• It refers to situation
when children works
before they reach the
lawful minimum age.
•Children gets involved
in many worst form of
employment. For e.g.
work that harms their
lives , health and
• Major reason behind child labour is poverty.
• A survey in Latin America showed that if teenaged
children did not work ,poverty rates would increase by
10 to 20 %.
• In some families children are the only earning member.
They have to run their families.
• Other factors are, in some poor countries schools are
often inaccessible or expensive.
• There are also cultural pressures, especially for girls
who are not allowed to go to school rather they work on
• Employers also prefer children rather than adults
because they are cheap and obedient and also would not
protest against any unjust.
Minimum convention 138 ,(1973)- which sets
a minimum age of 15 for legal employment.
Convention 182 (1999)- sets to eliminate the
worst form of child labour (physical,
psychological, sexual abuse etc)
Convention on the rights of the child (CRC)
(1989)- this incorporated a full range of
human rights for the children.
UN convention on the rights of child 1989
The ILO and different NGO’s are working so that the laws are
World Education are providing children 8-14 years with skills
training, basic literacy classes, helps children to learn about
personal safety etc.
However, a major review by the ILO in 2010 said that, the step
to prevent child labour is not as successful as it was expected.
Which means establishing minimum age of 15 for legal
employment(c 138) and elimination of worst form of child labour
( c 182) is not yet successful.
Many countries do not properly implement the laws. For e.g. 11
countries had still not ratified convention 182 as at July 2010,
including India, Burma and Sierra Leone, countries with high
incidence of worst form of child labour.
According to UNICEF, there are an estimated 158 million children
aged 5 to 14 in child labor worldwide, excluding child domestic
It is clear that ILO,UN and the Governments of different
countries took various steps to reduce child labour.
But the progression rate to prevent child labour is not
Millions of children are still working around the world in
many worst form of employment.
Only the law in itself is not enough. Everyone of us should
take proper initiatives to stop child labours.
Government should provide financial support
Employer should not employ child labours.
People like us should do proper campaign to stop child
At the end, it can be said that for the long lasting solution,
there must be a national development strategies backed
by effective legislation.
Peter Lee- Wright, Child Slaves, Earth scan publication Ltd,1990,p-9 l
Robert upex, Richard benny, and Stephen hardly, labour law 2nd
M.vincovic, ‘The Unbroken marriage’- trafficking and child labour in Europe’ (2010)
1 http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/pub_beyond_en.pdf log in 23th October
2 http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/pub_beyond_en.pdf log in 23th October
11DFB24F8F0CA03B21E6&srguid=ia744cc64000001 log in 24th October
4 www.unicef.org.uk/publications/pdf/ECECHILD2_A4.pdf log in 25th October
5 http://uk.oneworld.net/guides/childlabour log in 25th October