Just in time

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  • Just in time

    1. 1. JUST - IN - TIME <ul><li>A philosophy of production based on planned elimination of all waste and continuous improvement of productivity. </li></ul>
    2. 2. JUST - IN - TIME GOALS <ul><li>Zero Defects </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Setup Time </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Lot Excesses </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Surging </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Lead Time </li></ul>
    3. 3. JIT IS NOT <ul><li>Business as usual </li></ul><ul><li>Doing today as yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>A management program </li></ul><ul><li>A project with a start & finish </li></ul><ul><li>A cost reduction program </li></ul><ul><li>A capital investment project </li></ul><ul><li>Only for operations </li></ul>
    4. 4. WASTE It can usually be found in: <ul><li>defectives </li></ul><ul><li>overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>waiting </li></ul><ul><li>transportation </li></ul><ul><li>processing </li></ul><ul><li>inventory </li></ul>
    5. 5. INVENTORY WASTE <ul><li>Buy Early </li></ul><ul><li>Buy Extra </li></ul><ul><li>Build Early </li></ul><ul><li>Build Extra </li></ul><ul><li>Early Completion </li></ul>
    6. 6. JUST - IN - TIME <ul><li>Uniform Plant Loading </li></ul><ul><li>Group Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control at the Source </li></ul><ul><li>Minimized Setup Times </li></ul><ul><li>Kanban Type PC Systems </li></ul>
    7. 7. PRODUCT STRUCTURE PRODUCT C - 1 A - 1 C - 2 C - 3 C - 4
    8. 8. MANUFACTURING CYCLE TIME <ul><li>SETUP TIME - prepare for operation </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS TIME - perform operation </li></ul><ul><li>WAIT TIME - after operation ends </li></ul><ul><li>MOVE TIME - move to next operation </li></ul><ul><li>QUEUE TIME -before operations begins </li></ul>
    9. 9. MANUFACTURING CYCLE TIME Setup time Process time Move time Wait time Queue time
    10. 10. SETUP TIME REDUCTION <ul><li>Eliminate setup time </li></ul><ul><li>Convert internal to external </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce internal </li></ul>Setup Time Internal (machine stopped) External (machine running)
    11. 11. JOB SHOP CONFIGURATION M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M2 M2 M2 M2 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M4 M4 M4 M5 M5 M6 WC # 1 WC # 2 WC # 3 WC # 4 WC # 5 WC # 6
    12. 12. GROUP TECHNOLOGY CELL Family 1 (20 parts) Lathe Press Grinder Heat Treat Paint To Assembly
    13. 13. JIT QUALITY DIRECTIONS Enhance Quality Assurance Small Lot Production Expose Quality Problems Fast Detection Fast Correction Further Lot Size Reductions Quality Problem Elimination Waste Prevention Waste Reduction Improved JIT Performance Improved Quality
    14. 14. JIT ELEMENTS <ul><li>Housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Changeovers </li></ul><ul><li>Lost Size of One </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility Control </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Compact Plant Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Pull System </li></ul>
    15. 15. KANBANS <ul><li>Production is driven by demand (not capacity), </li></ul><ul><li>so it balances supply with demand. They </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prevents overproduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides production information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides pickup/transport information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prevents excessive transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>serves as a work order attached to material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detects defects and their source quickly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintains inventory control </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT FRAMEWORK Identify Constraints Optimize Throughput Expand the Constraints New Constraints Emerge Increased Market Demand Market Expansion
    17. 17. INVENTORY REALITIES <ul><li>Consumes capital </li></ul><ul><li>Requires storage space </li></ul><ul><li>Incurs taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Requires insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Can become lost, stolen, damaged, outdated, or obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>Must be counted, sorted, verified, stored, retrieval, moved, issued, and protected </li></ul>
    18. 18. CONVENTIONAL VS. JIT ATTITUDES <ul><li>CONVENTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>Some defects are acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Large lots are efficient </li></ul><ul><li>(more is better) </li></ul><ul><li>Faster production is efficient </li></ul><ul><li>(the sooner the better) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory provides safety </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory smoothes production </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory is an asset </li></ul><ul><li>Queues are necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers are adversaries </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple supply sources </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Long lead time is better </li></ul><ul><li>Setup time is given </li></ul><ul><li>Management by edict </li></ul><ul><li>JUST - IN - TIME </li></ul><ul><li>Zero defects are necessary and attainable </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal lot size is one </li></ul><ul><li>(less is better) </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced production is efficient </li></ul><ul><li>(faster production is a waste) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety stock is a waste </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory is undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory is a liability </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate all queues </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers are partners </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer sources of supply </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Keep lead time short </li></ul><ul><li>Drive setup time to zero </li></ul><ul><li>Management by consensus </li></ul>
    19. 19. JIT SUGGESTIONS <ul><li>1. Avoid interrupted work flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease setup time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control quality at source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate machine breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Eliminate material handling and stocking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arrange equipment to product flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce space between operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate stocking points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Synchronize production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross train operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uniform plant loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schedule only what is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate queues and banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent vendor delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Pull Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only make what is used </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT Identify Constraints Optimize Constraint Output Subordinate All Decisions To Constraint Optimization Expand the Constraint Is Constraint Still Active? YES NO

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