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# 23 simulations

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### 23 simulations

1. 1. Chapter 23 1 Modeling  A model is a program which has been developed to copy the way a system works in real life.  It uses mathematical formulas and calculations to predict what is likely to happen based on data recorded about what actually did happen in the past.  A modeling is a set of equations which describes the behavior of process
2. 2. Chapter 23 2 Model Builder  You can develop and evaluate your own models or use the models that have already been set up to simulate a real life  Models include  Population growth  Supply and demand  Chemical reactions  Nutrient cycle  Carbon cycle  Nitrogen cycle
3. 3. Chapter 23 3 Expert System & Expert Builder  Expert System  Expert system are programs that mimic the intelligence of human expert in a specific field of knowledge.  Could be set up to give medical advice.  The computer is given a base of knowledge from the expert and then given the rules for processing.  Computer ask the questions similar to those the expert would ask and then comes to similar conclusion.  Expert Builder  That enables you to construct logical diagrams of your knowledge .  This software helps you to understand a problem more clearly
4. 4. Chapter 23 4 Simulations  A simulation is a software package that recreates or simulates a complex phenomena, environment, or experience in order to provide the user with a better understanding.  A simulation is interactive, and relies upon decisions made by the user, often in ‘real time’.  Simulation uses computer modelling in order to work.  The difference between a model and a simulation is that a simulation also uses something physical to mimic the system.
5. 5. Chapter 23 5 Simulations  Examples  Thrill ride simulator somewhere like Disneyland.  Another form of simulation is Virtual Reality.  Experiments in chemistry  Airline training  Traffic lights Systems  Nuclear physics experiments  Common uses of simulations include:  Computer games.  Flight simulators.  Economic models.  3D Engineering simulations.
6. 6. Chapter 23 6 Computer games  Computer games are simulations of various types of experience.  They have five elements:  Graphics (often 3D and sometimes incorporating Full Motion Video [FMV]).  Sound (including music and sound effects).  An interface (usually the keyboard or a joystick but also including the graphics, the menu, and the Artificial Intelligence [AI] incorporated into the game’s programming).  Game play (including fun and length of playability).  Scenario (the background to the game and any information or understanding that the player gathers during play).
7. 7. Chapter 23 7 Flight simulators  Flight simulators are used to train pilots how to fly.  They can also be used to test new aircraft before they are actually flown for the first time.  Flight simulators are expensive to buy but are much cheaper than actual aircraft.  A landing simulation with ice on the runway, thick fog and only one of the four engines working would really test the pilot’s ability
8. 8. Chapter 23 8 Economic models  Economic models are used by governments and businesses to see what would happen if changes occurred in the economy.  For example, the government might want to see what would happen if they changed the level of tax on fuel – Would prices increase? Would road haulage companies go out of business?
9. 9. Chapter 23 9 3D Engineering simulations  3D Engineering simulations can be used to design new products (e.g. cars) or to test existing products (e.g. Nuclear power stations, oil refineries, aircraft) in ways that would be too expensive or too dangerous to do in real life.  Simpler versions can also be used to help people to sell products (e.g. new kitchens), where potential buyers want to see what the finished product will look like.
10. 10. Chapter 23 10 Advantages of Models  No equipment is damaged  People aren't put in any danger  Expensive prototypes don't need to be built  Time can be sped up or slowed down  Models can be run and re-run over and over  Modifications can easily be made and re- tested quickly
11. 11. Chapter 23 11 Disadvantages of Models and Simulations  The results depend on how good the model is and how much data was used to create it in the first place.  Models and simulations can't ever completely re- create real-life situations.  Not every possible situation may have been included in the model.  The equipment and software are expensive to purchase.  Staff need to be trained how to use the software and equipment.