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" Child labour"

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  1. 1. • It refers to situation when children works before they reach the lawful minimum age. •Children gets involved in many worst form of employment. For e.g. slavery, sexual exploitation, illicit activities, hazardous work that harms their lives , health and morals.
  2. 2. • Major reason behind child labour is poverty. • A survey in Latin America showed that if teenaged children did not work ,poverty rates would increase by 10 to 20 %. • In some families children are the only earning member. They have to run their families. • Other factors are, in some poor countries schools are often inaccessible or expensive. • There are also cultural pressures, especially for girls who are not allowed to go to school rather they work on houses. • Employers also prefer children rather than adults because they are cheap and obedient and also would not protest against any unjust.
  3. 3. http://www.childinfo.org/labour.html
  4. 4.  Minimum convention 138 ,(1973)- which sets a minimum age of 15 for legal employment.  Convention 182 (1999)- sets to eliminate the worst form of child labour (physical, psychological, sexual abuse etc)  Convention on the rights of the child (CRC) (1989)- this incorporated a full range of human rights for the children.  UN convention on the rights of child 1989 ( article 6,11.19,20,22,24,27,28,31,32,34,35,36,39)
  5. 5.  The ILO and different NGO’s are working so that the laws are implemented successfully.  World Education are providing children 8-14 years with skills training, basic literacy classes, helps children to learn about personal safety etc.  However, a major review by the ILO in 2010 said that, the step to prevent child labour is not as successful as it was expected.  Which means establishing minimum age of 15 for legal employment(c 138) and elimination of worst form of child labour ( c 182) is not yet successful.  Many countries do not properly implement the laws. For e.g. 11 countries had still not ratified convention 182 as at July 2010, including India, Burma and Sierra Leone, countries with high incidence of worst form of child labour.  According to UNICEF, there are an estimated 158 million children aged 5 to 14 in child labor worldwide, excluding child domestic labour.
  6. 6.  It is clear that ILO,UN and the Governments of different countries took various steps to reduce child labour.  But the progression rate to prevent child labour is not satisfactory.  Millions of children are still working around the world in many worst form of employment.  Only the law in itself is not enough. Everyone of us should take proper initiatives to stop child labours.  Government should provide financial support  Employer should not employ child labours.  People like us should do proper campaign to stop child labours.  At the end, it can be said that for the long lasting solution, there must be a national development strategies backed by effective legislation.
  7. 7.  BOOKS:  Peter Lee- Wright, Child Slaves, Earth scan publication Ltd,1990,p-9 l  Robert upex, Richard benny, and Stephen hardly, labour law 2nd edition        JOURNAL:  M.vincovic, ‘The Unbroken marriage’- trafficking and child labour in Europe’ (2010)     WEBSITE:  1 http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/pub_beyond_en.pdf log in 23th October  2 http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/pub_beyond_en.pdf log in 23th October  3https://login.westlaw.co.uk/maf/wluk/app/document? &src=ri&docguid=I76FB0EE37B4C11DFB24F8F0CA03B21E6&hitguid=I76FB0EE37B4C 11DFB24F8F0CA03B21E6&srguid=ia744cc64000001 log in 24th October  4 www.unicef.org.uk/publications/pdf/ECECHILD2_A4.pdf log in 25th October  5 http://uk.oneworld.net/guides/childlabour log in 25th October  6http://www.ilo.org/Search3/search.do?searchWhat=child+labour&locale=en_US log in 25thOctober     DATABASES:  Westlaw  Lexis Nexis
  8. 8. “ SAY NO TO CHILD LABOUR”
  9. 9. “ SAY NO TO CHILD LABOUR”

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