For many years offices were
dominated by paper.
Everything was recorded on paper
either hand-written or typewritten
and this had to be stored.
Offices required large numbers of
filing cabinets and filing clerks just
to store and keep track of all the
paperwork they produced.
Difficult to locate file.
Cost of instruments are higher.
With the introduction of
computers in offices there has
been a gradual move towards a
This has many advantages
Reduced costs (no need for
filing cabinets or filing clerks).
Reduced office space (filing
cabinets take up considerable
amounts of floor space).
Individual office workers can
access information much
Electronic office equipment and
Modern offices use a variety of
different electronic equipment
and facilities, although the
majority are computer-based.
Fax (facsimile) machines.
Email (electronic mail).
EDI (electronic data interchange).
Fax (facsimile) machines scan documents and
transmit digital images of them to other fax machines.
They are particularly useful for sending copies of
plans, drawings, or letters.
A fax (short for facsimile) machine transmits a copy
of written and graphical information via the
It works in a similar way to a photocopier, except
the copy is transmitted to a distant machine via the
Each Fax machine has a telephone number, this may
or may not be shared with a telephone.
Faxes are widely used in business offices because they
make it very easy to transmit invoices, orders,
rough drawings, copies of contracts and so on.
Advantages & Disadvantages
Faxes are a fairly inexpensive
method of sending a message -
just the cost of a telephone call.
They are simple to use and
require very little training
They allow exact copies of hand
written information or images to be
transmitted without having to
prepare it in any special way.
As long as the fax machine is
switched on, messages can be
received at any time day or night.
They don't need any specialist
installation or cabling as they
make use of the existing
There is no immediate response
or feedback from the recipient like
there is with a telephone
You might dial the wrong
number and send your document
to someone else
If the receiving machine is busy,
your Fax will not be delivered.
If the receiving machine is out
of paper you will think that you
sent your fax but it won't actually
It can take a long time to transmit
if you have many sheets of
E-mail stands for 'Electronic Mail'.
The electronic transmission of mail allows you to send
formatted text and images to someone else with an email
Each E-mail user has a 'mailbox' with a unique address into
which messages can be sent ready for the recipient to 'collect'
and read.Email (electronic mail) is fast replacing ordinary post
as a means of sending messages between terminals on
Emails can be stored digitally and this means that both the
sender and receiver can reduce their reliance on paper-based
Email is now one of the most common methods of
communication - ask most people that you know, they will
probably have an email address.
Emails are usually received fairly quickly, most of the time a
couple of seconds after they are sent
People don't have to be present to receive the email
Emails can be sent any time of the day or night, 365 days a
Files and images can be attached to an email
carbon copy of an email can be sent to other people
You can request proof of receipt or proof of the email being
Messages can be prepared in advance and saved until you are
ready to send them.
Some people change their email addresses fairly often
as they switch ISPs or jobs
Spam is a big problem, up to two-thirds of mails sent
People can waste company time at work by sending
emails to friends instead of working
When you are on holiday, your email box can become
full and extra messages might not get stored
You may have to wait a long time to get a reply.
EDI (electronic data interchange) is the method
by which different companies computer
systems can automatically exchange data.
For example, a food retailer’s computer can
automatically order more of a product from a
supplier’s computer when its stocks fall to a
This order is also paid for electronically using
the same system.
Difference Between Teletext &
Provided by the television
Transmitted at the same time
as TV picture
special TV needed.
Limited number of pages
Provided by the internet
Set via telephone cables and
Telephone, modem or
terminal are needed.
Huge amount of information
on all subjects
Teletext & Internet
Teletext uses the spare capacity of the
television broadcast system to send text to
any suitably equipped television.
Teletext has limitations but does not
require a computer for users to access it.
The Internet allows anyone who has a computer,
modem, telephone line, and Internet Service
Provider (ISP) to gain access to the World Wide
The introduction of broadband connections has
made access to the Internet very fast, and if used
properly the Internet can make a vast amount of
information available to users
Teleconferencing allows people in different
offices (often very far apart) the opportunity
to discuss and share information face-to-
This means that travel time and travel
costs for the people involved are
Teleconferencing allows people in different
locations to talk to each other as a group.
This is also known as an Audio-conference
or simply a 'Conference Call'
Video conferencing is similar to
teleconferencing except that people in the
meeting can now see one another because
video cameras are used to send live images
over telephone lines.
There is no need to spend time and money traveling to
You can have a 'meeting' with people from many
different offices /countries without any of them having to
You can see people as well as hear them. This means you
can see their body language which you can't do with a
You can all view a document on the screen at the same
time. People can work together and add their ideas.
The document can be emailed to all of the people at the
meeting later on.
Everyone who is going to 'attend' the meeting needs access to
suitable hardware and software. This can be expensive
and can take a while to set up.
A very reliable, fast data link is needed. Many
companies hire a connection specifically to allow
video conferences to take place
Even with a fast connection, there might be a slight
delay between responses.
People could be in different time zones around the
world. This might mean that some people have to stay
up through the night in order to 'attend' the
Telecommuting allows people
to work at home rather than
having to travel every day to
an office to work.
It is a way of bringing the job
to the person rather than the
person to the job.