Energy Conservation For Consumers, and large electric systems BY KHALED M.ABO-AL-EZ 3204220 PhD student ECE dept UNB
What is Energy Conservation?
Energy Conservation at the consumer side
Energy Conservation by solving power system problems using artificial intelligence techniques
Energy Conservation & Energy Efficiency
Reduce energy demand to reasonable minimum
Recover and re-use heat where possible
Use energy efficient equipment to supply remaining energy demand
Integrate energy systems where possible
Provide a means to manage use of energy
intelligent computer driven systems in the area of energy conservation of electric networks
How can energy efficiency be achieved or improved at the consumer side?
‘ Good Housekeeping’ in facility operations
(for example the laundry machines with single phase motors which can be used as 3 phase and save a lot of energy)
Location, Design & Construction of energy saving devices.
Application of Technology
Designed-in for new-build facilities
Retro- / Refitting & refurbishment at added cost
Energy efficiency technology at the consumer side
Building energy Management Systems (BEMS)
Time switches & Optimizers
Timed control of heat demand & plant
Optimizer controls running time in relation to internal and external temperature
Thermostatic heating controls
Heating plant and radiator valves
Pool hall ventilation efficiency
Payback < 1 yr
Appropriate use of:
Tungsten filament lights – low-use areas
compact fluorescents – general areas
Tungsten halogen spotlights – display areas
Narrow diameter tubular fluorescents – corridors, staff areas
High pressure sodium floodlights – pool & sports halls (nb colour appearance)
Savings 8-50% Payback 1-6 yrs
Ventilation & Heating
Medium to high investment required
in relation to acceptable humidity levels (<65%)
100% fresh air or Partial recirculation
The pros & cons?
Heat recovery applications
Variable speed fans (supply / extract)
High efficiency & condensing boilers
Combined Heat & Power (CHP)
Savings Up to 20% Payback 3-5 yrs
Run Around Coils
Versatile & suits retro-fit
Recovers up to 60% heat energy
Cross Flow Heat Exchangers
Ventilation or water applications
Up to 75% heat recovery
Recovers up to 75% of heat
Savings 20-40% Payback 3-5 yrs
Building Fabric & Insulation
Roof space reduction
Choice and position of glazing to minimise solar gain
Double glazing of windows to reduce heat loss
Thermal insulation of roof and wall spaces
Thermal insulation of pipe work & ducting
Medium level of investment costs
Reduce convective and evaporative heat loss
Allow ventilation to be reduced
Combined with humidistat to enhance efficiency
Savings 10-30% Payback 1.5 – 3 yrs
(electric) Heat pumps
Collects sensible & latent heat as water first evaporates and then condenses, using reduced pressure and temperature
Transfers heat to incoming air
(gas-powered) Desiccant wheel
Absorbs moisture on ‘honeycomb matrix’,later evaporated & discharged to atmosphere
Reduces need to ventilate
Savings Up to 40% Payback 3 – 5 yrs
Building Energy Management System
High investment costs
Central processor linked to sensors and controls around the building
Operator-programmed & interactive
Seasonal and other ‘strategies’ for energy management
Reports aid monitoring and control
Requires training and technical support
INTELLIGENT SOLUTIONS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION PROBLEMS OF THE ELECTIC NETWORKS
Energy Conservation has become an important problem during the last years, in most of the countries.
The general belief is that it is economically better to reduce energy loss and waste than increasing costs in generation and transmission systems.
Energy conservation is at the same time a technical and a conscience problem.
At the technical side, a number of problems can be successfully approached through intelligent systems for the purposes of energy management and conservation. Intelligent Techniques are having a growing impact on the electricity sector.
Intelligent System Applications in the electricity sector for electrical energy management and conservation
A new generation of intelligent computing techniques is entering the electricity sector.
These techniques include neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and expert systems.
In the electricity sector, intelligent techniques are being applied to :
optimal capacitor placement,
economic load dispatch… etc,
and in many cases are outperforming traditional methods.
The areas of electricity sector for electrical energy management and conservation
Intelligent Techniques and their properties
Energy conservation should be a priority for everyone nowadays.
For large organizations, electrical energy savings are even more relevant because their bills are bigger and their usage is greater.
Finding ways to deal smartly with facilities and household equipments will have a great impact in Houses and buildings.
The effects of these intelligent computer driven systems will
The effect of AI methods will soon become clear in the area of energy conservation as they become commercial products.
Figueredo, et. al., Intelligent Solutions to Energy Conservation Problems, http://www.ica.ele.puc/rio.br/publicacoes