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- 1. Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts 1-1 Thermodynamics and Energy Application Areas of Thermodynamics 1-2 Importance of Dimensions and Units Some SI and English Units Dimensional Homogeneity Unity Conversion Ratios 1-3 Systems and Control Volumes 1-4 Properties of a System Continuum 1-5 Density and Specific Gravity 1-6 State and Equilibrium The State Postulate 1-7 Processes and Cycles The Steady-Flow Process 1-8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Temperature Scales The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) 1-9 Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth 1-10 The Manometer Other Pressure Measurement Devices 1-11 The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure 1-12 Problem-Solving Technique Step 1: Problem Statement Step 2: Schematic Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations Step 4: Physical Laws Step 5: Properties Step 6: Calculations Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion Engineering Software Packages A Remark on Significant Digits Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems
- 2. Chapter 2 Energy Conversion and General Energy Analysis 2-1 Introduction 2-2 Forms of Energy Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy Mechanical Energy More on Nuclear Energy 2-3 Energy Transfer by Heat Historical Background on Heat 2-4 Energy Transfer by Work Electrical Work 2-5 Mechanical Forms of Work Shaft Work Spring Work Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body Nonmechanical Forms of Work 2-6 The First Law of Thermodynamics Energy Balance Energy Change of a System, ∆Esystem Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 2-7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 2-8 Energy and Environment Ozone and Smog Acid Rain The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate Change Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances 3-1 Pure Substance
- 3. 3-2 Phases of a Pure Substance 3-3 Phase-Change Processes of Pure Substances Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 3-4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change Processes 1 The T-v Diagram 2 The P-v Diagram Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 3 The P-T Diagram The P-v-T Surface 3-5 Property Tables Enthalpy—A Combination Property 1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 1b Saturated Liquid–Vapor Mixture 2 Superheated Vapor 3 Compressed Liquid Reference State and Reference Values 3-6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 3-7 Compressibility Factor—A Measure of Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 3-8 Other Equations of State Van der Waals Equation of State Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State Virial Equation of State Topic of Special Interest Vapor Pressure and Phase Equilibrium Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 4 Energy Analysis of Closed Systems 4-1 Moving Boundary Work Polytropic Process
- 4. 4-2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 4-3 Specific Heats 4-4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 4-5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Solids and Liquids Internal Energy Changes Enthalpy Changes Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of Biological Systems Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes 5-1 Conservation of Mass Mass and Volume Flow Rates Conservation of Mass Principle Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes Special Case: Incompressible Flow 5-2 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid Energy Transport by Mass 5-3 Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems Energy Balance 5-4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices 1 Nozzles and Diffusers 2 Turbines and Compressors 3 Throttling Valves 4a Mixing Chambers 4b Heat Exchangers 5 Pipe and Duct Flow 5-5 Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow Processes Mass Balance Energy Balance Topic of Special Interest: General Energy Equation Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems
- 5. Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 6-1 Introduction to the Second Law 6-2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs 6-3 Heat Engines Thermal Efficiency Can We Save Qout ? The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin–Planck Statement 6-5 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps Coefficient of Performance Heat Pumps The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius Statement Equivalence of the Two Statements 6-6 Perpetual-Motion Machines 6-7 Reversible and Irreversible Processes Irreversibilities Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 6-8 The Carnot Cycle The Reversed Carnot Cycle 6-9 The Carnot Principles 6-10 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 6-11 The Carnot Heat Engine The Quality of Energy Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life 6-12 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump Topics of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Chapter 7 Entropy 7-1 Entropy A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes
- 6. 7-2 The Increase of Entropy Principle Some Remarks about Entropy 7-3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances 7-4 Isentropic Processes 7-5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 7-6 What Is Entropy? Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 7-7 The T ds Relations 7-8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 7-9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 7-10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and Consume the Least Work when the Process Is Reversible 7-11 Minimizing the Compressor Work Multistage Compression with Intercooling

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