The parts of a computerThe parts of a computer
Visual display unit/VDU/MonitorCentral processing unit (CPU)
Hardware & SoftwareHardware & Software
Physical Component of aPhysical Component of a
We can touch these partsWe can touch these parts
Allow user to enter dataAllow user to enter data
and information intoand information into
computer and retrievecomputer and retrieve
Can not perform any taskCan not perform any task
without Softwarewithout Software
If problem occur inIf problem occur in
hardware then it willhardware then it will
Logical Component of aLogical Component of a
We can not touchWe can not touch
These are in form ofThese are in form of
instructions that tell theinstructions that tell the
computer that what to docomputer that what to do
It can not executed withoutIt can not executed without
If any problem in softwareIf any problem in software
then it will reinstall.then it will reinstall.
TheThe motherboardmotherboard is the main electronicis the main electronic
component of the computercomponent of the computer
Circuit boardCircuit board
TheThe microprocessormicroprocessor is one of the mostis one of the most
important pieces of processing hardwareimportant pieces of processing hardware
on the motherboardon the motherboard
CardsCards are removable circuit boardsare removable circuit boards
Computer componentsComputer components
Logical units of a computerLogical units of a computer
Input unitInput unit
Output unitOutput unit
Memory unitMemory unit
Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)
Central processing unit (CPU)Central processing unit (CPU)
Secondary storage unitSecondary storage unit
The Central Processing UnitThe Central Processing Unit
Central Processing Unit
devices Immediate access store
& logic unit
Ram / Rom
ALU & Logical
Input & OutputInput & Output
The data or instructions you type into theThe data or instructions you type into the
computer are calledcomputer are called inputinput
The result of the computer processingThe result of the computer processing
your input is referred to asyour input is referred to as outputoutput
Peripheral devicesPeripheral devices accomplish input andaccomplish input and
output functionsoutput functions
Input DeviceInput Device
You use anYou use an input deviceinput device, such as a keyboard or a, such as a keyboard or a
mouse, to input data and issue commandsmouse, to input data and issue commands
Pointing devicePointing device
Controls the pointerControls the pointer
Scroll wheelScroll wheel
Touch padTouch pad
Pointing stickPointing stick
Output DevicesOutput Devices
Output devicesOutput devices show you the results ofshow you the results of
processing dataprocessing data
Flat panelFlat panel
Dot matrixDot matrix
Memory UnitsMemory Units
Random Access Memory ( RAM )Random Access Memory ( RAM )
Read Only Memory ( ROM )Read Only Memory ( ROM )
Backing StorageBacking Storage
Which consists of the disk driversWhich consists of the disk drivers
used to store data when the powerused to store data when the power
is switched off.is switched off.
Magnetic mediaMagnetic media
Hard diskHard disk
Floppy diskFloppy disk
Optical storage deviceOptical storage device
Brain of ComputerBrain of Computer
Central Processing UnitCentral Processing Unit
Control Unit Arithmetic Unit Logical unit
Control UnitControl Unit
Responsible for coordinating the input andResponsible for coordinating the input and
output Devices.output Devices.
In which all the calculations are Involve.In which all the calculations are Involve.
Logical unitLogical unit
It contains the logical decisionsIt contains the logical decisions
Greater thanGreater than
Less thanLess than
Equal toEqual to
Not equal toNot equal to
Greater than equal toGreater than equal to
Less than equal toLess than equal to
And operationsAnd operations
Or OperationsOr Operations
Not operationsNot operations
Why use Computer?Why use Computer?
Computers are extremely fastComputers are extremely fast
Computers are very accurateComputers are very accurate
Computers can keep large amount ofComputers can keep large amount of
information in a small spaceinformation in a small space
Computers can work continuously for 24 hours aComputers can work continuously for 24 hours a
Computers can do some jobs that would beComputers can do some jobs that would be
impossible without them.impossible without them.
Computers can replace peopleComputers can replace people
Computers holds personal informationComputers holds personal information
which may be misused.which may be misused.
Problems arise when computers cannotProblems arise when computers cannot
be used.be used.
Staff need to be trainedStaff need to be trained
That pass between the main processorThat pass between the main processor
and the other hardware.and the other hardware.
Control SignalControl Signal ::
include signals sent out by the maininclude signals sent out by the main
processor and the other hardware.processor and the other hardware.
Data Signals:Data Signals:
These are the groups of binaryThese are the groups of binary
digits that are used to representdigits that are used to represent
Types of computers by SizeTypes of computers by Size
Micro computersMicro computers
Mainframe ComputersMainframe Computers
Super ComputersSuper Computers
Mini ComputersMini Computers
Embedded ComputersEmbedded Computers
Micro ComputersMicro Computers
Are the computers that you are most likely toAre the computers that you are most likely to
encounter at home or in school and colleges.encounter at home or in school and colleges.
It consist of one or more input device ,outputIt consist of one or more input device ,output
device, memory and processor.device, memory and processor.
Types of Micro ComputersTypes of Micro Computers
Desktop ComputersDesktop Computers
Laptop and notebookLaptop and notebook
Personal Digital AssistantsPersonal Digital Assistants
Palmtop ComputersPalmtop Computers
Mainframe computersMainframe computers
Thousands of terminals attached to it.Thousands of terminals attached to it.
Larger mainframe computers carry outLarger mainframe computers carry out
250 million instructions per second.250 million instructions per second.
It Consist of multiple processors.It Consist of multiple processors.
Used large organizations such as banks,Used large organizations such as banks,
insurance companies, airlines andinsurance companies, airlines and
government department.government department.
Due to immense power they produceDue to immense power they produce
large amount of heat so its require airlarge amount of heat so its require air
DEC 10 etcDEC 10 etc
Largest category of computer, costingLargest category of computer, costing
millions of pounds.millions of pounds.
It is complex, large storage and advancedIt is complex, large storage and advanced
They are mostly used by scientific andThey are mostly used by scientific and
industrial research departments.industrial research departments.
Weather centreWeather centre
Stock ExchangeStock Exchange
Weapon designWeapon design
Mapping the surface of planets.Mapping the surface of planets.
Studying the neural network of brainStudying the neural network of brain
Preparing models of chemical systems.Preparing models of chemical systems.
Blue skyBlue sky
ASCI WhiteASCI White
Mini computersMini computers
Have a size , power and cost somewhereHave a size , power and cost somewhere
between those of microcomputers andbetween those of microcomputers and
It is much powerful then some of theIt is much powerful then some of the
mainframes still in use.mainframes still in use.
It is used by business institutes andIt is used by business institutes and
Embedded Computers orEmbedded Computers or
Is a single chip that perform the functions of aIs a single chip that perform the functions of a
central processing unitcentral processing unit
Many microprocessors makes areMany microprocessors makes are
Microcontrollers also called embedded.Microcontrollers also called embedded.
Embedded computers serve as the brain of aEmbedded computers serve as the brain of a
larger piece of machine.larger piece of machine.
Their software is stored in the computer’s own.Their software is stored in the computer’s own.
They serve as a personal computer but notThey serve as a personal computer but not
have a monitor, keyboard and mousehave a monitor, keyboard and mouse
Microwaves programmable ovensMicrowaves programmable ovens
Blood pressure monitorsBlood pressure monitors
Air bag sensorsAir bag sensors
Washing machinesWashing machines
Video recordersVideo recorders
Digital camerasDigital cameras
MP3 playersMP3 players
Car engine ControllersCar engine Controllers
Types of Computer by shapeTypes of Computer by shape
Analog Digital Hybrid
Analog computersAnalog computers
It provides continuous valueIt provides continuous value
It represents physical quantities in theIt represents physical quantities in the
form of wavesform of waves
It has no stateIt has no state
It has low memoryIt has low memory
It is difficult to useIt is difficult to use
It is used in engineering and scienceIt is used in engineering and science
Analog ClocksAnalog Clocks
Speed of the carSpeed of the car
Petrol StationsPetrol Stations
Digital computersDigital computers
It provides us discrete valuesIt provides us discrete values
It represent physical values with help ofIt represent physical values with help of
symbols or numberssymbols or numbers
It has two states ON and OFFIt has two states ON and OFF
It has big memoryIt has big memory
These are easy to useThese are easy to use
It is used in all field of lifeIt is used in all field of life
Hybrid ComputersHybrid Computers
These are combination of analog andThese are combination of analog and
digital computersdigital computers
Some part of processing is done in digitalSome part of processing is done in digital
and some part is done in analog.and some part is done in analog.
The measurement may then be convertedThe measurement may then be converted
into numbers and display in digital form.into numbers and display in digital form.