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  1. 1. Energy Conservation For Consumers, and large electric systems BY KHALED M.ABO-AL-EZ 3204220 PhD student ECE dept UNB
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is Energy Conservation? </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Conservation at the consumer side </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Conservation by solving power system problems using artificial intelligence techniques </li></ul>
  3. 3. Energy Conservation & Energy Efficiency <ul><li>Reduce energy demand to reasonable minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Recover and re-use heat where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Use energy efficient equipment to supply remaining energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate energy systems where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a means to manage use of energy </li></ul><ul><li>intelligent computer driven systems in the area of energy conservation of electric networks </li></ul>
  4. 4. How can energy efficiency be achieved or improved at the consumer side? <ul><li>‘ Good Housekeeping’ in facility operations </li></ul><ul><li>(for example the laundry machines with single phase motors which can be used as 3 phase and save a lot of energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Location, Design & Construction of energy saving devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed-in for new-build facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retro- / Refitting & refurbishment at added cost </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Energy efficiency technology at the consumer side <ul><li>Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Heating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Pool Covers </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumidification </li></ul><ul><li>Building energy Management Systems (BEMS) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Controls <ul><li>Occupancy sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Time switches & Optimizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timed control of heat demand & plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizer controls running time in relation to internal and external temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermostatic heating controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating plant and radiator valves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humidistat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pool hall ventilation efficiency </li></ul></ul>Payback < 1 yr
  7. 7. Lighting <ul><li>Appropriate use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tungsten filament lights – low-use areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compact fluorescents – general areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tungsten halogen spotlights – display areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow diameter tubular fluorescents – corridors, staff areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High pressure sodium floodlights – pool & sports halls (nb colour appearance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic starters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflectors </li></ul></ul>Savings 8-50% Payback 1-6 yrs
  8. 8. Ventilation & Heating <ul><li>Medium to high investment required </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ventilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in relation to acceptable humidity levels (<65%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100% fresh air or Partial recirculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pros & cons? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat recovery applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable speed fans (supply / extract) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High efficiency & condensing boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Modular boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Heat & Power (CHP) </li></ul>Savings Up to 20% Payback 3-5 yrs
  9. 9. Heat Recovery <ul><li>Run Around Coils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Versatile & suits retro-fit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovers up to 60% heat energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross Flow Heat Exchangers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation or water applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 75% heat recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermal Wheels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovers up to 75% of heat </li></ul></ul>Savings 20-40% Payback 3-5 yrs
  10. 10. Building Fabric & Insulation <ul><li>Roof space reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Choice and position of glazing to minimise solar gain </li></ul><ul><li>Double glazing of windows to reduce heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal insulation of roof and wall spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal insulation of pipe work & ducting </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pool Covers <ul><li>Medium level of investment costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce convective and evaporative heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Allow ventilation to be reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with humidistat to enhance efficiency </li></ul>Savings 10-30% Payback 1.5 – 3 yrs
  12. 12. Dehumidification <ul><li>(electric) Heat pumps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects sensible & latent heat as water first evaporates and then condenses, using reduced pressure and temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers heat to incoming air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(gas-powered) Desiccant wheel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs moisture on ‘honeycomb matrix’,later evaporated & discharged to atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces need to ventilate </li></ul></ul>Savings Up to 40% Payback 3 – 5 yrs
  13. 13. Building Energy Management System <ul><li>High investment costs </li></ul><ul><li>Central processor linked to sensors and controls around the building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator-programmed & interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal and other ‘strategies’ for energy management </li></ul><ul><li>Reports aid monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><li>Requires training and technical support </li></ul>
  14. 14. INTELLIGENT SOLUTIONS TO ENERGY CONSERVATION PROBLEMS OF THE ELECTIC NETWORKS <ul><li>Energy Conservation has become an important problem during the last years, in most of the countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The general belief is that it is economically better to reduce energy loss and waste than increasing costs in generation and transmission systems. </li></ul>
  15. 15. AI Techniques <ul><li>Energy conservation is at the same time a technical and a conscience problem. </li></ul><ul><li>At the technical side, a number of problems can be successfully approached through intelligent systems for the purposes of energy management and conservation. Intelligent Techniques are having a growing impact on the electricity sector. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Intelligent System Applications in the electricity sector for electrical energy management and conservation <ul><li>A new generation of intelligent computing techniques is entering the electricity sector. </li></ul><ul><li>These techniques include neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and expert systems. </li></ul><ul><li>In the electricity sector, intelligent techniques are being applied to : </li></ul><ul><li>load forecasting, </li></ul><ul><li>optimal capacitor placement, </li></ul><ul><li>economic load dispatch… etc, </li></ul><ul><li>and in many cases are outperforming traditional methods. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The areas of electricity sector for electrical energy management and conservation
  18. 18. Intelligent Techniques and their properties
  19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>Energy conservation should be a priority for everyone nowadays. </li></ul><ul><li>For large organizations, electrical energy savings are even more relevant because their bills are bigger and their usage is greater. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding ways to deal smartly with facilities and household equipments will have a great impact in Houses and buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of these intelligent computer driven systems will </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of AI methods will soon become clear in the area of energy conservation as they become commercial products. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_of_energy </li></ul><ul><li>hes.lbl.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Figueredo, et. al., Intelligent Solutions to Energy Conservation Problems, http://www.ica.ele.puc/rio.br/publicacoes </li></ul>