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1 ethics principles

  1. 1. AUSTRALIA FELIX PERMACULTUREAUSTRALIA FELIX PERMACULTURE permaculture.bizpermaculture.biz All Your Land Needs®All Your Land Needs® PERMACULTURE DESIGNPERMACULTURE DESIGN Integrated Design Applications for HumanIntegrated Design Applications for Human Landscape Development & ManagementLandscape Development & Management withwith Darren J. Doherty, Permaculture DesignerDarren J. Doherty, Permaculture Designer @ Oberlin College, OH, USA, 2007@ Oberlin College, OH, USA, 2007
  2. 2. Australia Felix Permaculture is a family-owned international land-planning &Australia Felix Permaculture is a family-owned international land-planning & development enterprise based in Bendigo, Central Victoria, Australia. It isdevelopment enterprise based in Bendigo, Central Victoria, Australia. It is owned & operated by Darren J. Doherty & Lisa Heenan. Darren Doherty is theowned & operated by Darren J. Doherty & Lisa Heenan. Darren Doherty is the Principle Designer & Project Manager of Australia Felix Permaculture.Principle Designer & Project Manager of Australia Felix Permaculture. Since 1993 we have been involved on 5 continents with the design &Since 1993 we have been involved on 5 continents with the design & development of over 1200 properties including everything from apartmentdevelopment of over 1200 properties including everything from apartment balconies to 110 000 acre ranches to multinational R&D projects all applyingbalconies to 110 000 acre ranches to multinational R&D projects all applying the ethics & principles of Permaculture Design.the ethics & principles of Permaculture Design. Our purpose has always been to raise the profile of permaculture design to theOur purpose has always been to raise the profile of permaculture design to the point where it becomes an unconscious practice as opposed to a marginalpoint where it becomes an unconscious practice as opposed to a marginal methodology.methodology. ““We are doing this for Life”We are doing this for Life” In business we deliver cost effective best practice permaculture-basedIn business we deliver cost effective best practice permaculture-based regenerative property design, education, and consulting services to people,regenerative property design, education, and consulting services to people, businesses, corporations, governments & communities around the worldbusinesses, corporations, governments & communities around the world including:including: Darren J. DohertyDarren J. Doherty 1967 -1967 - Lisa HeenanLisa Heenan 1966 -1966 - Australia Felix Permaculture – Who We Are….Australia Felix Permaculture – Who We Are….
  3. 3. Our Part of the WorldOur Part of the World Bendigo,Victoria,Bendigo,Victoria, 37.2°S, 28°-125°F,37.2°S, 28°-125°F, 8-18” precipitation,8-18” precipitation, 30-60 frosts/year,30-60 frosts/year, 1800+ day degrees1800+ day degrees
  4. 4. Family Farm – 1853-2002, Mixed Farm – Sheep (Merino), Beef (Angus), Cereals, Grain Legumes,Family Farm – 1853-2002, Mixed Farm – Sheep (Merino), Beef (Angus), Cereals, Grain Legumes, Fodder, Forestry – all irrigated by Keyline System since 1950’sFodder, Forestry – all irrigated by Keyline System since 1950’s My 1My 1stst Pond - 1981Pond - 1981
  5. 5. Australia Felix Permaculture – World Teaching/Consulting/Study Tour 2007/8Australia Felix Permaculture – World Teaching/Consulting/Study Tour 2007/8 World Tour Purpose:World Tour Purpose: 1. To consult with the landscapes & communities of the world1. To consult with the landscapes & communities of the world 2. To facilitate an increase in the awareness, knowledge & practice of2. To facilitate an increase in the awareness, knowledge & practice of Broadacre Permaculture Design within traditional Agricultural communities &Broadacre Permaculture Design within traditional Agricultural communities & Permaculture itselfPermaculture itself 3. To inform people of the most cost effective and efficient means of3. To inform people of the most cost effective and efficient means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 thru Carbon Farmingsequestering atmospheric CO2 thru Carbon Farming
  6. 6. PERMACULTURE “……What permaculturalists are doing is the most important activity that any group is doing on the planet…….” Dr. David Suzuki Permaculture (permanent agriculture or permanent culture) is the conscious design & maintenance of agriculturally productive systems. Sustainable human settlement design is its prime focus, where the concept strings the disciplines into a web of appropriate & productive development. Originally developed as a methodology in the early 1970’s it is now practiced and applied in nearly every country, and works to sustainably promote low energy and solid state food and resource security. Darren J. Doherty
  7. 7. Permaculture Ethics Perma To persist throughout - Latin Culture Those activities that support humanity Permaculture A persistent conscious approach to support humanity Ethics Enlightened self-interest - looking after yourself and the interests of others ‘…is a limitation on freedom of action in the struggle for existance…’ Aldo Leopold, The Land Ethic, 1949
  8. 8. ETHICS OF PERMACULTURE CARE OF THE EARTH The primary ethic The earth is the primary client CARE OF THE PEOPLE (CARE OF OURSELVES) If we can provide for our own basic needs, then we can care for the earth RETURN OF SURPLUS - CONTRIBUTE TIME, MONEY & ENERGY TO ACHIEVE ETHICS 1&2. And setting limits to population and consumption
  9. 9. mollisonian permaculture principles The following principles of design where developed by Bill Mollison and are intended to be universally applicable, while practices may vary from place to place.
  10. 10. Principles Let us look at the sets of principles that govern these systems. These principles, rules and directives are based on the study of natural systems. Axioms are established principles or self-evident truths. A principle is a basic truth, a rule of conduct, a way to proceed. A law is a statement of fact backed up by a set of hypotheses which have proved to be correct or tenable. Theses and hypotheses are ideas offered up for proof or discussion. There are also rules and laws laid down which are neither rules or laws. They do not pay much attention to defining how they got there. Now I have evolved a set of directives which say: "Here is a good way to proceed." It doesn't have anything to do with laws or rules, just principles. Bill Mollison 1981
  11. 11. RELATIVE LOCATION... Efficient function is achieved by careful placement of elements in relation to each other. Observe. Use protracted and thoughtful observation rather than prolonged and thoughtless action. Observe the site and its elements in all seasons. Design for specific sites, clients, and climates. Bill Mollison Connect. Use relative location: Place elements in ways that create useful relationships and time- saving connections among all parts. The number of connections among elements creates a healthy, diverse ecosystem, not the number of elements. Toby Hemenway
  12. 12. EACH ELEMENT PERFORMS MANY FUNCTIONS... Elements are chosen and placed to perform as many functions as possible. Each element performs multiple functions. Choose and place each element in a system to perform as many functions as possible. Increasing beneficial connections between diverse components creates a stable whole. Stack elements in both space and time. Toby Hemenway
  13. 13. EACH IMPORTANT FUNCTION IS SUPPORTED BY MANY ELEMENTS... Important basic functions (such as water supply, fire protection and energy) are provided in more than one way Each function is supported by multiple elements. Use multiple methods to achieve important functions and to create synergies. Redundancy protects when one or more elements fail. Toby Hemenway
  14. 14. ENERGY EFFICIENT PLANNING... Energy efficiency is achieved through zoning (to conserve human energy), sector planning (to manage wild energies), slope planning (to utilise gravity) and by making the least change for the greatest possible effect. Make the least change for the greatest effect. Find the “leverage points” in the system and intervene there, where the least work accomplishes the most change. Toby Hemenway
  15. 15. USING BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES... Use biological resources (5 Kingdoms of Nature) wherever possible to save energy and do the work of the site.
  16. 16. ENERGY CYCLING... Nutrients and energies are stored, used close to their source and used repeatedly to avoid wastage before flowing off-site or to sinks. Catch and store energy and materials. Identify, collect, and hold the useful flows moving through the site. By saving and re-investing resources, we maintain the system and capture still more resources. Recycle energy. Supply local and on-site needs with energy from the system, and reuse this energy as many times as possible. Every cycle is an opportunity for yield. Toby Hemenway
  17. 17. SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS... Good design makes maximum use of minimal land; using productive human labour, hand tools and animals, rather than large machines and fossil fuels; and is multi-dimensional - utilising vertical space (plant stacking & trellising) and overlapping successional crops (time stacking). Use small scale, intensive systems. Start at your doorstep with the smallest systems that will do the job, and build on your successes, with variations. Grow by chunking. Toby Hemenway
  18. 18. Accelerate succession. Mature ecosystems are more diverse and productive than young ones, so use design to jump-start succession. Toby Hemenway ACCELERATING SUCCESSION & EVOLUTION. Mature ecosystems are more diverse and productive than young ones, so use design to jump-start succession.
  19. 19. DIVERSITY... Diversity increases productivity and stability, with polycultures, not monocultures; orderliness rather than tidiness; and guilds of elements that work harmoniously together. Use biological and renewable resources. Renewable resources (usually plants and animals) reproduce and build up over time, store energy, assist yield, and interact with other elements.
  20. 20. EDGE EFFECTS... Extending and exaggerating the boundaries between adjoining systems provides additional contributions from the resources of both systems, increasing productivity. Use the edge effect. The edge—the intersection of two environments—is the most diverse place in a system, and is where energies and materials accumulate. Optimize the amount of edge. Toby Hemenway
  21. 21. ATTITUDE… Positivism is what drives Permaculture and the relationships that we develop as people working together toward our collective future. Mistakes are tools for learning. Evaluate your trials. Making mistakes is a sign you’re trying to do things better. Toby Hemenway
  22. 22. EVERYTHING WORKS BOTH WAYS... Good design turns disadvantages into advantages; sees solutions not problems. Turn problems into solutions. Constraints can inspire creative design. “We are surrounded by insurmountable opportunities.”— Bill Mollison
  23. 23. YIELDS ARE LIMITED ONLY BY INFORMATION AND IMAGINATION... Permaculture uses creative design, rather than energy or capital, to increase productivity. Get a yield. Design for both immediate and long- term returns from your efforts: “You can’t work on an empty stomach.” Set up positive feedback loops to build the system and repay your investment. Toby Hemenway Abundance is unlimited. The designer’s imagination and skill is a bigger limit to yield than any physical limit. Toby Hemenway
  24. 24. Holmgrenian Permaculture Principles The following principles of design where developed by David Holmgren and outlined in his book: Permaculture – Principles & Pathways Beyond Sustainability
  26. 26. OBSERVE AND INTERACT Beauty is in the eye of the beholder
  27. 27. CATCH AND STORE ENERGY Make hay while the sun shines
  28. 28. OBTAIN A YIELD You can’t work on an empty stomach.
  29. 29. APPLY SELF- REGULATION AND ACCEPT FEEDBACK The sins of the fathers are visited on the children unto the seventh generation
  30. 30. USE AND VALUE RENEWABLE RESOURCES AND SERVICES Let nature take its course
  31. 31. PRODUCE NO WASTE Waste not, want not A stitch in time saves nine
  32. 32. DESIGN FROM PATTERNS TO DETAILS Can’t see the wood for the trees
  33. 33. INTEGRATE RATHER THAN SEGREGATE Many hands make light work.
  34. 34. USE SMALL AND SLOW SOLUTIONS The bigger they are, the harder they fall. Slow and steady wins the race.
  35. 35. USE AND VALUE DIVERSITY Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.
  36. 36. USE EDGES AND VALUE THE MARGINAL Don’t think you are on the right track just because it is a well-beaten path
  37. 37. CREATIVELY USE AND RESPOND TO CHANGE Vision is not seeing things as they are but as they will be
  38. 38. Five Kingdoms of Nature The concept of the 5 Kingdoms of Nature is inspired by the work of Prof. Dr. Lynn Margulis in her milestone reference work "The 5 Kingdoms of Nature." Bacteria This symbol shows bacteria, or monera for the scientists. It are many creatures living intensively together taking care of all possible niches. All bacterial are characterized by the lack of a nucleus. Algae The protoctista, as the scientists like to call this domain, is a mix of slime moulds and algae. We have over-simplified this and call these species algae, knowing that scientifically it is not 100% correct. These are the first ones to have a nucleus. Fungi The fungi include moulds and mushrooms and have a rich biodiversity that is largely unknown. We do not even know in about 95% of the cases how to distinguish a male from a female. Plants Plants are the most recent arrival on Earth. There are millions unknown, but their beauty has inspired poetry and they know how to procreate in cooperation with animals. Animals Animals, yes the largest number of species are the worms. We are most likely descendents of worms, and not of the chimpanzee. It is not a pleasant thought, but it is a recent discovery. Actually, if we have to believe the scientific hypothesesof Lynn Margulis, then we are descendents of bacteria, or better stated, descendentsof symbiosis of bacteria! After all about 10% of our body weight are still bacteria.
  39. 39. ZERI (Zero Emissions Research Institute) Five Design Principles There are five kingdoms of nature: bacteria, algae, fungi, plants and animals - and for billions of years these five kingdoms have worked together to be a highly productive and adaptive system. Along with the five kingdoms, there are five key design principles that each kingdom (except man!) generally adheres to: •Whatever is waste for one is a nutrient or food for another species belonging to another kingdom; •What is a toxin for one organism, is a nutrient or neutral for another belonging to another kingdom; •Whenever highly complex ecosystems operate, viruses to remain inactive and even disappear without causing harm passing through at least 2 other kingdoms; •The more local, the more diverse a system, the more productive, the more resilient; and, •Whenever species of 5 different kingdoms live and interact in an autopoetic system, they can integrate and separate all matter at ambient temperature and pressure.
  40. 40. 1. Whatever is Waste for One is a Nutrient or Food for Another Species Belonging to Another Kingdom If one species is fed its own waste, it will degenerate. When cattle farmers started to feed cows with waste from other cows they violated this principal - and it led to the mad cow disease outbreak. Shrimp farmers made the same mistake when they started to feed shrimp with their own waste - which led to white shrimp virus. A lion will eat an antelope, but never ever will he consider the manure of the antelope. There are exceptions which confirm the rule, a dog may be spotted eating occasionally its own waste, though this is a matter of strengthening its immune system, challenging it so once in a while. If an animal were only eating its own waste, and behave as a cannibal, it would never survive. Industry and society should apply the same logic. Waste from one industry should not be forced back into the same system searching for a "closed loop". This will increase cost, jeopardize quality and hardly ever generate the best possible value. Industries should cluster together, cascade their waste streams and generate more income, more jobs, thus increasing productivity while eliminating waste.
  41. 41. 2. Whatever is a Toxin for One, is a Nutrient or Neutral for at Least One Species Belonging to Another Kingdom If a species eliminates toxins within its own system, it will degenerate. As human's we tend to classify things that are toxic only from a human point of view. We assume that anything that is toxic for humans must also be toxic for every other species in every kingdom. Cyanide, is a well known toxin for animals, but several plant species produce it and use it effectively as a defence against predators. Apples are rich in cyanide, and so are peaches, though none have to be labeled "dangerous - cyanide inside." The elimination of toxins by passing through the other kingdoms does not mean you have to die first. If you (member of the animal kingdom) are ill, then balance your system with the presence of algae, fungi, plants and bacteria. The illness that affects you, will dissapate in the wake of abundance from nutrients and anti-bodies provided by spirulina algae, reishi mushrooms, acidophylus, bifidus, garlic and avocados.
  42. 42. 3. Whenever there is a Virus, It Will be Eliminated Passing Through at Least Two Other Kingdoms If we reduce the number of species, and recycle nutrients and energy within a kingdom, when viruses will thrive and the system will degenerate. Viruses are species and kingdom specific. A virus that can attack a plant cannot attack an animal. This is the reason why the constant cycling of nutrients and energy from one species to the other is making life for viruses impossible. This is why viruses are made life impossible since the environment of one species evolves into a new species belonging to another kingdom. But there are exceptions. Several species are a symbiosis. Human beings are 10% bacteria, and therefore a virus that lives in one, could also live in another kingdom. Lichens are a symbiosis of mushrooms and algae, and therefore viruses could navigate within the two kingdoms. That is why the cycling through all five kingdoms is that important since no virus is known to survive in three different species belonging to three different kingdoms.
  43. 43. 4. Systems are More Efficient and More Resilient the More Diverse and the More Local They Are Operating If non-native species are forced to become part of the local ecosystem, it will degenerate. Plants and trees, in co-existance and in co-evolution with species belonging to the other four kingdoms will create the best, most effective system from within the boundaries of its own micro system. The more variety, the more fun. No one on earth has ever witnessed a situation in which a group of plants and trees in a temperate climate feel the need to bring over some fungi from the tropics. This does not mean that there is no cross-over as migratory birds demonstrate. Though the core of production of consumption, regeneration of left-overs of one, as a food and value for another, is local. Transportation is kept to the absolute minimum. In our global economy we want everything from everywhere at any place and time. This leads to a massive transportation system which contaminates our environment and causes massive introduction of non-native species. At the core are only a few local species left, which evolved together over millions of years. We have increased the fragility of our own system because if a few of the remaining links break, the whole system could collapse. The more local the activities, the stronger they are - and there will be much more flexibility as diversity increases. A system that is local will be more efficient and resilient.
  44. 44. 5. Whenever Species of Five Different Kingdoms Live and Interact, It Is Possible to Integrate and Separate All Matter at Ambient Temperature and Pressure When matter is integrated or separated without involvement of all kingdoms, then the process will cause entropy beyond the energy provided for by the sun. A spider makes its fiber at ambient temperature and pressure, from diverse raw materials. The moment tension is removed from the web, it starts disintegrating. No spider applies the closed loop concept, and tries to eat its own web in order to increase its production. Though the spider succeeds in this endeavor through a tightly knit cooperation with the other kingdoms. Industry has arranged for an intensive supply chain management, which requires precise and uniform raw materials which are converted at high temperature and pressure, causing a massive amount of entropy. Whenever matter and energy is solely produced by and consumed for the benefit of only one species (core business), then it will remain highly wasteful and can only achieve its goals causing noise, nuisance, waste and a deteriorating environment. If industry were to emulate the "all inclusive approach" by nature, which will continuously search for the participation of as many representatives of the 5 Kingdoms as possible, then we would be able to respond to the basic needs of all with the energy supplied by the sun. And, if for some reason, one species would be missing and as such waste (and entropy) would be generated, the ecosystem will spontaneously create a new species through symbiosis.