobin; aids in transport of iron to bone marrow for the formation of red blood cells; and participates in energy production.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 78
  • Copper (Cu) Sources include organ meats, shellfish, legumes, nuts, cocoa, whole grain cereals, and human milk. No RDA; NRC’s estimated safe intake for adults is 1.5-3 mg/day.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 79
  • Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 80
  • Copper (Cu) Deficiency is rare. People with malabsorption conditions and gross protein deficiency such as premature infants; clients on long-term parenteral nutrition programs lacking copper; and people taking excess zinc supplements are candidates for deficiency. Anemia, bone demineralization, and impaired growth may result.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 81
  • Copper (Cu) Excess is highly toxic. Single dose of 10-15 mg can cause vomiting. Wilson’s disease is an inherited condition causing damage to liver cells and neurons. Detected early, copper-binding agents may be used to bind copper in bloodstream and increase excretion.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 82
  • Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that causes your body to retain copper. Normally, your liver releases copper it doesnt need into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, this does not happen. Copper builds up in your liver and injures liver tissue.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 83
  • Over time, the damage causes your liver to release the copper directly into your bloodstream. The blood carries copper all over your body. Too much copper can damage your kidneys, liver, brain and eyes.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 84
  • Usually the build-up of copper starts after birth. Symptoms usually start between ages 6 and 20, but can begin as late as age 40. The most characteristic sign is a rusty brown ring around the cornea of the eye.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 85
  • Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 86
  • If you have Wilson disease, you will have to take medicine and follow a low- copper diet for the rest of your life. With early detection and proper treatment, a person with Wilson disease can enjoy normal health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/wilsondisease.htmlChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 87
  • Manganese (Mn) Constituent of several enzymes involved in metabolism. Important in bone formation. Sources include whole grains, tea, vegetables, and fruits. Adequate intake is 2.3 mg for men and 1.8 mg for women. No deficiency/toxicity from ingestion known. Inhalation linked to neurological problems.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 88
  • Fluoride (F) Increases resistance to dental caries, and may strengthen teeth and bones. Sources include fluoridated water, fish and tea. Commercially prepared foods with fluoridated water. Deficiency can result in increased tooth decay. Excess can cause discoloration or mottling of children’s teeth.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 89
  • FluorosisChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 90
  • Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 91
  • Osteosclerosis Occasionally, patients with chronic renal failure may present with biochemical and radiographic features of osteomalacia. This plain radiograph of the pelvis of a 77- year-old woman shows multiple pseudofractures. Note the osteosclerosis and a brown tumor in the region of the intertrochanteric line of the left femur.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 92
  • Fluoride: Requirements 0-6 months .01 mg 6-12 months 0.5 mg 1-3 years 0.7 mg 4-8 years 1.0 mg 9-13 years 2.0 mg Boys 14-18 years 3.1 mgChapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 93
  • Fluoride: Requirements Girls 14-18 years 3.0 mg Males 19+ years 4.0 mg Females 19+ years 3.0 mg Pregnant and Same as nonpregnant lactating women and nonlactating women of same age Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences-Institute of Medicine, 1997.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 94
  • Chromium (Cr) Associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. Levels decrease with age except in lungs, where chromium accumulates. Sources include meat, mushrooms, nuts, yeast, organ meats, and wheat germ.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 95
  • Chromium (Cr) Safe and adequate daily intake for men is 35 µg and women 25 µg Deficiency related to disturbances in glucose metabolism.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 96
  • Molybdenum (Mo) Constituent of enzymes, and thought to play a role in metabolism. Sources include milk, liver, legumes, and cereals. Safe and adequate daily intake for adults is 45 µg. No deficiencies noted. Excess inhibits copper absorption.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 97
  • Conclusion Megadoses of minerals are dangerous. Minerals are necessary to promote growth and regulate body processes. Originate in soil and water and ingested via food and drink. Deficiencies can result in anemia, rickets, and goiter. Excess can be toxic resulting in hair loss and changes in nearly all body tissues.Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 98