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Management Process

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  • 1. REC 375: Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI Assistant Professor Parks and Recreation Management UNC-Wilmington
  • 2. Management and the Management Process REC 375—Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services
  • 3. Why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices?
    • To get the most out of our time and performance
    • To get the most out of our employees
    • To have our organization run effectively and efficiently
    • To compensate for any reduction in tax support, investments and consumer spending
  • 4. Why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices?, continued
    • To increase our ability to compete for the remaining tax dollars, investment dollars and consumer dollars
    • To obtain our personal and organizational goals and objectives
  • 5. What do we mean by a “Leisure Service Organization?”
    • Public Organization
    • Private/Membership Organization
    • Private/Non-Profit Organization
    • Commercial/Entrepreneurial
  • 6. Goals of Leisure Service Organizations will vary accordingly to meet the needs, desires and expectations of the organization’s constituents and customers
  • 7. Types of Leisure Service Organizations
    • Service Organizations—Scouts, YMCA, YWCA
    • Economic Organizations—Spas, Resorts, Health Clubs, Bowling Centers
    • Religious Organizations—Church Camps, Church Recreation
    • Governmental Organizations—Local, State and Federal Parks
    • Social Organizations—Country Clubs, Tennis Associations
  • 8. Small Group Exercise
    • Define “Management”
    • Define “Administration”
    • What is the primary purpose/duty of a manager?
    • What is it that successful managers do?
    • What roles do managers play?
  • 9. Defining Management
    • Working with and through individuals, groups, and other resources to accomplish organizational goals and objectives
  • 10. Defining Management, continued
    • A process of planning , organizing , directing and controlling organizational behaviors to accomplish a mission through division of labor and utilization of resources
  • 11. Successful Managers Are Able To:
    • Provide direction
    • Make and implement decisions
    • Identify trends
    • Recognize problems
    • Utilize opportunities
    • Manage and Resolve conflict
    • Audit poor performance
    • Reward excellent performance
    • Lead the organization to its goals
  • 12. Managerial Functions
    • The essence of management and managerial work is to make decisions and see that they are carried out!!!!
      • DECISION-MAKING
      • INFLUENCING
  • 13. Available Resources
    • Human Resources
    • Financial Resources
    • Physical Resources
    • Informational Resources
  • 14. Available Resources, continued
    • A manager must use human resources in the best interest of the organization, without creating dissatisfied employees and customers. The achievement of this dual goal is difficult to obtain—why?
      • Different skills and abilities
      • Different physical characteristics
      • Different interests and aptitudes
      • Different levels of aspiration and motivation
  • 15. In accomplishing his/her duties, a manager performs four (4) basic tasks—makes 4 types of decisions about the organizational resources
  • 16. Types of Decisions
    • Planning Decisions
    • Organizing Decisions
    • Directing Decisions
    • Controlling Decisions
  • 17. Planning Defined
    • A systematic process of reaching a desired state by establishing goals and formulating strategies to achieve them
      • Operational Planning
      • Strategic Planning
  • 18. Planning Decisions
    • Anticipates the future, sets goals and objectives and identifies the actions necessary for the organization to attain these goals and objectives
    • Determining where you want to go and how and when you’re going to get there
    • It involves specifying a target, a path or route to be followed and a time schedule for achieving that target
  • 19. Planning Decisions, continued
    • SETTING GOALS
    • DETERMINING PATHS
    • SCHEDULING
    • Effective managers set clear-cut plans, realistic time schedules and allow for contingencies
  • 20. Organizing Defined
    • The process of structuring and coordinating an organization’s resources to carry out the strategies formulated in the planning phase effectively and efficiently
    • Stated simply, determining what needs to be done and who is to do it
  • 21. Organizing Decisions
    • Develops a structure of interrelated tasks and allocates resources within this structure which leads to the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives
  • 22. Organizing Decisions, continued
    • Organizing decisions involve two types
      • Decisions made to set up the structure and design of the organization (Formal Organizational Chart)
      • Decisions made to assign resources
  • 23. Organizing Decisions, continued
    • Organizing decisions affecting structure and design include:
      • Determining the number and type of departments
      • Determining the number and type of management levels
      • The issue of accountability
      • The issue of scope of responsibility
  • 24. Organizing Decisions, continued
    • Organizing decisions affecting the assignment of resources include:
      • Job Descriptions
      • Budgets
  • 25. Organizing Decisions, continued
    • DETERMINING STRUCTURE AND DESIGN
    • ALLOCATING RESOURCES
  • 26. Directing Defined
    • The process of directing and motivating all involved parties to help achieve the organization’s goals effectively and efficiently
  • 27. Directing Decisions
    • Provide encouragement and guidance of employee’s efforts toward attaining the organizational goals and objectives
    • Can also be called “staffing decisions” or “motivating decisions” or “leading decisions”
    • Involve personnel issues or human resource issues
  • 28. Directing Decisions, continued
    • Directing/Staffing/Motivating/Leading decisions include:
      • Recruiting
      • Selecting
      • Hiring
      • Wages and Salaries
      • Training and Development
      • Health and Retirement Benefits
  • 29. Directing Decisions, continued
    • LEADERSHIP STYLES
    • COMMUNICATION
    • MOTIVATION AND INCENTIVES
    • COACHING AND COUNSELING
  • 30. Controlling Defined
    • The process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations
  • 31. Controlling Decisions
    • Evaluates the performance of an organization and its units to see whether the organization is progressing in the desired direction, and taking corrective action when and where necessary
    • Making sure what you want to happen does indeed happen!
  • 32. Controlling Decisions, continued
    • Effective managers control without being oppressive
    • Effective managers instill a spirit of self-control in subordinates so that the burden of preying managerial eyes does not rest heavily on the shoulders of the subordinates
  • 33. Controlling Decisions, continued
    • THE QUALITY AND QUANITY OF CONTROLLING DECISIONS DEPENDS A GREAT DEAL ON THE QUALITY OF PREVIOUSLY MADE PLANNING, ORGANIZING AND DIRECTING DECISIONS
    • The better the planning, organizing and directing, the better will be controlling!
  • 34. Controlling Decisions, continued
    • Ineffective managers obtain short-term compliance through control at the expense of long-term commitment, which can only be obtained by planning, organizing and directing!!!!!
  • 35. Controlling Decisions, continued
    • MONITORING AND FEEDBACK
    • EVALUATION AND ADJUSTMENT
    • CORRECTIVE DISCIPLINE
    • PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  • 36. Managerial Skills Mix
    • Human Skills
    • Conceptual Skills
    • Technical Skills
    • It is generally agreed that there are three primary areas of skills, knowledge and ability that a manager must process in order to successfully carry out the process of management
  • 37. Human Skills
    • Ability and judgment in working with and through people, including an understanding of motivation and an application of effective leadership, in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives
  • 38. Conceptual Skills
    • Ability to understand the complexities of the overall organization and where one’s own operation fits into the organization
    • Involves an understanding as to the manner in which each of the organization’s components fit together, in order to meet its goals and objectives
  • 39. Conceptual Skills, continued
    • Permits the manager to act according to the objectives of the total organization rather than only on the basis of the goals and objectives of one’s own immediate group
    • Further implies that the manager has an understanding of how his organization is affected by and relates to broader environmental factors
  • 40. Technical Skills
    • Ability to use knowledge, methods, techniques and equipment necessary for the performance of specific tasks acquired from experience, education and training
  • 41. Managerial Skills Mix, continued
    • According to a report by the American Management Association, the most important single skill of an executive is his or her ability to get along with people
  • 42. Quote From John D. Rockefeller
    • “ I will pay more for the ability to deal with people than any other ability under the sun”!!!!!
  • 43. Managerial Skills Mix Matrix
  • 44. Management Is:
    • FUNCTIONS
      • Decision-Making
      • Influence
    • SKILLS
      • Human
      • Conceptual
      • Technical
  • 45. Management Is:, continued
    • RESOURCES
      • Human
      • Financial
      • Physical
      • Informational
    • DECISION-MAKING
      • Planning
      • Organizing
      • Directing
      • Controlling
  • 46. The Management Process
    • Inputs Throughputs Outputs
    • Resources Decision-making Goals
    • Human Planning Profits
    • Financial Organizing Efficiency
    • Physical Directing Satisfied Clients
    • Informational Controlling Products/Service
  • 47. Managerial Skills Mix Exercise
  • 48. Management Decision-Making Exercise
  • 49. Management and the Management Process Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI UNCW [email_address] 910.962.3283

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