Irony   its discourse structure in the novel
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Irony its discourse structure in the novel Document Transcript

  • 1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact Factor : 0.2105 ISSN No : 2230-7850 Monthly Multidiciplinary Research Journal Indian Streams Research Journal Executive Editor Ashok Yakkaldevi Editor-in-chief H.N.Jagtap Vol II Issue IX
  • 2. Mohammad Hailat Dept. of Mathmatical Sciences, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken SC 29801 Abdullah Sabbagh Engineering Studies, Sydney Catalina Neculai University of Coventry, UK Ecaterina Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest Loredana Bosca Spiru Haret University, Romania Fabricio Moraes de Almeida Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil George - Calin SERITAN Postdoctoral Researcher Hasan Baktir English Language and Literature Department, Kayseri Ghayoor Abbas Chotana Department of Chemistry, Lahore University of Management Sciences [ PK ] Anna Maria Constantinovici AL. I. Cuza University, Romania Horia Patrascu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Ilie Pintea, Spiru Haret University, Romania Xiaohua Yang PhD, USA Nawab Ali Khan College of Business Administration Flávio de São Pedro Filho Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil Kamani Perera Regional Centre For Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka Janaki Sinnasamy Librarian, University of Malaya [ Malaysia ] Romona Mihaila Spiru Haret University, Romania Delia Serbescu Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, Romania Anurag Misra DBS College, Kanpur Titus Pop Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India R. R. Patil Head Geology Department Solapur University, Solapur Rama Bhosale Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education, Panvel Salve R. N. Department of Sociology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur Govind P. Shinde Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance Education Center, Navi Mumbai Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar Arts, Science & Commerce College, Indapur, Pune Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya Secretary, Play India Play (Trust),Meerut Iresh Swami Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur N.S. Dhaygude Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur Narendra Kadu Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune K. M. Bhandarkar Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia Sonal Singh Vikram University, Ujjain G. P. Patankar S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary Director,Hyderabad AP India. S.Parvathi Devi Ph.D.-University of Allahabad Sonal Singh Rajendra Shendge Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University, Solapur R. R. Yalikar Director Managment Institute, Solapur Umesh Rajderkar Head Humanities & Social Science YCMOU, Nashik S. R. Pandya Head Education Dept. Mumbai University, Mumbai Alka Darshan Shrivastava Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar Rahul Shriram Sudke Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore S.KANNAN Ph.D , Annamalai University,TN Satish Kumar Kalhotra Editorial Board International Advisory Board IMPACT FACTOR : 0.2105 Welcome to ISRJ ISSN No.2230-7850 Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial Board readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes governmentandindustrywithresearchinterestinthegeneralsubjects. RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595 Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur - 413 005 Maharashtra, India Cell : 9595 359 435, Ph No: 02172372010 Email: ayisrj@yahoo.in Website: www.isrj.net
  • 3. Please cite this Article as : Novel : Indian Streams Research Journal (Oct. ; 2012) Khalil Abdul-Hameed Mohammed Saif Alquraidhy , Irony - Its Discourse Structure In The Volume 2, Issue. 9, Oct 2012 Indian Streams Research Journal KEYWORD: Irony, communicative,Bennet. INTRODUCTION To me, as a teacher of English language, the main aim of teaching English language to the learner should be to make him develop his own individual capacity to respond to language. The language teaching imparted by us today is a patterned teaching. He at best, learns how to react to a patterned situation or event in a pattern like this; for instance go to the booking counter and ask for the ticket by using this sentence or these sentences and at the end say 'thank you'. If the booking clerk asks such and such questions reply with these and these sentences. The same formula or pattern is adopted in other situations. So everything depends on the assumed situation calling for an assumed response. In teaching to the medical students or law graduates (and this I do myself) we do the same thing. Certain course books are prescribed; they follow the same formula or patterned situation with a patterned response. Beyond the pattern our learners start fumbling. They fail to react properly or to communicate efficiently and powerfully if they are faced with a sudden changeinthepatternedsituationortheevent. Further, in language course books, the learners see sentences only as illustrations of grammatical patterns and not as expressions with an independent communicative value that can be an aid to some pragmatic and sociolinguistic questions noosing our day to day life. That way, we, as it were, compel the language to commit a serious and unpardonable fault of creating a big gap between the learner and life. Since he lacks this training, so, at best he can express and understand simple ideas in a common simple language, but he gets confused and nervous with complex expressions having a serious communicative value that has or can have an impact on life for an understanding of life or various situations in life. I have been trying to experiment at the level of my medical students and graduates of law after completing these course books I shift to some common simple medical or legal documents, bring them before my students and try to gauge their response. Such documents have their communicative value; they give them, in a simple way and the simple language, a knowledge about diseases and patients, about certain laws, courts Abstract: In this paper I have tried to explain how the discourse structure of irony - of the most complex, vocal and meaningful linguistic and literary devices – can best be revealed in the prose fiction which can an Essay, a short story or a Novel .To me, it appears that the meaningful use of irony for the purposes of communication can best be taught with the help of a novel. Both irony and the novel use the same discourse structure and, hence, they help each other in communicating the several layers of meanings which hide, in themselves, the linguistic and literary beauty of irony and the novel. Irony can best be communicated through the events and conditions of the fictional world and construed from the description itself. It requires the help of both – What happens and how it is described. And both are the basic of the novel. So a lesson in irony can best be given with the help of a novel. For my purposes, I will take the help ofJaneAusten's novelPrideand Prejudice. ISSN:-2230-7850 Irony - Its Discourse Structure In The Novel Khalil Abdul-Hameed Mohammed Saif Alquraidhy Department of English, . Bangalore University, Bangalore, India Available on all social networks ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 4. and clients. But they take them to be too heavy. That is because they do not want to deviate from the learnt patternsandcomeoutof artificialenvironmentof patternandbeindependent. At that moment, I feel my limitations and wish to have some engrossing and interesting short story books for my medical students and law graduates which can connect their professions to their actual life and help them in communicating with their life and life-like situations. Communicating with one or two men is in its simplest and miniature form. Even a child on his own knows how to do that. But the real communication lies in conversing with life in a real life-like situation which brings us face to face with the linguistic pragmatics (the study of the way in which language is used to express what subject really means in particular situations, especially when the actual words used may appear to mean something different.) helping us with the real pragmatic (solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than by having fixed ideas or theories) life. And here language feels the necessity of literature, and literature becomes the real aim and support to language. Here the pragmatics and the pragmatic life get combined. This is the ideal situation but very complex for a learner since the patterned language teaching has not trained him to reacttoit. Herehewillhavetogettraininginliteraturewhichisthedomainof such situation. Irony - a linguistic and literary device - is the best illustration of this ideal situation where language and literature join together to communicate the meaning of a complex life like event seeking the prompt attention of both the individual and the society. As per his training the learner can react promptly to a simple situation involving the use of a simple straight forward irony. Even a shop keeper can understand the hidden ironic barb of the following sentence – 'I hope you are making enough profit out of this.' The shop keeper understands the ironic implication of "enough"'; to him it suggests he is making far too much profit. The individual makes the comment; the shop keeper understands its meaning and the onlookers laugh. So, everybody can participate in this play of simple irony. They have this much of linguistic training. At this simple level they can isolate the ironic meaning (what is really meant) from the literal meaning. (what has been said or stated.) Here, the irony is simple because the context is simple, well known and common. This isasimple"verbalirony" –agameofaword orwords initsor theirmeanings. But what would be the reaction of the listener if he is put in a complex situation where a complex ironic tone with layers of meaning and a complex discourse structure has been used. It is but natural that, in the absence of proper linguistic training that has not made him capable of individual reaction and communication, he will feel nonplussed. Here, he may feel the need of help from literature and literary training. Suppose he comes across this opening of Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice "It is a truth universally acknowledged that a young man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife." Taken on its surface value it seems to the listener to be just a simple common usual statement about marriage in general. His communication with this statement stops at that. But let him have a literary training, he would not stop at that but try to probe further and find out its wider and deeper ramifications. He would drop the sentence and start communicating with its tone. Once, he catches the tone, the discourse structure of the sentence would reveal layers of meaning. The simple discourse structure as revealed to him wouldbelikethis: Addresser Message Addressee (Novelist) (thesentence) (thereader) This discourse, that is the sentence, read in isolation reveals this structure. But it is the surface level structure which does not reveal the layers of meaning. This structure is there before the tone starts ringinginhisears. Afteritstartsringingso manythingsappearinhismind: 1.Narrator's attitudetowards readers; 2.Narrator's attitudetowards characters; 3.Charactersattitudetowards thecharacteror characters;and 4.Thecontext. If we draw thediscoursestructureitwould giveus apicturelikethis:- Irony - Its Discourse Structure In The Novel Indian Streams Research Journal • Volume 2 Issue 9 • Oct 2012 2
  • 5. From the novel's introductory sentence itself it seems that the novelist is simply addressing only the reader. But, put in the whole context, it becomes clear that the matter is not so simple. If we read the two pages 1 and 2 of the novel – which contain the long conversation between Ms. Bennet and Mr. Bennet – two things become clear – the whole introductory sentence has been uttered and the extension of the relationships between the novelists, the reader and the characters. The novelists addresses the first the reader – both implied and actual. The implied the reader the whole of the then society which is supposed to read the novel and in whose court the real action of the novel is ready to take place. This society is being chiefly addressed; it is being implicated as the real culprit arranging for the marriage for money instead of marriage for love and which is being suggested by implication to be the ideal for the novelists. The actual reader also takes into account this implied reader and draws in his mind a picture of the then society. Without this picture it would be useless for him to read the novel. The novelist also in her mind the charactersspeciallyMs. Bennet.Thislinkbecomesapparentwhen we cometothisdialogueofMs. Bennet. “Why, my dear, you must know Mrs. Long says that Netherfield is taken by a young man of large fortune from the north of England. . . "(Chapter 1 Page 1)We have to like the repetition of the words "man of large fortune" Here, the society and individual (in this case, the mother herself) seem to connive together against the girls for the sake of large fortune. This way, the novelist brings before the reader three culprits, the society, the family the individual especially the mother. Then, the novelist brings characters together – Ms. Bennet talks to Mr. Bennet. The attitude of Ms. Bennet is already apparent. This attitude is contracted Indian Streams Research Journal • Volume 2 Issue 9 • Oct 2012 3 Addresser Message Addressee (The novelist) (The sentence) (The reader) Implied Actual Addresser Message Addresser Addressee (The novelist) (The sentence) (Mrs. Bennet) (Mr. Bennet) Message Mrs. Bennet Mr. Bennet Message Irony - Its Discourse Structure In The Novel
  • 6. by his ironic tone. Here is his utterance "You want to tell me, and they have no objection to hearing it." (Chapter 1 page 1) His ironic tone implies that he will listen to her knowing full well that her idea would not be worth hearing. By this statement he wants to suggest this disagreement with a present social arrangement. This analysis of the discourse structure of the introductory sentence of the novel has been done to suggest that irony – one of the most complex, vocal and meaningful linguistic and literary devices – can reveal its beauty, complexity and utility best in a prose fiction. It is the best device to reveal the value picture. The multi faceted nature of the novels value picture is a matter not only of co-existing spheres of value, but of co-existing levels of discourse. In this discourse there is a secret communion between the author and the reader. This conspiracy is founded on shared standards of evaluation, and on the manner in whichthesearecontrolledanddevelopedthroughthenovel. What is suggested is that irony is the most mature communicative device at service of both linguists and the artists. It reveals its maturity in the novel. Hence the learner, in order to achieve the perfection of communication, should try to achieve that maturity. It will come to him not only through a language course. It will require him to attach himself to a literature course too.Alesson in irony can best be given with the help of a novel. To establish this thesis I took recourse to Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice. REFERENCES: Widdowson H G (1975) StylisticsandtheTeachingofLiteratureLondon,OUP FurnissT, andMichael,B (1996) ReadingPoetry–An IntroductionLondon:Penticehall. LeechG N ,andS Mill(1981) StyleinFictionLondon,Longman. Development of Primitive Tribes in India (An Impact Assessment of Development Initiatives) Indian Streams Research Journal • Volume 2 Issue 9 • Oct 2012 2
  • 7. Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished research paper.Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Books Review of publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India ¬ ¬OPEN J-GATE International Scientific Journal Consortium Scientific Associated and Indexed,USA ?Google Scholar ?EBSCO ?DOAJ ?Index Copernicus ?Publication Index ?Academic Journal Database ?Contemporary Research Index ?Academic Paper Databse ?Digital Journals Database ?Current Index to Scholarly Journals ?Elite Scientific Journal Archive ?Directory Of Academic Resources ?Scholar Journal Index ?Recent Science Index ?Scientific Resources Database Indian Streams Research Journal 258/34 Raviwar Peth Solapur-413005,Maharashtra Contact-9595359435 E-Mail-ayisrj@yahoo.in/ayisrj2011@gmail.com Website : www.isrj.net