Presentation for Semester Project OPERMGT 345 – Production Management Section 001 – Professor Tom Foster Joshua Saari [email_address] Spring 2002, Boise State University
The segments of this program are as follows: Definition – so all participants understand what computer aided manufacturing is. Brainstorming – to stimulate all participants to think about how CAM can help their company Nuts and Bolts – the definitions of the tools used in CAM, to familiarize participants with system How It Works – A step-by-step description of how CAM is used in industry to improve efficiency A Real World Example – An example of a company using CAM, and how CAM has allowed them to be more competitive Summary of Presentation – a recap of the presentation
The Russell and Taylor textbook defines CAM as the “controlling of the manufacturing process” by what is essentially artificial intelligence – using programs and microprocessors to control machines so humans don’t have to. This controlling is made possible when the designs for products are created using computer software such as CAD, so the instructions for producing the product are in digital format. When the designs are created in CAD, they can then be downloaded to the computerized equipment, which in turn interprets the instructions and produces the product.
The first definition is significant because it emphasizes the role that CAM plays in planning as well as controlling the process. While CAM might be more properly associated with the machinery that actually controls the production processes, its role in planning the fabrication process is central to the end-to-end process. The second definition points out the idea that CAM is the concept that computers manage the manufacturing process, in tasks that human operators previously preformed. This means that CAM can help the machinery to manage exceptions and non-conforming results, to free human operators for other tasks that require human intervention.
[Stimulate participants into creatively producing ideas that can help the organization.] Several ways in which CAM can benefit a production company include: Integrating design and manufacturing (tying the two departments together results in shorter lead times and better cooperation between departments) Making mass customization possible (machinery can instantly begin producing another product [from the same product family], making mass customization of products a viable option) Reducing costs (using CAM can decrease the amount of materials waste, thus reducing overall costs) Leveraging computing power (computers are more reliable and consistent than human workers and once a process has been established, they can produce incredible productivity gains) Automating the manufacturing process (creating automated factories that do not require human intervention saves human resource costs)
CAM allows companies to: Use technology to produce (utilize the gains that new technology can bring to the process) Leverage capital investments (investing in technology can financial burden, but the efficiencies gained can more than offset the costs of new technology) Increase productivity through automation (move tasks that do not require human intelligence to an automated system – only problems that machinery cannot handle could be solved by workers, decreasing labor costs) Decrease lead time through programmatically controlled machinery (decreased tool and pattern change times can lead to dramatic decreases in turn-around times)
CAM is a collection of automated technologies that will be discussed in later slides. This is an introduction to the acronyms.
Computer Numerically Controlled machines (CNC’s) are similar to Numerically Controlled machines (NC’s) and are replacing them in manufacturing lineups. NC’s were machinery that were controlled with punch cards that were encoded with the instructions needed to produce the product. CNC’s take the automation a step further by using microprocessors to control the production process. This, in turn, enables management to have greater control over the quality and consistency of the output, and also allows machinery to monitor the condition of its parts to reduce downtime.
Direct Numerical Controlled machines (DNC’s) are essentially a ‘bank’ of CNC’s controlled by a central processing point, enabling the machines to cooperatively work to finish tasks. If DNC’s are implemented with an automated material handling system (such as a conveyor belt and robot arm ‘pickers’), then the process is defined as a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS).
Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS’s) utilize the gains realized by automating a large degree of the production process. A FMS uses DNC’s, which work as a unit, and feeds the raw materials into the machines using automated material handling systems. This allows the production process to rapidly complete small varied orders, as well as re-tool quickly when a different product is to be fabricated.
Robots are mechanical manipulators that are controlled using a programmatic interface. More simply, this means that the robotic appendages can be programmed to pick up and process the raw materials, with a remarkable degree of accuracy and consistency. Robots are ideal in environment that could potentially be hazardous to humans, such as contaminated waste areas or in tasks that could eventually ‘wear out’ human workers.
Automated Materials Handling Systems are the situation where materials are automatically loaded into process machines without human intervention. When combined with computer numerically controlled machinery, it comprises a flexible manufacturing system. Examples of automated materials handling systems are conveyor belts (or gravity-driven ramps), automated guided vehicles (AGV’s – cars that drive along predefined paths), and automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS’s – systems in which an entire warehouse of inventory is managed and ‘pulled’ by intelligent machines).
The steps of computer aided manufacturing: The product is conceived by an engineer (or product development group) The product is designed with computer aided design software (requirements and specification are converted to digital format) The CAD data is transferred to the manufacturing machine’s memory (downloaded through the company computer network) The machine uses the CAD data to product the product (automated production process without the need of human intervention)
The ‘old’ way to producing is with numerically controlled machinery, in which punch cards are loaded into each machine and every machine works individually.
With the new system of producing (using CAM) the product is designed and the production plans are transmitted in a digital format, enabling performance and efficiency gains.
Three areas to consider as you finish: CAM enables companies to leverage capital investments (invest in fixed costs that reduce variable costs) CAM allows for cost savings that can be passed on to the final consumer (lowered product cost allows company to compete at an advantage over competitors) CAM utilizes human resources more efficiently to minimize labor costs (using labor more efficiently allows company to reduce costs, with employees working more productively.)
Transcript of "Computer aided manufacturing"
Computer Aided ManufacturingBY: Mr. PRABHAT KHARE
INTRODUCTIONComputer aided design (CAD)- is the technologyconcerned with the use of computer system to assist inthe creation, modification, analysis and optimization of adesign.Computer aided manufactureing [CAM]-is thetechnology concerned with the use of computersystem to plan, manage and manufacturingoperations.Computer aided engineering [CAE]-is the technologyconcerned with the use of computer system to analyzeCAD geometry allowing the designer to simulate and tostudy how the product will behave.
Overview of CAMDefinitionBrainstorming ExerciseNuts and BoltsHow It WorksConclusion
Computer Aided Manufacturing What is Computer Aided Manufacturing? • It is “Control of the manufacturing process by computers” involving the integration of CAD engineering data and the computerized equipment which manufactures the product. – (Russell, Taylor 213)
Computer Aided Manufacturing Other definitions: • “Computer aided manufacturing concerns the use of algorithms for planning and controlling fabrication processes.” – (utwente.nl) • Computer aided manufacturing is “the use of computers for managing manufacturing processes.” – (techtarget.com)
Brainstorming ExerciseHow can CAM benefit your company?• Integrate design and manufacturing• Make mass customization possible• Reduce costs• Leverage computing power• Automate manufacturing processes• No batch to batch variation i.e high quality product• Easy control of fast, complex & hazardous processes
Brainstorming ExerciseUsing technology to produceLeveraging capital investmentsIncreasing productivity throughautomationDecreasing lead time throughprogrammatically controlled machinery
Nuts and Bolts Essentially the collection of computer technologies used in manufacturing • Computer Numerical Control (CNC) • Direct Numerical Control (DNC) • Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) • Robots • Automated material Handling Systems
Nuts and Bolts Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) • Machine that is controlled by computer • Utilizes monitor and keyboard for operator interaction • Facilitates greater control over quality • Allows machine to monitor the maintenance of its parts
Nuts and Bolts Direct Numerical Control (DNC) • Each machine contains own microprocessor • Entire bank of machines controlled by a single central computer • If used with automated material handling, considered to be a flexible manufacturing system
Nuts and Bolts Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) • Numerous computer-controlled machines fed by automated material handling system • Allows for broad and deep product mix • Minimal setup times enable small lot sizes
Nuts and Bolts Robots • Mechanical manipulators that can be accessed programmatically • Consistent, repetitive-motion tolerant • Ideal for tasks that are hazardous to humans
Nuts and Bolts Automated Materials Handling System • System where raw materials are automatically fed into machines • Examples: – Conveyor belts – Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) – Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS)
How It Works1. Product is conceived by engineer2. Product is designed using CAD software3. CAD data is transferred to manufacturing machine’s memory4. Machine uses the CAD data to produce the product, with little human intervention
How It Works Old System (without CAM) • Product is designed with CAD software – Each production machine is programmed individually OR – if not automated : – Employees are trained on proper production of the product
How It Works New System (using CAM) • Product is designed with CAD software – Product specifications are sent over the plant network to each machine – Machines have ‘intelligence’ to produce the products without human intervention
Conclusion CAM enables companies to leverage capital investment CAM allows for cost savings that can be passed on to the final consumer CAM utilizes human resources more efficiently to minimize labor costs