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  1. 1. For Portfolio, Programme, Project, Risk and Service Management Using PRINCE2™ to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects Applying the PRINCE2 project management method to support Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) Richard Tucker, PMP ICOR Partners, LLC White Paper September 2009
  2. 2. 2 Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects Abstract each agency to institute effective and efficient capital planning processes for This paper shows how the PRINCE2 project selecting, controlling, and evaluating their management method supports US Federal investments in IT projects. These projects government project managers as they represent the strategic investment in IT deliver IT investments while satisfying capital assets that define an agency’s Select Control requirements of the Clinger-Cohen Act and IT portfolio. Capital Planning and Investment Control. OMB requires each agency to institute Since enactment of the Clinger-Cohen Act effective capital planning. (CCA) in 1996, the US Federal government Evaluate requires its agencies to improve their The CCA references use of a three-phase management, oversight and control of cycle for capital asset management to investments in information technology. provide oversight of investment budgeting Central to the CCA is an obligation for and spending. First, by selecting IT capital agencies to select, control, and evaluate asset investments that will support core IT Investment Management Cycle their portfolio of IT projects in accordance mission functions performed by the Federal with the principles of Capital Planning and Government; Next, through controlling Investment Control (CPIC), an approach to The Control phase is an ongoing their projects effectively through the IT investment management referenced in investment management process designed application of best practices in project and the CCA. to monitor the progress of IT projects performance management; And then, by against budgeted cost, schedule, In the same year the CCA was signed into evaluating investment results through a performance goals, and expected mission effect, the UK government released demonstration that the return on benefits. The Control Phase helps to ensure PRINCE2™, a principles and themes based investment is supporting initial business that each investment is properly managed project management method designed to case objectives. CPIC links the strategic toward the intended objectives defined by provide direction and oversight of planning of mission attainment to the the investment’s business case. However, government/contractor projects. Project tactical performance of project delivery the Control process does not manage the managers can find it difficult to meet the and IT systems operations. The three investment project. The responsibility to requirements of CPIC while running a project. phases of CCA’s IT Investment define a project management governance Industry leading project management Management process are performed model is left to the agency and the project guides suggest one approach, contractors annually, and applied to IT investments manager. It is not defined by CPIC. have another, while investment oversight continuously, throughout the life of an groups within the agency reinforce the asset’s existence within the agency’s In the Evaluate phase, project outcomes additional requirements of CCA onto the IT portfolio. are measured, and systems are determined project team. to be fit for purpose. Performance results are assessed to: (1) identify needed Select, Control changes to products or systems to maintain Capital Planning and Evaluate optimal business operations; (2) measure the project’s effect on mission and strategic and Investment During the Select phase, the agency goals; and (3) continuously improve the agency’s investment management Control determines investment priorities according to their mission needs, and makes decisions processes based on lessons learned, self-assessments and benchmarking. The Information Technology Management about which technology initiatives (new Reform Act of 1996, commonly referred to and ongoing) they will fund for the next as the CCA, requires US Federal agencies to “identify and collect information fiscal year. The Select Phase determines which projects are to be included in the The Challenges regarding best practices” for managing IT related projects. The CCA identifies the agency’s IT portfolio for the coming year. Projects identified as significant to the of CPIC government’s approach to information mission (a major investment) must include Interpretation of the CCA and CPIC has technology investment management as a comprehensive business case that led to conflicting and competing solutions Capital Planning and Investment Control supports the IT portfolio selection process. to satisfy its many requirements. OMB (CPIC). Specifically, the CCA, through continues to amend their supporting oversight from the President’s Office of Circular A-11, which keeps agencies’ Management and Budget (OMB), requires reporting requirements a moving target.
  3. 3. Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects 3 Agency responses to these changes are when CPIC reporting is a pre-defined of CPIC while controlling and delivering the often seen as adjustments in the project output designed into the project method, project. You must use a method that defines management processes and tools used to CPIC becomes integral with the other daily how and when to apply project management control the investment. Such a response management and decision-making processes and techniques. The method weakens an agency’s ability to mature their activities of project management. must be scalable to the size of the project management practices. Instead, investment, and it must define governance, agencies should continue to develop and Additional challenges face government tools and techniques that can balance the mature their project methods and tools, project managers. The goals of CPIC are pulling forces that may exist between while adjusting reporting output to match focused on budget management, not government and contractor. PRINCE2 is a the OMB A-11 annual requirements. project management, which creates conflict de facto standard project management in tactical management objectives. IT method from the UK government. It is Practitioners often confuse the cyclical phases Investment Management support offices public domain, available for anyone to use of the CCA’s Select–Control–Evaluate as a within the agencies are tasked with collecting to manage a project, it can support the project management lifecycle, for example, and reporting financial information from many requirements of CCA and CPIC, and thinking that a project is in development the agency’s projects, while project it can be tailored to fit most any size project. activities only during the Control phase. managers focus on performance to cost This is inaccurate. The three phases of the and schedule milestones, earned value CPIC IT Investment Management lifecycle define the sequence of when budget and management, risk and issue status, and baseline change control logs. Too often, What is PRINCE2? investment management activities occur to the data and information that reports PRINCE2 is a structured project plan, monitor and report the progress of IT project status is gathered using tools and management method recommended for investment dollars. The “project” lifecycle techniques that are in contrast with the use on all projects commissioned by the UK of CPIC has a linear progression, from investment management reporting government. In 1989, the Central Computer Planning and Acquisition, to Management requirements of the CCA, CPIC and OMB. and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) of In-Use and Disposition. It starts when a the UK government first established PRINCE business need is first defined and IT systems (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) for planning activities warrant a new project initiative, then continues to product Finding a Solution controlling information systems projects, but the method soon realized a greater acquisition/development, systems operation (production), and then asset retirement. In to CPIC following. The UK Office of Government Commerce (OGC), continued development response to this, agencies should define Project managers are searching for a of the method into what is now PRINCE2 and operate an enterprise lifecycle governance model that can support both (2009). Improvements include greater management framework that integrates the day-to-day needs of project delivery clarity of seven principles that guide governance, processes and information into and the requirements of CPIC investment behavior of the project team as they perform, a decision model that includes the management reporting. While the PMI’s streamlining of the processes defined requirements of investment and acquisition Guide to the Project Management Body within the method, and instruction on how management, enterprise architecture of Knowledge® is clear in identifying to tailor PRINCE2 to suit most any project’s planning, project management office tools and techniques for performing needs. PRINCE2 has gained wide acceptance (PMO), IT systems operations and project management activities, it is by its throughout Europe and Africa, and is maintenance, and capital asset control. own admission “a guide rather than a quickly gaining popularity in North America. methodology”, and it is not designed to CPIC defines the activities of budget address compliance requirements, such and investment management. as those defined by CCA. To operate a project in a way that will achieve the ™ Project managers react to the oversight needs of CPIC, project managers must and governance of CPIC as a set of tasks utilize a method that supports sustainment and requirements that are in addition to of an investment business case, clearly their effort to running the project. This has identifies a governance process, and lends led to frustration while project mangers itself to regular reviews for “Go/No-Go” work to deliver their projects. Project decisions, as required by US government IT managers sometimes view CPIC reporting investment management budget cycles. as a “check the box” activity. Maintaining compliance to CPIC reporting can take Satisfying the requirements and objectives considerable effort if it is not integrated to of CPIC is not easy. However, with the right the project governance approach. However, project management method the project manager can easily achieve the requirements
  4. 4. 4 Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects Subsequent Final Pre Project Initiation Delivery Delivery Stage Stage(s) Stage PRINCE2 Stage-Gates for Controlling Project Delivery © Crown copyright 2007. Reproduced under licence from OGC. Figure 4.2 The development path of the business case – Section 4 Principles of PRINCE2 team managers, suppliers, and change control authority is clearly identified Learn from Experience PRINCE2 is an experiential process. PRINCE2 is a scalable method that you throughout the PRINCE2 method. The Performing regular lessons learned reviews can apply to projects of varying sizes and activities necessary for sponsoring, is a key activity to success with PRINCE2. types. The seven principles of PRINCE2 are directing and managing the project are While a project is, by definition, a unique universal in nature, they are self-validating not left to chance. endeavor, the approach to running a due to the many thousands of projects that project is based on repeatable themes, have used the method, and they empower Manage by Stages processes, and reusable tools. When the project management practitioner by A PRINCE2 project is managed in stages, starting a project, the project manager providing a confident approach to directing providing control points throughout the leverages the experiences of past projects, a project. project lifecycle. The project manager including reuse of approaches, performance plans, controls and progresses the project data for benchmarking metrics and targets, Business Justification using a stage-gate approach. A high-level defining work plans, and estimating cost PRINCE2 projects perform continuous project plan is supported by detailed stage and schedule milestones. justification of the investment’s objectives. plans. Tranches that extend beyond the Project goals are tied to the requirements horizon remain at a high level until Tailored to fit, PRINCE2 can best serve within the business case to validate that near-term work is completed to a degree and support a project regardless of size, the project continues to serve the needs of certainty that improves likelihood of the type, organization or culture. Adapting the of the organization. This guides a project investment achieving its goals and objectives. PRINCE2 project management approach team through the decision-making process to the situation ensures alignment of throughout the life of the project, which Management by Exception processes, tools and techniques, to best keeps progress moving toward defined Deviations experienced during a PRINCE2 support and govern the project, while business objectives. Even compulsory project are managed by exception by avoiding success through heroics or forced projects driven by legislative mandate developing plans to identify variance from compliance to process. PRINCE2 can be require justification of the alternative baseline. Tolerances for cost, schedule, right-sized to the complexity and nature of selected. PRINCE2 provides a governance quality, scope, risk and benefit are delegated the project environment. model for guiding an organization toward to the project management team, providing an effective solution. an efficient use of resources to deliver with PRINCE2’s use of principles based fewer interruptions. Decisions are made at project management directs the decision the right level, while issues outside of making process. The continued business justification of tolerance are escalated only when necessary. high-risk UK Government projects is scrutinized by the OGC using a peer Product Focused review Gateway™ process that is aligned to the way PRINCE2 supports A project exists to produce output, not The PRINCE2 Stages to perform activities. PRINCE2 focuses on the development and management of the business case. defining and delivering only those products and Process Areas that are within the scope of the project PRINCE2 is a process-based method mandate (charter). PRINCE2 uses a product Roles and Responsibilities breakdown structure to clarify the purpose, designed to direct, manage and deliver a PRINCE2 defines the roles and project to plan. The project team performs composition, source, type, and quality responsibilities of all stakeholders at all across seven defined process areas to expectations of a final solution that will stages and processes of the method. perform the many activities for delivering fulfill the business case, defined to satisfy Participation from investment oversight the objectives of the business case. PRINCE2’s the organization’s mission. board members, executive sponsors, the seven processes integrate with one another project board (team), the project manager, by following a stage-gate lifecycle framework.
  5. 5. Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects 5 This provides cadence to project quality, and product configuration stage plan is completed. The SB process is management activities, directing results management are all supported by PRINCE2. again used to report and close the stage, toward pre-defined goals, and success. Techniques from other industry-popular and then subsequent Delivery Stages in project management guides easily integrate the project plan repeat the CS and MP In the Pre-project Stage, the investment’s with the processes of PRINCE2 to monitor processes to continue solution fulfillment. business objectives are determined by and control the investment. performing the activities in the Starting up The Final Delivery Stage completes a Project (SU) process. The business As the Initiation Stage completes, the activities from the CS and MP processes justifications for the investment are determined, Managing a Stage Boundary (SB) process during this last phase of the project. Then, scope is defined, and alternatives are calls for the project manager to plan the using the Closing a Project (CP) process, analyzed. Through performance of the SU next stage of the project. The project the project manager performs final product process, the business case is established, manager performs a business case review, acceptance testing, resolves or retires open readying the project team to obtain updates the project plan, and reports risks and issues, reviews the investment’s authority to proceed with the investment. status of the investment to the project performance to baseline, conducts a board. benefits realization review, and then In the Directing a Project (DP) process, recommends the project for closure to the the project is reviewed and approved by Subsequent Delivery Stages follow executive investment review board. an executive review board to place the the Controlling a Stage (CS) process. CS investment in the IT portfolio. DP processes provides guidance to the project manager manage the business case for the duration of the project lifecycle by providing senior- to authorize work to the project resources, monitor and report progress, manage risks Seven Themes of level oversight of the investment’s progress. and issues, then take corrective action on variances to the plan. The project board PRINCE2 The Initiation Stage continues the DP delegates day-to-day team activities and Project management provides little value process to provide regular oversight and ad decisions to progress the project on a unless it is performed with predefined hoc direction of project activities. Upon stage-by-stage basis. Activities of the CS intent. PRINCE2 identifies seven themes approval to proceed with the investment, the process assigns work to team members that are linked to project management. Initiating a Project (IP) process establishes a to ensure that they remain focused on Each of the seven themes in the PRINCE2 solid foundation for achieving project delivering the products and goals of the method remains in effect during the entire success through the identification of project project plan. The Managing Product (MP) project lifecycle. They are referenced objectives and business benefits. IP also Delivery process provides direction to the according to a predetermined workflow instructs the team to tailor project plans team members. As products are delivered, of the method to minimize risk, and to and invoke governance over project achievement to design specification is heighten the quality of team performance activities. Plans to control communications, assured; the business case is reviewed and results. scope, cost and schedule, risks and issues, for relevance to mission, and then the Subsequent Final Pre Project Initiation Delivery Delivery Stage Stage(s) Stage Directing DP SU SB SB CP Managing IP CS CS Delivering MP MP The PRINCE2 Stage-Gate Management Model © Crown copyright 2007. Reproduced under licence from OGC. Figure 11.1 The PRINCE2 Processes – Section 11
  6. 6. 6 Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects Business Case Quality Risk A project initiates with a need to drive The criteria under which project products Risk management is a key tenet of transformation through an organization are verified and accepted must be PRINCE2. It identifies, assesses, and to fulfill new or evolving mission established early in the project lifecycle. controls uncertainty that may affect project requirements. The business case defines PRINCE2 applies the tenets of quality outcome. Risk planning starts early in the why a project exists. PRINCE2 uses the management at the start, where they PRINCE2 method, where it is first used to business case to carry requirements are central to project delivery, making mitigate project threats while initiating the through to fulfillment, while maintaining the final product fit for purpose. This project. Where other project management the project team’s focus on objectives. supports achievement of desired benefits standards offer a model for managing risk, defined by the business case. A robust PRINCE2 defines the procedures, tools, and Organization quality management approach reduces techniques for performing the risk process. The PRINCE2 method defines roles and the likelihood of discovering product responsibilities at multiple levels for performance issues when it is too late. Change directing, managing and delivering a Since change is inevitable for almost any project. A PRINCE2 project’s organization Plans project, controlling variance to plan must structure includes the executive oversight, A plan is not just a schedule, but also a be included in the management approach project board, program sponsorship, senior holistic approach to governance. PRINCE2 for maintaining the project baseline. users, suppliers, team managers, support projects follow defined and approved PRINCE2 identifies an approach to change staff, and project assurance personnel. plans that integrate requirements, cost, control that addresses issues that enter Projects must often share resources with schedule, quality, risk, roles, resources, the project plan. PRINCE2 integrates other parts of an organization. Clear and communications. Performance to plan change control of the project lifecycle identification of the extended project is measured in each stage of the project. phase to configuration management of the team reduces confusion and minimizes Exception Plans define deviation from operations and maintenance phase. conflicting demands on staff as they serve baseline, which are integrated into the multiple requirements across the business. master plan to steer performance back Progress toward cost, schedule and quality goals. The PRINCE2 method establishes mechanisms to monitor, compare, review, and report actual performance to baseline objectives. Risks are mitigated, while Business quality issues and problems are addressed and corrected. Upon successful completion Case of scheduled goals, the next stage plan is authorized, progressing the project toward completion. Numerous reporting templates are defined by PRINCE2, that include Progress Organization definitions of each report’s contents and use, all supported by the various processes within the method. PRINCE2 The Capital Change Processes Quality Planning Lifecycle of CPIC So, let’s go back. The Clinger-Cohen Act directs agencies to manage their IT budgets by measuring the return on investment Risk Plans using a Select-Control-Evaluate process. CCA also directs OMB to perform oversight of agency IT spending. In response to CCA, OMB recommends that agencies apply planning, acquisition, management, and disposition lifecycle controls to their major The PRINCE2 Themes Support Performance
  7. 7. Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects 7 Integrated Project Team Business Planning Management IT System Acquisition Disposition Requirement & Budgeting In-use Retirement IT Investment Management Cycle Select Control Evaluate The Capital Planning Lifecycle IT projects. Simply put, each agency must assurance and control, and other project proposed budget to OMB during the Select have a defined plan for buying, building, management techniques. However, these phase. Approved through the President’s operating and retiring their IT assets, and are only broad brushstrokes of guidance for budget, the initiative receives funding from they are accountable to report project the project manager. The CPG does not Congress to become a sanctioned project status timely and accurately. define a project management method that ready for acquisition. must exist beneath these phases. So then, OMB annually releases Circular A-11, how can project managers lead their Quality and risk management are central to a budget management directive that projects toward success while meeting the PRINCE2, initiated during the Starting up a requires agencies to report their annual requirements of CPIC? Project and the Directing a Project IT budget (using the Exhibit 53 form) and processes of the Pre-project stage. The report progress toward goals within the Planning and Budgeting PRINCE2 method supports the CPIC business case of each major IT project The CPG’s objectives of the Planning and Planning and Budgeting phase through (using the Exhibit 300 form). However, Budgeting phase are designed to support IT development of the project business case. A-11 does not define, nor prescribe, investment decision-making. Alignment of The project manager justifies the business a project management method or strategic planning to project performance case to ensure that the investment is approach for tactically controlling and goals is determined by utilizing an agency- planning to build the right product, is delivering the project. Circular A-11 is level enterprise architecture plan. An fulfilling the right business need, and that the only a process for reporting status of the Integrated Project Team (IPT) is established final products will serve the organization’s budgeted and funded investments. to manage the project. The IPT formulates mission. Once the business case is reviewed a clear definition of system functional and accepted by the investment board, the OMB provides agencies additional project is authorized to proceed to the requirements, performs an analysis of direction in their A-11, Part 7 Supplement: Initiation Stage. alternatives to select the best technology Capital Programming Guide (CPG). The solution, and establishes operating and objective of the CPG is to show agencies reporting baselines. They must apply PRINCE2 keeps a focus on the business how project management activities relate risk management techniques to reduce case to maintain IT business value. to IT investment management. It helps to the chance for incurring costs associated answer the question, “Will this with delivery failure, and integrate earned CPIC’s requirement for EVM necessitates investment drive transformation of the value management (EVM) into the a “deliverables-based” work breakdown business toward the agency’s mission?” contract acquisition strategies. The agency structure to define project scope. During The CPG defines a Capital Planning implements an executive review process the PRINCE2 Initiation stage, the product Lifecycle: a four-phased approach to IT to oversee investment performance and breakdown structure becomes the investment management. The lifecycle adjust the investment as the needs of the framework for managing solution delivery. identifies strategies to achieve greater mission change over time. Activities of the PRINCE2 Directing a service delivery and move program effectiveness toward mission goals. The Project process establish oversight and Upon completion of a comprehensive governance to lead investment plans CPG recommends use of risk management, planning effort to define an integrated earned value management, quality toward mission goals. project plan, the agency presents its
  8. 8. 8 Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects PRINCE2 Stage-Gate Project Management Subsequent Final Pre Project Initiation Delivery Delivery Stage Stage(s) Stage Integrated Project Team Planning Management Disposition Acquisition & Budgeting In-use IT Investment Management Cycle Select Control Evaluate PRINCE2 Project Management for CPIC Acquisition and actual results of both government decision. The ERC recommends corrective In the Acquisition phase of the Capital and contractor resources applied toward action plans where necessary to keep Planning Lifecycle, the project team development activities. Once the integrated the project moving toward its strategic validates decisions and objectives from the project plan is approved by the ERC, a and mission goals. Solution acceptance Planning and Budgeting phase. The team baseline is recorded as the project plan. activities of the Acquisition phase include re-examines the mission needs to affirm a complete review of delivered products The Control phase of CPIC is used to measure to affirm that they meet all requirements investment justifications in the business and improve investment performance. It and objectives defined by the business case to determine a “build versus buy” instructs project managers to perform case. Product quality reviews, system acquisition strategy. The IPT addresses regular monitoring of product development testing, and recording IT assets into a acquisition risks, and then the project is progress, cost, schedule and performance configuration management baseline also initiated. Teams are established, contract variance, review of scope within the work happen. Any product deviations discovered support secured, and then development breakdown structure, and assessment of during solution acceptance are addressed activities of the Acquisition phase commence. risk to the investment. Change control must through rework or an accepted variance to An Executive Review Committee (ERC) be applied to maintain progress toward plan. Additionally, contract performance assesses the project team’s plan for contractual scope. Investment control and requirements are assessed to determine the solution delivery. Following a successful oversight is in the hands of the project contractor’s success to the cost, schedule procurement, the IPT operates project manager during the Control phase. Periodic and performance goals of the contract. governance that integrates scope, cost, status reports are brought to the ERC. schedule and quality into a comprehensive PRINCE2 uses a stage-gated approach to As part of the CPIC Evaluate Phase, the project management approach. EVM controlling project progress. IPT and ERC conduct reviews of project is used to monitor and control planned progress to reaffirm the acquisition
  9. 9. Using PRINCE2 to Manage US Federal Government IT Projects 9 The PRINCE2 Controlling a Stage process In Summary continues to provide justification of Acquisition phase activities performed Since introduction of the Clinger-Cohen Author during Subsequent Delivery Stages. The Act in 1996, agency CIOs and project Richard Tucker is a management PRINCE2 processes provide oversight of managers across the US Federal consultant with more than 20 years of product development activities, guiding government have been working to improve experience in IT project management the project team as they fulfill business their IT investment management practices. and Federal capital investment case requirements. The project manager The OMB A-11, Part 7 Supplement: Capital management. He provides practical conducts a review of the investment’s Programming Guide provides project knowledge and advice to US Federal status to the detailed business case. Impact managers guidance on the four phases of agencies and departments. He is a assessments are performed on any new the Capital Planning Lifecycle, while certified PRINCE2 Practitioner and or existing risks and issues. The project oversight performed using Capital Planning a Project Management Professional manager assesses progress towards cost, and Investment Control monitors the value (PMP). He is an active member of the time, quality and benefit goals. Exception returned from the dollars invested in IT Federal CPIC Forum and contributor to plans are introduced to address and correct assets. However, without a project delivery numerous online communities where variances to baselines. The project manager method that supports the control and he shares his interest and experiences in reviews completed work packages against reporting requirements of CCA and CPIC, project management methodology and defined specifications. Configuration teams continue to struggle to operate tools implementation. records and stage plans are updated upon projects that exhibit best practices that Richard Tucker, PMP acceptance. Then, following the Managing produce the right measures required by OMB. Certified PRINCE2 Practitioner a Stage Boundary process at the end of Best practices defined in commercially ICOR Partners, LLC each Delivery Stage, the Project Board driven project management guides fail to authorizes continuation to the next stage provide an approach that connects project plan for the project. management methods to the IT portfolio results defined by CPIC business cases. Trademarks and Management In Use Acknowledgements and Disposition In contrast PRINCE2 is a scalable and proven • PRINCE2™ is a Trade Mark of the Office Once the IT system goes into production, project management method, having of Government Commerce. the Evaluate Phase of CPIC prescribes that supported government and commercial • The swirl logo™ is a Trade Mark of the the project manager performs regular projects for more than two decades. It Office of Government Commerce. Operational Analysis (OA) to measure supports continuous justification of the IT investment by focusing on sustainment of • PRINCE2 content, diagrams and logo’s investment performance to predefined the business case, driving results to the are correct at time of going to press but goals, and to determine, measure and organization’s mission. may be subject to change without notice. report on the return on investment. Operational Analysis requires regular • PRINCE® is a Registered Trade Mark of monitoring of achievement toward original PRINCE2 is scalable to the enterprise, has no the Office of Government Commerce in business objectives. Performance goal cost to use and supports US government the United Kingdom and other countries baselines are defined, thresholds set and IT Investment Management controls. For Further Information: measurements taken to improve service over time while driving operational costs down. The processes of PRINCE2 are scalable to This continues until the asset is taken out of suit various sized projects, ranging from service (retired) during the Disposition Phase. only thousands of dollars to those that are tens of millions in scope. Project team Management in Use involves post project performance is governed through stage- operations of the IT system. To enter this Our White Paper series should not be taken gated project plans, measuring progress of phase of the Capital Planning lifecycle, the as constituting advice of any sort and no product delivery, not activities. Most delivered IT solution must meet the defined liability is accepted for any loss resulting important, PRINCE2 defines the roles of requirements of PRINCE2’s Product from use of or reliance on its content. stakeholders, the project board and Descriptions. The IT solution must also While every effort is made to ensure the delivery teams. It establishes governance, perform to the objectives of the business accuracy and reliability of the information, process and controls to bring the case. The PRINCE2 Managing Product TSO cannot accept responsibility for errors, investment from concept to fulfillment of Delivery (MP) and Closing a Project (CP) omissions or inaccuracies. the mission objectives, all the while processes ensure that the project has met improving the project management its requirements and is ready to enter the Content, diagrams, logos and jackets are practices of the agency. final phases of the Capital Planning lifecycle. correct at time of going to press but may be subject to change without notice.