Mountain Building - Orogenesis
Archimedes’ principle
– The mass of the water displaced by the
block of material equals the mass of the
whole block
– Thus...
Isostasy & Mountain Roots
– Continental Crust has “roots”
– As a result of isostacy, the thicker the surface exposure of r...
Isostasy &
Mountain Roots

Fig. 6.31
Mountain-Types

• Fault-Block Mountains
– Formed from tensional
stress
– Normal Faulting
– Example: Basin and
Range Provin...
Mountain-Types

• Upwarped Mountains
– Formed from compressional stress
– Broad arching of the crust or great vertical dis...
Mountain-Types
• Folded Mountains
–
–
–
–

Formed from compressional stress
Reverse Faulting and Folding – highly deformed...
Mountain-Types

• Volcanic Mountains
– Formed volcanic activity
– Associated with plate
boundaries or hot spots
– Example:...
Mountain Building (Orogenesis)
Zones
Convergence Zones
Continental Collision
Continental Rifting
Convergence
Zones
• Oceanic-Continental
–
–
–
–
–

Folded Mt. Belts
Thrust Faults
Volcanic Chains
Accreted Terranes
Exampl...
Accreted Terranes
• As exotic blocks collide
with continents they
become sutured to the
continent.
• The blocks are referr...
Convergence
Zones
• Oceanic-Oceanic
– Volcanic Chains
– Examples:
Japan,
Philippines
Collision Zones
• Folded Mt. Belts
• Thrust Faults
• Remnants of Volcanic
Chains
• Examples: Alps,
Himalayas
Continental Rifting
• Fault-block mountains
Mountain
Building –
Multiple
Events
Example:
Appalachian
Mountains
Mountain Building, Rock Cycle
and Plate Tectonics
Why does the Earth
have mountains of
various height?
• Erosion attacks
mountains – remember
Earth wants to be flat
• Oroge...
classified on the basis of1-direction of the camera axis
2-combination of more than one
photograph
3-according to angle of...
camera axis
1-vertical photographs
2-horizontal or terrestrial
photographs
3-oblique photographs
1-the lens axis is perpendicular to
the surface of the earth.
2-it covers a relatively small area.
3-the shape of the grou...
theodolites from camera station
on the ground.
2-these are used for survey of
structures and mounments of
architectural or...
the optical axis of the aerial
camera tilted fro, the vertical
2-these photographs cover large
areas of ground.
3-but the ...
trapezoid, althouth the photo is
square or rectangular.
3-the objects have a more
familiar view, comparable to
viewing fro...
all usable)
2-the ground area covered is a
trapezoid, but the photographis
square or rectangular.
3-the view varies from t...
camera exposed simultaneously
at successive exposure station,
with their axis tilted at a fixed
inclination from vertical ...
which the central photograph is
vertical and the side ones are
oblique.
2-this photography can be used
for rapid productio...
through the front nodal point of
the lens.
1-standard or normal angle
photography- the angle of
coverage is of the order o...
-these photographs present the
objects as they appear in their
natural colour.
-for good colour cintrast, scale
larger tha...
-infrared raiaions which are
invisible to human eye have
wavelengths ranging from 0.7 um
to about 1.6um.
-infrared photogr...
of red.
-the differentiation between types
of healthy and unhealthy
vegetation is brought out in
distinctive colours.
-inf...
photography appears in lighter
tones on ir black and white
photographs.
-water appears dark in ir black
and white because ...
-the film used in iR black and
white negatives.
-dispositive are made from the
negatives and the four images are
combined ...
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Mountain building

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Mountain building

  1. 1. Mountain Building - Orogenesis
  2. 2. Archimedes’ principle – The mass of the water displaced by the block of material equals the mass of the whole block – Thus for a material with a lower density than water, the proportion of material above the water surface is constant – For example wood (density 0.8 gm/cm) will have 20% of its mass above water (density of 1.0 gm/cm). Thus for a 1 m block 0.2 m will be above water and 0.8 m below, but for a 2 m block .4 m will be above water and 1.6 m below Fig. 6.28
  3. 3. Isostasy & Mountain Roots – Continental Crust has “roots” – As a result of isostacy, the thicker the surface exposure of rock, the thicker the crustal “roots” – As continental crust is compressed it shortens and thickens – Avg. continental crust is 35-40 km thick, under deformed crust avg. is 50-70 km, with the majority of the difference in the “roots” Fig. 6.29
  4. 4. Isostasy & Mountain Roots Fig. 6.31
  5. 5. Mountain-Types • Fault-Block Mountains – Formed from tensional stress – Normal Faulting – Example: Basin and Range Provinces SW USA
  6. 6. Mountain-Types • Upwarped Mountains – Formed from compressional stress – Broad arching of the crust or great vertical displacement along faults – Example: Black Hills SD
  7. 7. Mountain-Types • Folded Mountains – – – – Formed from compressional stress Reverse Faulting and Folding – highly deformed rocks Will have highly metamorphosed rocks Example: Appalachians, Himalayas
  8. 8. Mountain-Types • Volcanic Mountains – Formed volcanic activity – Associated with plate boundaries or hot spots – Example: Cascade Mts. Or mountains within Japan
  9. 9. Mountain Building (Orogenesis) Zones Convergence Zones Continental Collision Continental Rifting
  10. 10. Convergence Zones • Oceanic-Continental – – – – – Folded Mt. Belts Thrust Faults Volcanic Chains Accreted Terranes Example: Andes Mountains, Cascades
  11. 11. Accreted Terranes • As exotic blocks collide with continents they become sutured to the continent. • The blocks are referred to accreted terranes • Accreted Terranes are island arcs, portions of ocean floor, fragments of continental crust
  12. 12. Convergence Zones • Oceanic-Oceanic – Volcanic Chains – Examples: Japan, Philippines
  13. 13. Collision Zones • Folded Mt. Belts • Thrust Faults • Remnants of Volcanic Chains • Examples: Alps, Himalayas
  14. 14. Continental Rifting • Fault-block mountains
  15. 15. Mountain Building – Multiple Events Example: Appalachian Mountains
  16. 16. Mountain Building, Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics
  17. 17. Why does the Earth have mountains of various height? • Erosion attacks mountains – remember Earth wants to be flat • Orogenic collapse.
  18. 18. classified on the basis of1-direction of the camera axis 2-combination of more than one photograph 3-according to angle of coverage 4-on the basis of colour
  19. 19. camera axis 1-vertical photographs 2-horizontal or terrestrial photographs 3-oblique photographs
  20. 20. 1-the lens axis is perpendicular to the surface of the earth. 2-it covers a relatively small area. 3-the shape of the ground area covered on a single vertical photo closely approximates a square or rectangle. 4-being a view from above, it gives an unfamiliar view of the ground 5-distance and direction may
  21. 21. theodolites from camera station on the ground. 2-these are used for survey of structures and mounments of architectural or archaeological value.
  22. 22. the optical axis of the aerial camera tilted fro, the vertical 2-these photographs cover large areas of ground. 3-but the clarity of details diminishes towards the far end of the phothgraph.
  23. 23. trapezoid, althouth the photo is square or rectangular. 3-the objects have a more familiar view, comparable to viewing from the top of a a high hill or tall building. 4-no scale is applicable to the entire photograph, and distance cannot be measured. Parallel lines on the ground are
  24. 24. all usable) 2-the ground area covered is a trapezoid, but the photographis square or rectangular. 3-the view varies from the very familear to unfamiliar, depending on the height at which the photograph is taken. 4-distances and directions are not measured on this photograph for the same reasons that they are not
  25. 25. camera exposed simultaneously at successive exposure station, with their axis tilted at a fixed inclination from vertical in opposite directions in the direction of flight line so that the forward exposure of the first station forms a stereopair with the backward exposure of the next station.
  26. 26. which the central photograph is vertical and the side ones are oblique. 2-this photography can be used for rapid production of reconnaissance maps on small scales.
  27. 27. through the front nodal point of the lens. 1-standard or normal angle photography- the angle of coverage is of the order of 60 2-wide angle photography-the angle of coverage is of order of 90/ 3-super wide angle-the angle of coverage is of order of 120.
  28. 28. -these photographs present the objects as they appear in their natural colour. -for good colour cintrast, scale larger than 1:25000 is normally used. -it has better in terpretation capabilities. -it is better ofr photogrammeric studies.
  29. 29. -infrared raiaions which are invisible to human eye have wavelengths ranging from 0.7 um to about 1.6um. -infrared photography can be black and white or in colouir depending on the type of film used.
  30. 30. of red. -the differentiation between types of healthy and unhealthy vegetation is brought out in distinctive colours. -infrared colour with the combination of panchromatic capabilities.
  31. 31. photography appears in lighter tones on ir black and white photographs. -water appears dark in ir black and white because water has high absorption characteristics in infrared. Yellow filter is used to reduce haze.
  32. 32. -the film used in iR black and white negatives. -dispositive are made from the negatives and the four images are combined in registration in an additive colour viewer to produce a true colour or a false colour viewer to produce a true colour or a false colour image on a screen which can subsequently be photographed.
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