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Ch 1 information system

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Transcript of "Ch 1 information system"

1. 1. 11 Chapter # 1Chapter # 1 Information SystemInformation System
2. 2. 22 Data & InformationData & Information DATADATA  Collection of facts andCollection of facts and figuresfigures  Representation ofRepresentation of informationinformation  NumericNumeric AlphabeticAlphabetic AlphanumericAlphanumeric INFORMATIONINFORMATION  Processed andProcessed and meaningful form ofmeaningful form of data is informationdata is information  Reprocessed data toReprocessed data to get more resultsget more results
3. 3. 33 Data ExamplesData Examples  A set of names and addresses written onA set of names and addresses written on student’s admission formstudent’s admission form  A telephone conversation converted toA telephone conversation converted to electrical signals to be sent down theelectrical signals to be sent down the wireswires  A song written in sheet music so that it canA song written in sheet music so that it can be playedbe played
4. 4. 44 Information ProcessingInformation Processing  Is the organization, manipulation and distribution of informationIs the organization, manipulation and distribution of information  Example:Example:  The sorted data for those students in admission form which haveThe sorted data for those students in admission form which have taken computer subject.taken computer subject.  Listening the songsListening the songs  Reading a map from one place to otherReading a map from one place to other  What does the number 29061996 mean?What does the number 29061996 mean?  Is it:Is it:  A birthday? (29A birthday? (29thth June 1996)June 1996)  A bank account number?A bank account number?  A club membership number?A club membership number?  A telephone number?A telephone number?  Without processing or more information this data isWithout processing or more information this data is meaningless.meaningless.
5. 5. 55 Data ProcessingData Processing Input Process Data Collection Output
6. 6. 66 ProcessingProcessing Processing has various operationsProcessing has various operations  CalculationCalculation  AnalysisAnalysis  ComparisonComparison  ManipulationManipulation
7. 7. 77 The three stages of doing tasksThe three stages of doing tasks Input Process Output • Data is put into the information system. (INPUT) • The data is processed. (PROCESS) • Information comes out of the information system. (OUTPUT)
8. 8. 88 Manual information systemsManual information systems  We are all used to using manualWe are all used to using manual information systems.information systems.  An example of a manual informationAn example of a manual information system is a telephone directory.system is a telephone directory.
9. 9. 99 Manual information systemsManual information systems  All we need to know to find a person’sAll we need to know to find a person’s telephone number in the telephonetelephone number in the telephone book is their name and address.book is their name and address. (INPUT)(INPUT)  We look up the name and the addressWe look up the name and the address (PROCESS), and we find their(PROCESS), and we find their telephone number. (OUTPUT)telephone number. (OUTPUT)
10. 10. 1010 Manual information systemsManual information systems Input Process Output • Have the name and address. (INPUT) • Look up the name and address. (PROCESS) • Find the telephone number. (OUTPUT)
11. 11. 1111 Computerised informationComputerised information systemssystems  Computerised information systemsComputerised information systems have several advantages over manualhave several advantages over manual information systems.information systems.  These include:These include:  Greater flexibilityGreater flexibility  SpeedSpeed
12. 12. 1212 Examples of computerisedExamples of computerised information systemsinformation systems  DVLA – Driver Vehicle LicensingDVLA – Driver Vehicle Licensing AuthorityAuthority  The DVLA has a computerisedThe DVLA has a computerised database about every driver anddatabase about every driver and vehicle in the UK.vehicle in the UK.  This database can be used to findThis database can be used to find information about a vehicle or driverinformation about a vehicle or driver even if the data is incomplete.even if the data is incomplete.
13. 13. 1313 Advantages of computerisedAdvantages of computerised information systemsinformation systems  A single computer can store all theA single computer can store all the information needed.information needed.  By using several terminals differentBy using several terminals different people can access information at thepeople can access information at the same time.same time.  Information is not duplicated.Information is not duplicated.  Information can be transferred toInformation can be transferred to other computer systems easily.other computer systems easily.
14. 14. 1414 EncodingEncoding  To convert information or data into a formTo convert information or data into a form ready for processingready for processing Example:Example: Information about products is encodedInformation about products is encoded into bar codes which are then printed oninto bar codes which are then printed on products labels.products labels.
15. 15. 1515 DecodingDecoding  To convert data back to a form where itTo convert data back to a form where it can be understood.can be understood. Example:Example: On a school data file, the names of theOn a school data file, the names of the teachers are stored .teachers are stored .
16. 16. 1616 Data CollectionData Collection  Bringing together all the data for anBringing together all the data for an application and getting it ready forapplication and getting it ready for processing.processing.  In schools there is a admission form thatIn schools there is a admission form that filled completely and send admin back .filled completely and send admin back . Their details are typed into a computer viaTheir details are typed into a computer via a keyboard.a keyboard.
17. 17. 1717 Data CaptureData Capture  Means obtaining data for a ComputerMeans obtaining data for a Computer  Term is used in situations where a computerTerm is used in situations where a computer peripheral inputs the data automatically.peripheral inputs the data automatically. ExampleExample:: In examination candidate does a multiple choiceIn examination candidate does a multiple choice test by making a card with pencil in right places.test by making a card with pencil in right places. The card is read by a mark sensing device.The card is read by a mark sensing device.
18. 18. 1818 Information TechnologyInformation Technology  Uses Computing with high speed communication links toUses Computing with high speed communication links to spread information from one place to other.spread information from one place to other.  All types of equipment or programs that are used inAll types of equipment or programs that are used in processing informationprocessing information  World has become a global villageWorld has become a global village  Information can be communicated in any shape such asInformation can be communicated in any shape such as  PhotographsPhotographs  MoviesMovies  TextText  Digital diagramsDigital diagrams
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