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  • 1. CS394 Strategic Program Planning Conduct #7: IT Architecture May 13, 2002
  • 2. Architecture Goals for Today
    • What is “Architecture”?
    • Why Do It?
    • “To Be” presentations
  • 3. Agenda IT Architectures & Middleware – 60-75 minutes Break Two Presentations Next Steps
  • 4. Agenda
    • IT Architectures & Middleware
      • What Is It and Why?
      • Process
      • Organizational Types
      • Personality Profile – Are you an Architect?
    • Break
    • Two Presentations
    • Next Steps
  • 5. The A-word is pretty flexible
    • Architecture as someone else’s problem
    • Architecture as an engineering discipline
    • Architecture as a sellable product
    • Architecture as a fine art
    • Architecture as a religion…
  • 6. IT Architecture – Lofty Definition What is Architecture? Architecture is that great living creative spirit which from generation to generation, from age to age, proceeds, persists, creates, according to the nature of man, and his circumstances as they change. That is architecture. - Frank Lloyd Wright, 1937 
  • 7. IT Architecture – Pragmatic Definition What is Architecture? [Architecture] is about making the link between business problems and IT Solutions. It is about turning a functional design into an implementation design, deciding how to divide the functionality across programs, choosing the best middleware technology, and defining the requirements for supporting infrastructure… - Chris Britton, 2001  
  • 8. IT Architecture – Pragmatic Definition What is that picture?
  • 9. IT Architecture – Pragmatic Definition ‘Architecture’ is over-used and has many dimensions
    • Narrow focus to wide focus
      • Consider a single project to considering all projects in an enterprise
    • Specific versus generic
      • One (specific) to many (generic)
      • Look for points in common
    • Detailed versus high-level
      • High-level – guidelines; Detailed – design specifications
      • Not always the same as enterprise-wide: you can have a detailed enterprise-wide network diagram
  • 10. IT Architecture – Pragmatic Objectives Bottom Line: the practice of “Architecture” saves money
    • Reduce Total Cost of Ownership
      • Teams buy great tools, without cross platform, cross-department sharing
      • Building tactically means tools are not leveraged – with proprietary results
    • Delivery On Time & Within Budget
      • Every project is a “maiden voyage”
      • Estimating models never developed
      • Software reuse will reduce development time
      • Infrastructure reuse will reduces deployment time
    • Common Skills and Alignment
      • Enterprise development standards
      • A limited set of platforms and a standard set of cross platform tools
  • 11. IT Architecture – Pragmatic Objectives … by Focusing on Implementation Design, or “Solutions”
    • The architect guides the implementation design
    • Enforce generic principles and patterns
    • ACROSS multiple projects
  • 12. IT Architecture – Challenges Political Environment, Participation, and Skills
    • Participate in the development process
      • Don’t “bolt-on” - organizational changes are inevitably needed
    • Identify the political environment you are in
      • “ Shelfware”
    • What makes an “Architect”?
      • Not skills, it’s a personality type
  • 13. Agenda
    • IT Architectures & Middleware
      • What Is It and Why?
      • Process
      • Organizational Types
      • Personality Profile – Are you an Architect?
    • Break
    • Two Presentations
    • Next Steps
  • 14. IT Architecture – Process First Steps – Build the Roadmap, Build the team
    • The Technology Roadmap
      • Iterative Approach - deliver value quickly
      • Strategic Intent and Technology Principles first
      • Leverage previous efforts to the optimal extent, validate and extend
    • Critical to Enforcement is the Solutions Team
    • Architecture & Standards helps teams balance business needs with constraints/advantages of the technology environment
      • Project funding decisions cannot be made without considering the effect on the enterprise architecture
      • What Teams?
  • 15. IT Architecture – Process How does architecture fit into the overall IT scheme?
    • The core process flow begins with Client Management flowing through to Technology Delivery of a new system or a maintenance release of an existing system
    • Project Management Office, Technology Operations and IT Asset Management Services are supporting functions
      • The PMO supports the execution of the portfolio of projects, ensuring alignment of new initiatives with the transformation program, providing reporting and tracking services to management, and driving consistency in IT practices
      • The Technology Operations supports the production environments, along with the development and testing environments within the Development Services area
      • IT Asset Management Services provides the support for assets, contracts, vendors, and cost accounting
    Development Services Technology Delivery Technology Operations Program Management Office Planning and Technology Client Management IT Asset Management Services
  • 16. IT Architecture – Process How does architecture fit into the overall IT scheme?
    • Planning and Technology is a discrete function performed by specialists, because this crucial activity has less chance of being compromised by operational needs
    • Planning and Technology is responsible for four functions:
      • To ensure business alignment, it sets the overall strategy which guides all IT activities
      • On a project by project basis, it formalizes the scoping requirements (fed via the Client Management team) and engineers a solution. Planning and technology ensures quality assurance is planned into every solution’s design and implementation processes.
      • Establishing and maintaining IT architectural and software engineering standards and practices
      • Provides a means for directed Research & Development of future technology
    Planning and Technology Strategy and Planning Solutions Technical Architecture Technology Research
    • Directed R&D
    • Scope
    • Viability
    • Compliance
    • Suitability
    • Data
    • Execution
    • Application
    • Development
    • Strategic
    • Annual
    • Continuous
    • Operations
    • Network
    • Security
  • 17. IT Architecture – Process How does architecture fit into the overall IT scheme?
    • Planning and Technology consists of the following components:
      • Strategy and Planning – In response to overall business goals as well as goals set by individual lines of business, Strategy and Planning is responsible for setting and maintaining the IT Strategy for the enterprise. Strategy and Planning, Business Unit IT leadership and PMO work together to define and submit the annual budget targets to the business leadership using the IT strategy as the key input document.
      • Solutions –The solutions process takes scoping requirements for new initiatives submitted through the client management group, formalizes them, and develops solutions to fulfill the requirements leveraging knowledge of the current capabilities of relevant systems, other projects in the pipeline, costs, and benefits. The group consists of experts in software engineering, insurance, and the current processing environment.
    Planning and Technology Strategy and Planning Solutions Technical Architecture Technology Research
    • Directed R&D
    • Scope
    • Viability
    • Compliance
    • Suitability
    • Data
    • Execution
    • Application
    • Development
    • Strategic
    • Annual
    • Continuous
    • Operations
    • Network
    • Security
  • 18. IT Architecture – Process How does architecture fit into the overall IT scheme?
      • Technical Architecture – since this group works closely with Solutions and Planning processes it is beneficial to “wire” this function directly into the overall Planning and Technology function. Responsibilities of this group include:
        • Develop and maintain an overall technology framework which defines basic technologies and systems to be deployed
        • Develop and maintain an overall enterprise architecture plan defining the component standards for each major sub-system (platform, operating system, database, etc.)
        • Evaluate specific vendors and products for inclusion into the enterprise architecture
        • Develop and maintain a physical site management plan for the central site, administration areas and remote facilities
        • Evaluate and select systems and management tools for each component of the enterprise architecture, e.g., data warehouse toolset and enterprise application integration
        • Map technology strategy back to Service Level Agreement and Operating Level Agreement1 objectives
    1 An operating level agreement is an agreement between two parties one level or more removed from the end-user – e.g., Technology Operations may have an operating level agreement with AT&T to provision a frame relay connection in x days.
  • 19. IT Architecture – Process How does architecture fit into the overall IT scheme?
      • Technical Architecture (continued)
        • Develop and maintain an overall plan to acquire the necessary skills needed to support each component of the distributed environment
        • Map technical training requirements back to Service Level Agreement and Operating Level Agreement objectives and lay out a high level training plan to guide the Service Level Management area
        • Develop an overall strategy for training service delivery personnel
        • Develop technical curriculum and procedures for monitoring the completion of training
      • Technology Research – The purpose of this function, which may or may not be staffed full time, is to identify new technologies that have the potential to deliver significant business value. This group, in coordination with Client Management leadership, would pilot new technologies to prove business value and reliability. The group also helps to keep Technical Architecture and Solutions current.
  • 20. IT Architecture – Process Key Interfaces – Development Services Development Services Development Center o’Excellence Production Center o’Excellence Production Design and Testing Development Services Technology Delivery Technology Operations Program Management Office Planning and Technology Client Management IT Asset Management Services
  • 21. IT Architecture – Process Key Interfaces – Production Design and Testing Development Services Development Center o’Excellence Production Center o’Excellence Production Design and Testing Production Design and Testing Infrastructure Planning & Design Testing Environment Management Infrastructure Design Rollout Planning Integration Lab Management Testing Execution Support Procurement Planning
  • 22. IT Architecture – Process Key Interfaces – Technology Delivery Technology Delivery Service Level Management Solution Implementation Planning and Execution Implementation Readiness Rollout Management Hardware and Software Installation Managed Services Strategic/Quality Planning Service Level Agreements (SLA’s) Training for Infrastructure and Technology Delivery personnel
  • 23. IT Architecture – Process Key Interfaces – Technology Operations Technology Operations Help Desk Network & Systems Management Security Management System Access Control Security Guidelines Perimeter (DMZ) Management Intrusion Detection Systems Planning Capture and Tracking Level 2 Support Enterprise Management Center Level 3 Support Coordination
  • 24. IT Architecture – Process Key Interfaces – IT Asset Management Services IT Asset Management Services Asset Management Vendor Management Accounting Inventory Control License Administration Procurement Administration Budget and Cost Control Invoice/Payment Processing Service Costing and Pricing Contract Administration Vendor Information Negotiation and Legal Support
  • 25. Agenda
    • IT Architectures & Middleware
      • What Is It and Why?
      • Process
      • Organizational Types
      • Personality Profile – Are you an Architect?
    • Break
    • Two Presentations
    • Next Steps
  • 26. IT Architecture – Organizational Types – High Level Monarchy, Federated, “Autonomous Collective” 
    • Monarchies
      • Strong Central Control, one of everything
      • Architecture Strategy is very specific (Small list of vendors)
    • Federal
      • Departmental development groups
      • Architecture Strategy is higher level (Free to choose Java vs. Microsoft),
      • Usually one Architecture group for the entire enterprise
    • Distributed, aka “Autonomous Collective” aka Chaos
      • Share a network, and little else
      • Architecture Strategy is individualized by department, line of business, etc.
      • Northwestern
  • 27. IT Architecture – Federal Model Introduction
    • Constitution-driven, decentralized design
    • Principles are explicit and based on overall business strategy
    • Architecture is loosely tied to technology
    • Tactical efficiency is traded for overall utility
  • 28. IT Architecture – Federal Model Governance
    • Constitution leaves low-level implementation details to end-user groups
    • Common infrastructure is closely tied to business strategy
  • 29. IT Architecture – Federal Model Control Mechanisms
    • Discourages expensive infrastructure for tactical applications
    • Impetus to centralize management of shared resources
    • “ Build the aqueduct, they will use the water for something”
  • 30. IT Architecture – Federal Model Advantages
    • Dynamic balance between innovation and control
    • Minimal IS bureaucracy
    • Application investment at the end-user
  • 31. IT Architecture – Federal Model Advantages
    • Centralized technologies, such as Data Warehouses, workflow engines, and enterprise application integration are treated as enterprise entities
    • Supports “Customer Intimate” value discipline
  • 32. IT Architecture – Federal Model Implementation
    • Establish Architecture Authority
    • Reach constitutional consensus
    • Collapse duplicate standards
    • Prioritize technology commitments
    • Collectivize shared utilities
    • Privatize point application
  • 33. IT Architecture – Federal Model Disadvantages
    • De-facto standards can be imposed by the market, such as J2EE versus COM/DCOM
    • Can degenerate into a single-view “dictatorship”
    • Tactical inefficiency can discourage adequate investment
  • 34. IT Architecture – Federal Model Disadvantages
    • Incorrect interpretation of corporate values can lead to wrong design principles
    • Consensus building can be slow - impatience or the environment can weaken the model
  • 35. Agenda
    • IT Architectures & Middleware
      • What Is It and Why?
      • Process
      • Organizational Types
      • Personality Profile – Are you an Architect?
    • Break
    • Two Presentations
    • Next Steps
  • 36. Joining 4 disciplines of the architect to knowledge The Artist The Guru The Coach The Spy
  • 37. The Artist Discipline - uses inductive approaches to solve problems quickly
    • Inductive reasoning is a different use of neurons… don’t be afraid
    • Not just looking for right answers… turning over new stones to find treasure
  • 38. The Guru Discipline - uses meticulous data collection to solve problems precisely
    • Understanding some topics in depth, others in breadth
    • Deductive, provable bottom up methods
    • Construction-oriented urges
    • Levitation optional, but encouraged
  • 39. The Coaching Discipline is crucial to building new Architects
    • Coordination with the rest of the program
    • Finding points of influence within the project plan, getting off the critical path
    • Teaching is a great motivator for learning
    • Leverage means actually using your vacation time
  • 40. The Spy Discipline - learns across many topics and synthesizes unique viewpoints
    • Drawing synthesis from the data…
    • “ I know I have seen this problem before”
    • “ How does my deep knowledge of Gilligan’s Island help in this situation?”
    • Understanding the Big Picture
    • Turning wide knowledge into understanding
    • Knowing how things got this way
  • 41. Agenda IT Architectures & Middleware Break – 15 minutes Two Presentations Next Steps
  • 42. Agenda IT Architectures & Middleware Break Two Presentations – 25 minutes X 2 Next Steps
  • 43. Agenda IT Architectures & Middleware Break Two Presentations Next Steps – 45 seconds
  • 44.
    • Week 8 (Kiep) - May 20, 2002
      • Continue “As Is” and “To Be” Presentations – 4 more
      • Quiz – covering Program Management & Architecture – max. 6 questions
    • Week 9 (Kiep) - May 29, 2002 (this is a WEDNESDAY!)
      • Planning and Implementation Topic – Paul Roma
    • Week 10 (Abbattista) - June 3, 2002
      • Planning and Implementation Topic continued
      • Course Wrap-Up
      • Early Presentations - optional
    • Week 11 (Abbattista) - June 10, 2002
      • “Planning” piece and overall Project Due
      • Presentations
    Conduct #7 Four more lectures – Quiz next week
  • 45. Conduct #7 Quizzes
    • Pick up your quizzes at the front of the room

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