Specific learning disability

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  • Hi Khalilah just would like to say I enjoyed your slide presentation. It seems you are very knowledgeable in the field of special needs. I have a question and thought perhaps you could help me with it. I am confused as to what standards with LD students. When you create goals and objectives what standards are used. If he is in grade 2, but at a 1st grade level do you use the state standards for grade 2, with a RTI accommodations I greatly appreciate your help. Thank you and God Bless, Elizabeth Kapustka, a future special education teacher.
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  • A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
  • Perceptual disability Brain injury Minimal brain dysfunction Dyslexia Developmental aphasia
  • Brain injuries can cause the brain to process information in an unorthodox way. Not all cases of L.D are from brain injury. Currently 2.4 million students are diagnosed with LD. They are life long and cannot be cured. May be mitigated to support learning, living and earning. Students with LD represent the largest group served by the IDEA.
  • History
  • Laws that have influenced how people with LD are taught in school and trained for life after school.
  • 1887 – First use of the term "dyslexia" to describe a "very great difficulty in interpreting written or printed symbols”. 1963 – First use of the term "learning disability". 1996 – An MRI was conducted to look at the activity in living brains – to identify the regions of the brain that behave differently in dyslexics. 2005 – Identified a gene that had patterns and variations that were strongly associated with dyslexia.
  • Learning Through Vision
  • Forced responsiveness to stimuli. Subjects couldn’t help being distracted by objects and people around them, the slightest noise or movement, or even a fleeting thought. Figure-ground confusion. Subjects had trouble sorting out what was important (someone speaking to them) and what was not (the din of the dining room noise). This presumably happened because everything, important or not, grabbed their attention. Perseveration. Because they kept being distracted by the same stimuli, subjects repeated behaviors they had just engaged in over and over again, such as repeating themselves or continuing to tap a fork against a plate. Hyperactivity. They showed extreme purposeless activity. This too was caused by their reactions to whatever caught their attention, however briefly. Catastrophic reaction. Subjects broke down emotionally when they couldn’t control their bizarre perceptions and chaotic behavior. Setting goals and systematic follow-through to achieve a goal were impossible. Meticulousness. They became overly rigid in arranging their personal possessions and time schedules. This was a defense against the excessive stimulation and confusing misperceptions they were experiencing.
  • 1930's & 40's – Goldstein linked defective processing & reaction to visual information to brain injury. Heinz Werner suggests to adjust teaching style to one's learning style. Kephart – assumed that perception & motor development was the basis for learning. Frostig – Developed assessment measures & gross-motor and & workbook program.
  • Learning Through Language
  • 1800's - Language competency yields academic progress. Gall – frontal lobe injury can yield loss of speech & ability to remember words. 1860's – Broca believed language ability was located in the left hemisphere of the brain. Good teaching & parenting can can stimulate new brain functions.
  • 1950's – Eisenson theorized a lag in brain maturation as possible cause of LD. Osgood – Proposed the theory of decoding & encoding. Myklebust – Reinforced the need for tailored curriculum.
  • Many students who are poorly motivated, have been poorly taught, have little home support for learning, are immature, are slow learners in all areas of development, have English as a second language, or are average learners out of place in above-average schools have been misidentified as LD. ISBN:
  • The level of confidence for predicting a learning disability rises as (1) the severity of the delays in language, attention, visual-perception, or motor abilities increases; (2) the child nears kindergarten age and the assessment criteria become similar to what and how children are expected to learn in school (e.g., measuring letter knowledge, attention span, and number concepts); and (3) environmental circumstances, such as economic disadvantages or parental encouragement, that can cause or overcome developmental delays are taken into consideration.
  • setting a percentage by which a child’s achievement must lag behind age or grade expectations given his or her intellectual potential. Achievement test scores are compared with the IQ score to determine whether there is a gap that represents severe underachievement. experts recommend using standard scores to deal with weak test score formulas It is clinical judgment that helps to fill in the picture and suggests whether there is any educational significance to the discrepancy. underestimate the intellectual ability of low income students Achievement tests used for LD identification should match the child’s classroom content as closely as possible to be fair.
  • Although males are far more prevalent than females in our LD numbers, researchers feel that the male-to-female ratio is actually equal—but for a variety of reasons boys are more likely to come to our attention.
  • The male may be more biologically vulnerable to brain damage prenatally and postnatally than the female. At birth males are one month less mature than females; they complete maturation at age 18, 2 years later than girls. Because males mature at a slower rate, research indicates that they often are unready for school entrance or the work of their Grade. In the event of right hemisphere damage, data indicate that boys’ left hemispheres may become overloaded with inappropriate right hemisphere strategies (global, holistic), thereby compromising the left hemisphere analytic, sequential reasoning skills that are so important to reading
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (1999,March 12). Final regulations and comments from the U.S. Dept. of Education. Federal Register, 64 (48),12406–12672. Cruickshank, W. M., Bentzen, F. A., Ratzeburg, F. H., & Tannhauser, M. T. (1961). A teaching method for braininjured and hyperactive children. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. Werner, H., & Strauss, A. A. (1940). Causal factors in low performance. American Journal of Mental Deficiency,45, 213–218. Legislative updates: http://www.nasponline.org Kirk, S. A. (1958). Early education of the mentally retarded: An experimental study. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • Specific learning disability

    1. 1. History of Learning Disability (L.D.) Khalilah James Grand Canyon University SPE 557 – Characteristics of LD August 26, 2013
    2. 2. Types of Disorders  Perceptual disability  Brain injury  Minimal brain dysfunction  Dyslexia  Developmental aphasia
    3. 3. Facts about L.D.  Brain injuries can cause the brain to process information in an unorthodox way.  Not all cases of L.D are from brain injury.  Currently 2.4 million students are diagnosed with LD.  May be mitigated to support learning, living and earning.  Students with LD represent the largest group served by the IDEA.
    4. 4. History
    5. 5. Legislation  1969 - Congress passes the Children with Specific Learning Disabilities Act. First time federal law mandates support services for students with learning disabilities.  1975 - The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142), which mandates a free, appropriate public education for all students. (This law is renamed IDEA in 1990.)  2004 - Elimination of the requirement for a student to show a "severe discrepancy" between intellectual ability and academic achievement in order to be
    6. 6. Medical History  1887 – First use of the term "dyslexia" to describe a "very great difficulty in interpreting written or printed symbols”.  1963 – First use of the term "learning disability".  1996 – An MRI was conducted to look at the activity in living brains – to identify the regions of the brain that behave differently in dyslexics.  2005 – Identified a gene that had patterns and variations that were strongly associated with dyslexia.
    7. 7. Learning Through Vision
    8. 8. Visual Processing Weaknesses  Forced responsiveness to stimuli  Figure-ground confusion  Perseveration  Hyperactivity  Catastrophic reaction  Meticulousness
    9. 9. Research  1930's & 40's – Goldstein linked defective processing & reaction to visual information to brain injury. Heinz Werner suggests to adjust teaching style to one's learning style. Kephart – assumed that perception & motor development was the basis for learning. Frostig – Developed assessment measures & gross- motor and & workbook program.
    10. 10. Learning Through Language
    11. 11. Research  1800's - Language competency yields academic progress. Gall – frontal lobe injury can yield loss of speech & ability to remember words.  1860's – Broca believed language ability was located in the left hemisphere of the brain. Good teaching & parenting can stimulate new brain functions.
    12. 12. Research con't  1950's – Eisenson theorized a lag in brain maturation as possible cause of LD.  Osgood – Proposed the theory of decoding & encoding.  Myklebust – Reinforced the need for tailored curriculum.
    13. 13. Misidentification of LD  Poorly motivated,  Poorly taught,  Little home support learning,  Immature,  Slow learners in all areas of development,  Have English as a second language,  Average learners out of place in above-average schools.
    14. 14. Preventing Misdiagnosis
    15. 15. Elementary  Developmental delay rather than a learning disability  Severity of the delay  Teacher observation  Consider environment  Readiness assessments
    16. 16. Secondary  Setting a percentage  Achievement test score versus IQ score  Standard scores  Clinical judgment  Intellectual ability  Achievement tests
    17. 17. Male students “Although males are far more prevalent than females in our LD numbers, researchers feel that the male-to-female ratio is actually equal—but for a variety of reasons boys are more likely to come to our attention” (Roth-Smith, 2004).
    18. 18. Why boys?  Medical factors  Maturational factors  Sociological factors  Brain organizational factors
    19. 19. Definition's  Developmental aphasia – expressive language disorder  Dyscalculia – a math learning disability  Dysgraphia – a writing learning disability  Dyslexia - involves difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters, and other symbols  Dyspraxia – a motor-skill development learning disability
    20. 20. Resources & Strategies
    21. 21. Home  IDEA implementation: http://www.ideapractices.org  Dunn, L. M. (1968). Special education for the mildly retarded—Is much of it justifiable? Exceptio nalChildren,35, 5–22.  Legislative updates: http://www.nasponline.org  Gillespie, P. H., Miller, T. L., & Fielder, V. D. (1975). Legislative definitions of learning disabilities: Roadblocks to effective service. Jo urnalo f Learning Disabilities, 8 , 660–666.  Special education law: http://www.wrightslaw.com  International Dyslexia Association: http://www.interdys.org  Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing and speech problems in children. New York: W.W. Norton.
    22. 22. School  Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). (1999,March 12). Final regulations and comments from the U.S. Dept. of Education. Federal Register, 64(48),12406–12672.  Cruickshank, W. M., Bentzen, F. A., Ratzeburg, F. H., & Tannhauser, M. T. (1961). A teaching method for braininjured and hyperactive children. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.  Werner, H., & Strauss, A. A. (1940). Causal factors in low performance. American Journal of Mental Deficiency,45, 213– 218.  Legislative updates: http://www.nasponline.org  Kirk, S. A. (1958). Early educatio n o f the mentally retarded: An experimentalstudy. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    23. 23. References  NCLD Editorial Team. (n.d.). Learning disability fast facts. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/types- learning-disabilities/what-is-ld/learning-disability- fast-facts  Roth-Smith, C. (2004). Learning disabilities: The interaction of students and their environments. (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

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