‫اﻟﺤﺪ اﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻹﯾﻤﺎن واﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬
(Al Ḥadd Al Fāṣil bainal Īmān wa’l Kufr)

THE DIVIDING LINE (DIVISION OF
DISTINCTION) BETW...
From the Translator (Arabic to Malaysian)
Problems of takfīr (to charge with disbelief) is an issue that is often discusse...
printing is made after performing the correction of many errors found in the first
edition, especially within the very con...
From the Translator (Malaysian to English)
This book is an important treatise on a subject that oftentimes is indistinct a...
‫ص‬

ṣ

‫ض‬

ḍ

‫ء‬

ʾ

Short vowels (above or below consonant):

َ◌

a

◌
ِ

i

ُ◌

u

Long vowels (following consonant):...
CONTENTS

1. IM◊N AND ITS ESSENCE…………………………..1

2. IM◊N, MAUḌŪʿ AND THEIR SHARAT
(object and requirements)…...12

3. MATTE...
7. MATTERS THAT DO NOT REMOVE A
MUʾMIN FROM THE BOUNDS OF ISL◊M ……87

8. INTERPRETATION OF THE WORD OF ALLĀH
AND PROVIDING...
INTRODUCTION
Before presenting the problems, the legality of which will be able to be
determined later, we must beforehand...
IM◊N AND ITS ESSENCE

In order to understand where the mentioned word is in Al Qurʾān and As
Sunnah, we must firstly under...
And secondly. The decree of Allāh in the telling of the narrative of Yūsuf’s
 brothers who returned home with their story...
Included within the sphere of belief in these announcements is the decree of
Allāh:

 …    …...
The second part of the meaning of the word imān is an act or deed or the
commitment of an act or deed. An act or deed that...
The ʿUlamāʾ have stated that the word ‘‫ ’إﳝﺎﻧﻜﻢ‬within this ayāh means
‘‫“ – ’ﺻﻼﺗﻜﻢ‬your ṣalāt”. By that, this ayāh means...
The believers are only those who believe in Allāh and His Messenger then
they doubt not and struggle hard with their wealt...
ََ ۡ َ
َ َ
‫ۡ ِ ۡ ءا ٰ ُ ُ ۥ‬
ِ
َ َ
ۡ ُ ٰ َ ۡ ‫َ ٰ ة َ و ِ رز‬
َ
َٞ ۡ ََ ۡ َّ َ
‫ِ رِِ و ِة‬

ُ َ ۡ ُُ ُُ ۡ َ َ ُ َ ُ َ َ
...
This ayāh was revealed with the grammatical stylization (uslūb) of al-ḥaṣri (limited
[to])

َ ُ ۡ ُۡ َ
‫إِ ٱ ِ ن‬

“Those ...
The dividing line or division of distinction between the ʿaqīdah (belief, creed,
confirmation, attestation) of the heart t...
from. Assuming imān was availably found in the heart, then the one who possessed
imān would immediately hasten to carry ou...
Therefore, O my ‘brothers’ in Islām, have dialogues amongst yourselves. Are
you really and truly muʾmin? Supposing ‘brothe...
Imān, Mauḍūʿ and their Sharaṭ
We already know that imān is taṣdīq (belief, faith, confirmation, attestation)
accompanied b...
obedience to Allāh. The people who are disbelievers and do not not submit
to the commands of Allāh and have no imān in Him...
This issue is deemed to invalidate imān on the basis that the role of the
intellect in the matter of imān is only limited ...
‫‪these would stand on the right and left of the Path and the first of you would pass with (the swiftness) of‬‬
‫‪lightnin...
ِ
ِ
ِ
ِِ
ِ
ِ
‫ﻟَﺪﻧْﻪُ أَﺟﺮا ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ{ " ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﻋﺰ وﺟﻞ ﺷﻔﻌﺖ اﻟْﻤﻼَﺋِﻜﺔُ وﺷﻔﻊ اﻟﻨﱠﺒِﻴﱡﻮن وﺷﻔﻊ اﻟْﻤﺆﻣﻨُﻮن وﱂْ ﻳـَْﺒﻖ إ...
to the intellect about two men who are buried in one grave, who on the Day of
Judgement later, one of them will become an ...
within the shahādat , ‫اﷲ‬

‫ ﻻ إﻟﻪ إﻻ‬which is obligatory for each and every Muslim to

confirm.
By this we understand th...
ٞ ۡ َ َ ُ ‫ُ ِ َ َ َ ۡ ُ ُ ٱ ۡ ِ َ ل و ُ َ ُ ۡ ه ٞ ُ ۡ و َ َ أَن َ ۡ َ ُ ا ْ َ ۡ و‬
َ
َ ۖ
َ ُ
َ ُ َ ۡ َ َ ۡ ُ َ َ ُ َ ۡ َ ...
group that does not implement deeds because of denial) as disbelievers. Yet there is
a kind of worship that raises differe...
not exile the person from the religion of Islām, but rather only disbelief by
disobedience.
There is a clear fact in this ...
And they say: Fire shall not touch us but for a few days. Say: Have you
received a promise from Allāh, then Allāh will not...
obligatory. Anyone who is of the conviction that alcohol, adultery, theft, and murder
are ḥalāl is already a disbeliever, ...
will not submit; What is ṣalāt anyway? What is with zakāt?” In fact the disbelief of
Iblīs is nearer to the disbelief of a...
zakāt, ḥajj and fighting in the Way of Allāh, the conviction of belief that killing is
ḥarām, except when justified, the c...
the imān of that dead person earlier, but ‘he’ must be fearful of Allāh at the time ‘he’
confirms imān to the person who h...
َ
ۡ
ُ َٰ ۡ‫َۡ َ ُ ٱ‬
ِ َ‫ِ ٱ ا‬
ِ
ُ ُ َۡ
ُ َ َ َ ‫َ َ أَن َ ّ ي‬
َ
‫ۥ‬
ِ
ِ
ُ
َ ٰ َ ِ ۡ ‫َ ۡم ٱ‬
ِ

ُ َ
ُ ِ ۡ ‫وَ ٓأ‬
ِ
َ ‫...
those matters and you would not care whether you disputed the commands of Allāh
or not”.
What I have presented here is the...
emergencies. Can we force a Muslim who is living within a society of disbelievers
that is fighting Islām to express and ad...
evils, thus I say; it is obligatory, that is Hell for ‘him’, you are Allāh’s witnesses on
this earth”.25
This ḥadīth does ...
2. The second qaḍīyah is the implementation of those matters. What I mean
is, to pin the law of disbelief upon someone or ...
MATTERS THAT INVALIDATE IM◊N

Within the previous part we came to understand the contents of imān, that is,
to truly allow...
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith
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The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith

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English translation of the Malaysian book, garis Pemisahan antara Kufr dan Iman (from Arabic - الحد الفاصل بين الإيمان والكفر)

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The dividing line (division of distinction) between disbelief and faith

  1. 1. ‫اﻟﺤﺪ اﻟﻔﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻹﯾﻤﺎن واﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬ (Al Ḥadd Al Fāṣil bainal Īmān wa’l Kufr) THE DIVIDING LINE (DIVISION OF DISTINCTION) BETWEEN DISBELIEF AND FAITH by ‫ﻋﺑداﻟرﺣﻣن ﻋﺑداﻟﺧﺎﻟق‬ ʿABDUR-RAḤMAN ʿABDUL-KH◊LIQ
  2. 2. From the Translator (Arabic to Malaysian) Problems of takfīr (to charge with disbelief) is an issue that is often discussed, less clearly understood, and has been a reason for causing misunderstandings within the Islāmic community. Within the Islāmic ummah, there are those who all too easily charge another person with disbelief even when essentially that person is still considered Muslim. There are also those who put forth the opinion that we are not allowed to condemn (punish) someone who is a disbeliever even though that person is actually a disbeliever and apostate from the religion of Islām and in addition has formed groups that inculcate the issue of takfīr in order to disorientate and confuse the Islāmic ummah so that they maintain hatred, enmity, and stay away from specific groups. This is carried out because of the specific objectives for a specific group or individual. There are also within the Islāmic ummah, those who have committed acts of disbelief that have removed them from the religion of Islām and yet when they have been informed of the nature of their actions they do not want to accept it. Within the Islāmic ummah there is also ignorance concerning the difference between the disbelief of an individual and the disbelief of of a certain institution, current of thought, or ideology. All of these form problems freely found within the Islāmic community. This book, ‘The Dividing Line (Division of Distinction) between Disbelief and Faith’ constitutes one scientific explanation of the above problems. This book discusses the meanings of Faith, Disbelief, Disbeliever, Hypocrite, and others. It also explains when a person is deemed to be out from the religion of Islām, and in fact explains a lesser and lower form of disbelief than the disbelief of apostasy and hypocrisy lesser and lower than intrinsic hypocrisy. I hope this book is able to help the Islāmic ummah in their efforts to understand the problems between disbelief and faith, in particular the duʿāt (callers to Islām) and the Islāmic youth who are eager to continue the struggle of Muḥammad . In fact, this publication of Pustaka Salam is the second printing for this book, with the first publication being from Penerbitan Al-Ikhlas in 1981. This second
  3. 3. printing is made after performing the correction of many errors found in the first edition, especially within the very confusing footnotes. I am grateful to Allāh who has made the printing of this book easy and thanks to Pustaka Salam for their cooperation in the publishing of this book. I pray that Allāh blesses all our efforts, from the editors, translators, printers, and readers of this book. It is from Allāh that we seek guidance and it is from Allāh that we seek refuge. Alias Othman Islamic Academy University of Malaya 7th March 1985
  4. 4. From the Translator (Malaysian to English) This book is an important treatise on a subject that oftentimes is indistinct and blurred. It is most important, especially for a Muslim, to realize and be aware that in order for ‘him’ to practice Islām correctly, ‘he’ must maintain, implement and adhere to this Dividing Line between Disbelief and Faith. It is thus, for that reason that I have also referred to it, in its title, as, ‘Division of Distinction’, in a bid to emphasize the definitive separation of one from the other. Whilst translating from Malaysian to English I also often referred to the treatise in its original Arabic, just in case there were some points that required finer illustration. The method of transliteration used in this translation is as follows: ‫ا‬ a ‫ط‬ ṭ ‫ب‬ b ‫ظ‬ ẓ ‫ت‬ t ‫ع‬ ʿ ‫ث‬ th ‫غ‬ gh ‫ج‬ j ‫ف‬ f ‫ح‬ ḥ ‫ق‬ q ‫خ‬ kh ‫ك‬ k ‫د‬ d ‫ل‬ l ‫ذ‬ dh ‫م‬ m ‫ر‬ r ‫ن‬ n ‫ز‬ z ‫ه‬ h ‫س‬ s ‫و‬ w ‫ش‬ sh ‫ي‬ y
  5. 5. ‫ص‬ ṣ ‫ض‬ ḍ ‫ء‬ ʾ Short vowels (above or below consonant): َ◌ a ◌ ِ i ُ◌ u Long vowels (following consonant): ‫ا‬ ā (Ā) ‫آ‬ ā (Ā) ‫ى‬ ī (Ī) ‫و‬ ū (Ū) Diphthongs (following consonant): ‫اى‬ ay ‫اؤ او‬ aw (also au) Finally, the interpretation of the meanings of the Noble Qurʾān is that of Shakir. Khalid S. Perth, Australia 16th October 2013
  6. 6. CONTENTS 1. IM◊N AND ITS ESSENCE…………………………..1 2. IM◊N, MAUḌŪʿ AND THEIR SHARAT (object and requirements)…...12 3. MATTERS THAT INVALIDATE IM◊N……………....32 4. HOW IM◊N MAY BE LOST………………………..38 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Wisdom opposed to its Requisites………42 To judge with other than the Laws of Allāh…..52 To ridicule a Muslim because of ‘his’ Islām and to be hostile towards ‘him’ because ‘he’ holds steadfastly to ‘his’ ‘his’ religion……56 To work together with and help the Enemies of Islām.....62 To consent to the spread of evil……….....67 5. THE ESSENCE OF DISBELIEF……………………...72 6. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS THAT ARE FALSE…79
  7. 7. 7. MATTERS THAT DO NOT REMOVE A MUʾMIN FROM THE BOUNDS OF ISL◊M ……87 8. INTERPRETATION OF THE WORD OF ALLĀH AND PROVIDING ANOTHER MEANING THAN THAT WHICH IS EVIDENT IN A WRONGFUL MANNER AND IJTIH◊D (INDEPENDENT REASONING)……..95
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION Before presenting the problems, the legality of which will be able to be determined later, we must beforehand understand the meanings of the words Imān and Kufūr. After that, we will also determine the methodology for being able to differentiate between kufūr and imān as seen together. This is so done, because the act of kufūr can be carried out in words or deeds, by those who we are not yet permitted to charge with kufūr. With the help of Allāh the reader will be able to receive complete explanations as well as proofs in relation to this matter.
  9. 9. IM◊N AND ITS ESSENCE In order to understand where the mentioned word is in Al Qurʾān and As Sunnah, we must firstly understand the meaning of that word according to the terminology of the Arabic language, and then we can look at how the word is applied within the Sharīʿah in various places that differ one from the other. Generally the public, at a certain time and place, except within the times that the Sharīʿah was revealed, are not allowed to used as a reason for laying down specific laws regarding those words. The word imān is one word that should not be interpreted except according to the interpretation permitted by Allāh and His Messenger . With an interpretation such as that, the Sharīʿah meaning of the word imān will be determinable. When we observe the manner in which the word imān is used within Al Qurʾān, we will find that it is used around two basic meanings: 1. Imān in the sense of allowing/permitting (certification/ratification) - ‫( اﻟﺘﺼﺪﻳﻖ‬At-Tasḍīq) 2. Imān in the sense of the commitment to action/deeds. Dalāʾil (evidential proofs) Amongst the dalāʾil that show the use of imān in the first meaning is in the words of Ibrāhīm  when he asked Allāh to show him how it was that Allāh had the power to give life to the dead. Allāh decrees: …          … …He (Allāh) said: “Do you not believe?” He [Ibrāhīm (Abraham)] said: “Yes (I believe), but to be stronger in Faith”…1 1 Sūrah Al Baqarah (2), ayāh 260. Page | 1
  10. 10. And secondly. The decree of Allāh in the telling of the narrative of Yūsuf’s  brothers who returned home with their story at night and carried with them Yūsuf’s  bloodstained clothing:        … “…But you will never believe us even when we speak the truth.”2 That is, you will not allow our story of the wolf having eaten Yūsuf, and thirdly, similarly the decree of Allāh which tells the narrative of Firʿaun (Pharaoh) at the time he drowned and believed that he would be destroyed:            …   …”I believe that Lā ilāha illa (Huwa): (none has the Right to be worshipped but) He,” in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allāh’s Will).”3 One thing is clear, that the word imān is a passing deed (‫ - ﻣﺘﻌﺪى‬transitive) by means of ḥarf al jarr (a letter that functions by taking kasra and modifying the word immediately following it), namely the letter “ba” and “lam”; for instance I say, “‫ﺑﺎﷲ‬ ‫“ – ”آﻣﻨﺖ‬I believe in Allāh, His attributes and I submit to Him”. And: ِ ِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ ‫وآﻣﻨﺖ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻮل اﻟﱠﺬي ﺑَﺪﻋُﻮﻧَﺎ إِﻟَْﻴﻪ‬ ْ ْ ْ ُْ ُ “I believe in the Messenger who calls us to Allāh”. That is, I believe in the announcement of Allāh brought by the Messenger of Allāh . 2 3 Sūrah Yūsuf (12), ayāh 17. Sūrah Yūnus (10), ayāh 90. Page | 2
  11. 11. Included within the sphere of belief in these announcements is the decree of Allāh:  …    … “…But you will never believe us…”4 Also included is the decree of Allāh:  …        But none believed in Mūsā (Moses) except the offspring of his people,..5 That is, the announcements brought by Mūsā , that stated that the Banī Isrāʾīl would leave Egypt, and also Allāh would elevate their status and destroy Firʿaun was not considered to be true except by the young and the children of the Banī Isrāʾīl. With this it is clear that the first part of the meaning of the word imān is to allow the message of Allāh and His Messenger . The Messenger of Allāh  has already summarized this meaning within a ṣaḥīḥ ḥadīth at the time Jibrīl  asked him about imān, and he said: ِ ِ ُ‫َ ِ و‬ ِ ِْ ْ ُ ِ ‫)اَْﻹْﳝَﺎن( أَن ﺗُـﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ وﻣﻼَﺋِﻜﺘِﻪ َﻛﺘُﺒِﻪ ورﺳﻠِﻪ واﻟﻴَـﻮِم‬ ََ ُ َُ ْ َ ِ‫ِ ِ ْ ِ َ َ ِ َ ِِْ َ ﱢ‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ وﺗُـﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪر ﺧﲑﻩ وﺷﺮﻩ‬ َ َ َ “(Al Īmān is) that you believe in Allāh, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment and that you believe in qadar both good and evil is from Allāh”.6 4 Sūrah Yūsuf (12), ayāh 17. Sūrah Yūnus (10), ayāh 83. 6 Narrated by Muslim. 5 Page | 3
  12. 12. The second part of the meaning of the word imān is an act or deed or the commitment of an act or deed. An act or deed that is desired here is an act or deed of imān, that is, those deeds or acts whose agent/doer/perpetrator is called a muʾmin and a/any group which errs (goes astray) in this are referred to as those who have desisted from being muʾmin. Dalāʾil (evidential proofs): 1. Amongst the āyāt of Al Qurʾān that demonstrate the use of the word imān with the understanding of act or deed is the decree of Allāh at the time of answering the Muslims who asked: “What is the outcome for our brothers who died whilst they performed ṣalāt in a direction other than that of the kaʿbah?” This matter eventuated after the relocation of the qiblat from Baitil Maqdis (in Jerusalem) to the Kaʿbah (in Makkah). ََ َٓ َ َ ُ ْ ُ ُ َّ ٗ َ َ ٗ ُ ۡ ُ ‫اء ٱ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ و‬ ِ ََ ۡ ۡ َۡ َ َ ُ َ ‫ۗو َ َ َ َ ٱ ِ ۡ ٱ‬ ِ َ َ ََ ً َ َ ۡ َ َ ‫ِ َة إ‬ ‫ِ ُ ٰ َِۡ ِ ن‬ ِ ٞ ُ ُ ٞ ِ ‫س َ َءوف ر‬ ِ ِ َ ‫ِ َ إ ِ َ ٰ َ ۡ ۚ إِن ٱ‬ ُ َ ُ َ ِ ‫سوَ نٱ ُ ل‬ ُ َ َ َ َ ۡ َِ ‫َ ٓإ‬ ِ ِ ُ ‫َ َ ٱ ِ َ َ َى ٱ‬ ۗ ۡ ََ ٰ َ َ َ َ ِ َٰ ‫و‬ ٗ َ ۡ ُ َۡ َ ِ َ َ ِ ‫ٱ ُ ل‬ َ َ ُِ ُ ‫وَ َنٱ‬ And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you; and We did not make that which you would have to be the qiblah but that We might distinguish him who follows the Messenger from him who turns back upon his heels, and this was surely hard except for those whom Allāh has guided aright; and Allāh was not going to make your faith to be fruitless; most surely Allāh is Affectionate, Merciful to the people.7 7 Surah Al Baqarah (2), ayāh 143. Page | 4
  13. 13. The ʿUlamāʾ have stated that the word ‘‫ ’إﳝﺎﻧﻜﻢ‬within this ayāh means ‘‫“ – ’ﺻﻼﺗﻜﻢ‬your ṣalāt”. By that, this ayāh means: “And Allāh does not squander (throw away/reject) your ṣalāt that you made berofe when the qiblat was towards Baitul Maqdis, because it is Allāh who commanded you to do such”. 2. The ḥadīth from the Messenger of Allāh  stated below also demonstrates the Use of the word with the meaning of act or deed: The Messenger of Allāh  said: ‫إ‬ ‫وأد‬ ‫إ إ ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫:أ‬ ‫ن‬ ... ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا ذى‬ “Imān is divided into over sixty branches; the highest of which is to ‫ ’ﻻ إﻟﻪ إﻻ اﷲ‬and the least of which is to remove something state ‘ harmful from the path of a person.”8 Within this ḥadīth the Messenger of Allāh  has named all Islamic acts or deeds as imān; starting from the shahādat up to the least of acts or deeds, that is to remove something harmful from a busy thoroughfare. Besides that, many āyāt from Al Qurʾān have brought together these understandings when Allāh describes the characteristics of those who are muʾmin. Amongst them is the decree of Allāh: ْ َُ َ َ َ ُ ۡ ُۡ َ ۡ ِ ٰ َ ۡ َ ْ ‫ِ ور ُ ِ ِۦ ُ َ ۡ َ ۡ َ ُ ا ْ و َ ٰ َ ُ وا‬ َ َ َ ِ ِ ‫إ ِ ٱ ِ ن ٱ ِ ءا ا‬ ِ َ ُ ٰ ُْ ۡ ِ ُ َ‫وأ‬ َ ُ ُ َ َ ‫َ ٱ ِۚ أو‬ ‫ٱ ِ ن‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ 8 Related by Abū Dāwūd and Nasāʾī and Ibn Mājah and narrated by Al Bukhārī in several places. Page | 5
  14. 14. The believers are only those who believe in Allāh and His Messenger then they doubt not and struggle hard with their wealth and their lives in the way of Allāh; they are the truthful ones.9 By means of the above āyāt, the meaning of imān has been restricted from both standpoints. By means of that, we are also able to state that imān is to confirm (that which is authorized by) Allāh and His Messenger  without suspicion or doubt, to perform jihād in the Way of Allāh by means of wealth and soul and without any further suspicion or doubt that jihād and other acts that are more inferior than jihād are included within (that which is classified as) Islāmic deeds, because jihād constitutes the peak of Islāmic deeds. Those people who abandon acts or deeds such as ṣalāt, zakāt and ḥajj for example, will not follow the act of carrying out jihād. And the decree of Allāh which states: َ ُ ‫ِٰ ن‬ ُ َ ‫ُٱ‬ َُْ ِ ‫…أو‬ “…they are the truthful ones.” is implying that there are those who perform the daʿwah of imān without proof. This group of people are lying in their daʿwah claims, or they are unable to assimilate that essence of imān with the true picture. They deem that imān is merely declamatory by means of the lips alone. This ayāh was revealed by Allāh specifically for this group of people. Because of that ayāh’s revelation by means of the particular grammatical stylization that indicates the demarcative qualification (‫(“ )إﳕﺎ‬verily) then”, and this indicates that those who do not have the qualities explained by the ayāh are not included amongst the group of the muʾminīn. Consider another ayāh with the same form as the above ayāh. Allāh decrees: 9 Surah Al Ḥujūrāt (49), ayāh 15. Page | 6
  15. 15. ََ ۡ َ َ َ ‫ۡ ِ ۡ ءا ٰ ُ ُ ۥ‬ ِ َ َ ۡ ُ ٰ َ ۡ ‫َ ٰ ة َ و ِ رز‬ َ َٞ ۡ ََ ۡ َّ َ ‫ِ رِِ و ِة‬ ُ َ ۡ ُُ ُُ ۡ َ َ ُ َ ُ َ َ ‫ذا‬ ِ ‫إِذا ذ ِ ٱ و‬ َ َ ُ َ ‫ر ِّ ِ ۡ َ َ َ ن ٱ ِ َ ُ ِ ُ ن ٱ‬ َ ٌ ٰ َ ‫َ ُ ُ ٱ ۡ ُ ۡ ِ ُ ن َ ّٗ ۚ ُ ۡ در‬ ََ ۡ ُۡ َ ‫إِ ٱ‬ ۡ َُۡ َ ِ ‫زاد إ‬ َ ُ ‫ُ ِ ن‬ ٞ ۡ َ ٞ َ ‫و ر زق‬ ِ ِ َ ِ ‫ِ ُ نٱ‬ َ َٰ َ ‫َ ٰٗ و‬ َُْ ِ ‫أو‬ Those only are believers whose hearts become full of fear when Allāh is mentioned, and when His communications are recited to them they increase them in faith, and in their Lord do they trust. Those who keep up prayer and spend (benevolently) out of what We have given them. These are the believers in truth; they shall have from their Lord exalted grades and forgiveness and an honorable sustenance.10 It is clear here that the sense of fear and terror in the heart increases imān, i.e., is confirmed by the heart and in addition strengthens trust in Allāh, all of which is a feeling that can be felt by the heart of a muʾmin. This means that imān is not merely an inert ratification within the heart, but that it constitutes a certain respondent release. After the emergence of this respondent release then is born the fulfilment of ṣalāt and zakat both of which are part of the acts of imān. After that Allāh also conveys His decree: ٞ َ ٞ ۡ َٞ َ ۡ ََ ۡ َّ َ َ ْ ٌ ٰ َ ‫أُو َ َ ُ ُ ٱ ۡ ُ ۡ ِ ُ ن َ ّٗ ۚ ُ ۡ در‬ ََ ‫ِ ر ِ ِ و ِ ة ورِزق‬ ِ ِ These are the believers in truth; they shall have from their Lord exalted grades and forgiveness and an honorable sustenance.11 10 11 Surah Al Anfāl (8), āyāt 2-4. Surah Al Anfāl (8), ayāh 4. Page | 7
  16. 16. This ayāh was revealed with the grammatical stylization (uslūb) of al-ḥaṣri (limited [to]) َ ُ ۡ ُۡ َ ‫إِ ٱ ِ ن‬ “Those only are believers whose…” Then Allāh accompanies it also with His decree: َ ُ ۡ ُۡ ُ ُ َ َُْ ‫ٱ ِ ن‬ ِ ‫أو‬ “These are the believers in truth;..” So that by that means Allāh demonstrates that there is imān that is not right, not true; imān that is invalid. When the time comes we would know that that invalid imān is in the form of false claims without proof or it permits matters that are khurāfāt (mythical, fictitious superstition) and matters that are still waham (imagined, illusion, delusion). By these means we are able to understand that imān, such as that which is contained within Al Qurʾān and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh  , possesses two meanings:i. ii. Permits/ratifies the khabar (‘communications, matters, notifications’) of Allāh and that of the Messenger of Allāh  . Firmly committed to the obligatory commands already ordered by Allāh to those who willingly acknowledge the khabar of Allāh. At this point, we are centred upon a specific question; Are we permitted to judge people who ratify (imān) within their hearts without the committance or commitment of such by means of acts or deeds – Do they believe (have imān)? In other words, whether they are considered to be successful muʾmiīn by means of testifying that “there is no ilāh except Allāh” within their hearts, yet they do not carry out that which has been commanded by Allāh and do not distance themselves from that which has been prohibited by Allāh. The answer to this question will be, inshāʾ Allāh be made clear by means of the following explanation. Page | 8
  17. 17. The dividing line or division of distinction between the ʿaqīdah (belief, creed, confirmation, attestation) of the heart that is in obedience to and accepts the commands of Allāh, as well as carrying out that which is demanded by Allāh of a muʾmin is what constitutes the ‘distinctive division’ that is able to help juxtapose the division in order to understand this matter. In reality this division/distinction has never existed and never occurred in the real world, because it is not reflected in the intellect of a person who heras the decree of Allāh that is addressed to ‘him’: “ O My servant, indeed there will be the Day of Resurrection, and on that Day I will mention all of your deeds, and if supposing you had done good I will enter you into Paradise, and if supposing you had done evil I ill enter you into Hell”. Then the servant will answer: “O my Lord, indeed I confirm all Your words, but I ask to be excused from carrying out all of Your commands because I am lazy”. This matter has already been explained by Imām Ibnul Qayyim  with the words: “It is unacceptable to the intellect the imān of a person who knows that ṣalāt is obligatory and he hears the call of Allāh every day within ‘his’ life: “Come to ṣalāt”, and ‘he’ never responded once to that throughout ‘his’ entire life”. I have already given an example of this fact to my friends by saying: “My brothers! What would be your opinion if it was the case that at the time we were sitting there came a person who said to us that fire surrounds this place, and that if the people present did not run quickly (from this place) then that fire would lick at and destroy us”. Would you think that a person who verifies what was said would remain at this place or flee? Would it be accepted by the intellect that amongst us would be a person who would say to that person (the one claiming that fire surrounded the place): “Brother, I have heard what you have said and understand the warning you have given, but I will excuse myself from being able to leave this place because I am lazy”. If there was found amongst us a person who said that, there would be no doubt that ‘he’ was insane, or ‘he’ was indeed denying the information delivered to ‘him’. It is an impossible matter for a person of full understanding (sane) and who acknowledges that above information to answer in such a manner. Faith in the heart and obedient compliance of the member parts; what I mean by this is, compliance and immediate carrying out of matters that have been commanded (to do so) constitute one issue that cannot be detached nor removed Page | 9
  18. 18. from. Assuming imān was availably found in the heart, then the one who possessed imān would immediately hasten to carry out good deeds and be obediently compliant to commands. This constitutes clear proof (dalīl), that is indisputable anymore except by those who imitate, those who blindly follow, people who deny or people who are ignorant. Nevertheless, there are still aḥādīth of the Messenger of Allāh  which can be understood (to mean) that imān and vouchsafing the heart may be ensured for someone to enter Paradise after having been in receipt of punishment, which no one knows for how long except Allāh. It can also be understood that those who possess imān such as this will not be (dwell) permanently in Hell in the manner of the permanent dwelling of the kāfirūn who have rejected Allāh. Inshāʾ Allāh I will present these aḥādīth at the end of this paper. What is important here is that we positively confirm that those who abandon deeds rightfully deserve to enter Hell and certainly they are included amongst and within that group of people who are in receipt of retribution; as for the matter of eternity in Hell, it is in fact a second issue.12 The public’s misunderstanding of this matter has had an enormous impact resulting in a number of groups being expelled from imān to kufūr without them realizing it. 12 Kufūr, according to the terminology of Al Qurʾān and the Sunnah, sometimes means major disbelief (Al Kufr al Akbar), that is, disbelief that expels a person from religion (Islām), and sometimes it carries the meaning of minor disbelief (Al Kufr aṣ-Ṣaghir), that is, disbelief that does not expel a person from religion (Islām). The matter of ‘time spent’ in Hell becomes the dividing line between the two kinds of kufūr. The first kind of kufūr leads to eternity in Hell, whereas the second kind of kufūr leads to the adverse promise (torture), but not to eternity in Hell. This does not mean that minor disbelief has been alleviated or lessened, because if a person had reaped happiness in this world and was immersed in Hell for a short while, then we asked him: “Did you feel pleasure before this?” He will answer: “By Allāh I have never felt pleasure at all”. The decree of Allāh: َ َ َ ‫َ ۡ ُ ن ٱ َ َ ٓ أَ َ َ ُ ۡ و َ ۡ َ ُ ن‬ َ ٞ َ ٞ َ ٌ َ َ َ ََۡ َ َُ َ ۡ َ ُ َ ُ َُ ٗ َ ُ ‫ِ ظ ِ اد‬ ‫ۡ ر و د ٱ س وٱ ِ رة‬ ِ ۡ ََ ُ ِ ‫ۡ وأ‬ َ ُ َ ‫َ َ َ ٱ ِ َ ء ا َ ُ ا ْ ُ ٓا ْ أ‬ َ َ ۡ ‫ُ َ ُ ون‬ O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones; over it are angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded. (Surāh At-Taḥrīm (66), ayāh 6). - Al Jamaʿah Al Islāmiyah, University of Kahirah. Page | 10
  19. 19. Therefore, O my ‘brothers’ in Islām, have dialogues amongst yourselves. Are you really and truly muʾmin? Supposing ‘brother’, you did not fulfil that which has already been declared obligatory (upon an individual) by Allāh to correct a ‘brother’s’ imān and a ‘brother’ often asks of ‘himself’: “Does the brother really and truly have faith and believe in Paradise?” If supposing a ‘brother’ has faith and believes in it, then why is the ‘brother’ silent and does not demand it? Does the ‘brother’ really and truly believe and have faith in Hell? After that then, does the ‘brother’ really and truly have faith in Allāh the One and Only…why does the ‘brother’ not endeavour and make efforts to search for and seek out His will? Why does the ‘brother’ not love Him? Why is the ‘brother’ not obedient and compliant to Him? Know that the Messenger of Allāh  required that mankind utters those words of imān without being compelled to follow it up with the (obedient) compliance to uphold commands, (and by that means then) surely people (mankind) would hasten to carry that out. However, the Messenger of Allāh  wanted (desired that) the emergence of obedience bring about the carrying out of commands after acknowledgement by the tongue. Because of that, the Messenger of Allāh  also carried out a treaty with the Muhajirīn so that they would sacrifice wealth and perform hijrah and he  made a binding treaty with both of those groups (Muhajirīn and Anṣār) in order to equally die in the Way of Allāh. He  did not promise them anything except Paradise after they had carried out deeds and jihād. After all of this, are there people with weak souls who still think that they will be rewarded with Paradise if they merely utter the words of imān with their tongues alone, without the encumbrance of rukūʿ and sujud (bowing and prostration in ṣalāt), without the spending of their wealth for the Way of Allāh even so much as a cent, without speaking truly before Allāh. Do they think that Paradise is what is due to them? …far…far away! Imān is faith and commitment, verification of the truth and deeds. Imān will not emerge without all of these. Page | 11
  20. 20. Imān, Mauḍūʿ and their Sharaṭ We already know that imān is taṣdīq (belief, faith, confirmation, attestation) accompanied by and with deeds. We also already know that taṣdīq and deeds are two matters that cannot be separated (cannot be detached form each other); when taṣdīq emerges then deeds emerge, and when taṣdīq does not emerge then deeds also do not emerge. Thus, what is it that is contained and encompassed within taṣdīq? And what is the message that must be justified (ratified) by the Muʾminīn? What is meant by taṣdīq here is that which encompasses and includes all unseen matters mentioned by Allāh  and the Messenger of Allāh . Whoever rejects and denies (any) part of that which has been related by Allāh and His Messenger , has faith that is meaningless. Inshāʾ Allāh, I will explain this matter when discussing those matters that invalidate imān. However, in order to classify or categorize someone as included within that group of people who have imān, ‘he’ must hold to the belief and be convinced of a number of basic principles contained within the words: ُ ‫ل اﻟ ٰﻠّﻪ‬ ُ ‫ُ َ َّ ٌ ر‬ َ ‫اﻟ ٰﻠّﻪ‬ َّ َ ٰ َ ِ‫إِ إ‬ What are those basic principles? a. ‘He’ must hold the belief (creed of belief) that what has created this universe and has command over all of its workings is Allāh the One and Only, living, all-powerful, and having perfect, unique attributes devoid of deficiencies and stigmatizations. ‘He’ must hold the belief that there is nothing whatsoever in partnership with Allāh in the creation of this universe. Allāh does not possess a wife nor children. Something other than Allāh is a servant of Allāh who submits to the commands and protection of Allāh even if it be a king, messenger, jinn or something else. b. ‘He’ must hold the belief that Allāh did not create this universe except with a purpose and not in vain, because Allāh is devoid of vanity and futility, and in fact Allāh created this universe for a purpose; that purpose was in order for those people who are muʾminīn to carry out submission and Page | 12
  21. 21. obedience to Allāh. The people who are disbelievers and do not not submit to the commands of Allāh and have no imān in Him are damned and are disassociated from His Mercy. c. ‘He’ must hold the belief that it is the right of authority of Allāh to organize and initiate the laws of life for His creation because it is Allāh who cerated and made these things. The decree of Allāh: َ َ َ ُ ۡ ۡ ‫… َ َ ُ ٱ ۡ َ ۡ ُ وٱ‬ …ۗ …Surely His is the creation and the command;…13 Because it is that the rightful authority for creation is only with and for Allāh, then the right to command is also under His authority. Thus, the ordainment of laws in all their forms is the authoritative right of Allāh, and any criticism of the laws and regulations of Allāh either in the form of rejecting or invalidating them, is disbelief and the annulling of prior imān. d. ‘He’ must devote ‘himself’ exclusively to Allāh by means of the ʿibādāt prescribed by Allāh. ‘He’ only makes duʿāʾ ro Allāh alone. ‘He’ does not carry out (any form of) mediation within ‘his’ duʿāʾ because Allāh is extremely close, approves the demands of those hwo make duʿāʾ, accepts the repentance of the person who seeks repentance and is compassionate to the person who asks for forgiveness. Whoever makes a dead person into a medium (intermediary) and asks of ‘him’ (the dead person), and not to Allāh, then ‘he’ has committed shirk, no matter how high the status of that medium was. e. ‘He’ must confirm (acknowledge the existence of) the Day of Judgement, Paradise, Hell and all information from the past or which will come without referring that information to the evaluation of ‘his’ intellect, so much so that by means of that evaluation ‘he’ makes a decision to accept what has been accepted by ‘his’ intellect and rejects that which was not accepted by ‘his’ intellect because this issue is the invalidation of imān. 13 Surah Al Aʿrāf (8), ayāh 54. Page | 13
  22. 22. This issue is deemed to invalidate imān on the basis that the role of the intellect in the matter of imān is only limited to acknowledging the truth of a messenger in the light of relating something received from Allāh. So, we only deliberate about his messengership and observe the information that has been brought by a messenger, so that we know with certitude that that messenger is applying the truth. Once we believe in and have faith in ‘his’ truth we must accept announcements about unseen issues that ‘he’ brings without making reconciling those announcements to the values of our intellects because the intellect is unable to comprehend something except within an understanding of matters that can be visibly witnessed; the intellect also rejects matters that are out of the ordinary. If we refer these unseen matters to the intellect, where then is the logic in accordance with the narrative we hear concerning Aṣ-Ṣirāṭ al Mustaqīm, which is finer than a strand of hair, and sharper than a sword; nevertheless the muʾminīn pass over it like lightning, in a blink of the eye and as fast as a swift horse rides.14 Where is the logic according 14 It is narrated in a number ṣaḥīḥ aḥādīth, that on the Day of Judgement in the future those people who have imān will cross Aṣ-Ṣirāṭ al Mustaqīm like lightning, like the blink of an eye and as swift as a horse. ٍ ٍ ‫َﱠ ُ ﱠُ ُ ِ ِ ِ َ َ َ ﱡ َﱠ ُ ﱠُ ُ َ ٍ َﱠ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺛـَﻨَﺎ ﳏَﻤﺪ ﺑْﻦ ﻃَﺮﻳﻒ ﺑْﻦ ﺧﻠِﻴﻔﺔَ اﻟْﺒَﺠﻠِﻲ، ﺣﺪﺛـَﻨَﺎ ﳏَﻤﺪ ﺑْﻦ ﻓُﻀْﻴﻞ، ﺣﺪﺛـَﻨَﺎ أَﺑُﻮ ﻣﺎﻟِﻚ اﻷَﺷﺠﻌِﻲ، ﻋﻦ أَﰊ ﺣﺎزٍم، ﻋﻦ أَﰊ ﻫﺮﻳْـﺮة، وأَﺑُﻮ ﻣﺎﻟِﻚ ﻋﻦ رﺑْﻌِﻲ، ﻋﻦ‬ َْ ‫َْ ِ ﱟ‬ َ َ ََ َ ُ ِ ْ َ ِ َ ِ ْ َ ‫ْ َ ﱡ‬ َ ِ ُ َ ‫ﺣﺬﻳْـﻔﺔَ، ﻗَﺎﻻَ ﻗَﺎل رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ " ﳚﻤﻊ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﺗَـﺒَﺎرك وﺗَـﻌﺎﱃ اﻟﻨﱠﺎس ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮم اﻟْﻤﺆﻣﻨُﻮن ﺣﱴ ﺗُـﺰﻟَﻒ ﳍُﻢ اﳉَﻨﱠﺔُ ﻓَـﻴَﺄْﺗُﻮن آدم ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن ﻳَﺎ أَﺑَﺎﻧَﺎ اﺳﺘَـﻔﺘِﺢ ﻟَﻨَﺎ‬ ْ ُ َ َ ْ ‫َ ُ ُ ُ ِْ َ َ ﱠ‬ َ َ َ ََ َ ُ ََ َ َ َُ ْ ْْ َُ ُ َ َْ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِْ ِ ُ ِ ِ ِ َ ُ ‫اﳉَﻨﱠﺔَ . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل وﻫﻞ أَﺧﺮﺟﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ اﳉَﻨﱠﺔ إِﻻﱠ ﺧﻄﻴﺌَﺔُ أَﺑِﻴﻜﻢ آدم ﻟَﺴﺖ ﺑِﺼﺎﺣﺐ ذﻟِﻚ اذﻫﺒُﻮا إِﱃ اﺑْﲏ إِﺑْـﺮاﻫﻴﻢ ﺧﻠِﻴﻞ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ - ﻗَﺎل - ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل إِﺑْـﺮاﻫﻴﻢ ﻟَﺴﺖ ﺑِﺼﺎﺣﺐ‬ ْ َ َ َ َ ِ َ َْ َ َ ِ َ ُ ْ ََ ْ ُ َ ْ ُ َ ُ ُ َ ْ َ َْ ْ ََ ُ ُ ِ ِ ِ ِْ ِ ‫ذَﻟِﻚ إِﳕَﺎ ﻛﻨْﺖ ﺧﻠِﻴﻼً ﻣﻦ وراء وراء اﻋﻤﺪوا إِﱃ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ اﻟﱠﺬي ﻛﻠﱠﻤﻪُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﺗَ ْﻠِﻴﻤﺎ . ﻓَـﻴَﺄْﺗُﻮن ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل ﻟَﺴﺖ ﺑِﺼﺎﺣ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ ُ َ ﺐ‬ َ ُ ُ َ َُ َ ُ َ ُ َ ََ َ ََ ْ ً ‫ﻜ‬ َ َ ِ‫ذﻟِﻚ اذﻫﺒﻮا إِﱃ ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﻛﻠِﻤﺔ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ وروﺣﻪ . ﻓَـﻴـﻘﻮل ﻋﻴﺴﻰ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻟَﺴﺖ ﺑِﺼﺎﺣﺐ ذﻟ‬ ِ ِ ِِ ِ ِ َ ِ َُْ ُ ُ ً‫َ ُ ﱠ‬ َ ُ‫ْ ُ َ ِ َ ﻚ . ﻓَـﻴَﺄْﺗُﻮن ﳏَﻤﺪا ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮم ﻓَـﻴُـﺆذن ﻟَﻪ‬ َُ َ َ َ َُ ْ َ َ َ ُ َُ ِ ٍ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ َ ُ ‫ﱡ ﱠ‬ ِ ‫وﺗُﺮﺳﻞ اﻷَﻣﺎﻧَﺔُ واﻟﺮﺣﻢ ﻓَـﺘَـﻘﻮﻣﺎن ﺟﻨَﺒَﱴ اﻟﺼﺮاط ﳝِﻴﻨًﺎ وﴰَﺎﻻً ﻓَـﻴَﻤﺮ أَوﻟُﻜﻢ ﻛﺎﻟْﺒَـﺮق " . ﻗَﺎل ﻗُ ْﻠﺖ ﺑِﺄَﰊ أَﻧْﺖ وأُﻣﻲ أَى ﺷﻰء ﻛﻤﺮ اﻟْﺒَـﺮق ﻗَﺎل " أَﱂْ ﺗَـﺮوا إِﱃ اﻟْﺒَـﺮق ﻛْﻴﻒ‬ َ َ ْ َ َْ َ َ ْ ‫َ ـ ُ ِ َ َ ﱢ ﱡ َ ْ َ َﱢ‬ ْ ْ ُ َ َ َ ‫َ ـ ْ َ ُ َ َ ﱠ ُ ُ َ َ َِ ﱢ‬ ِ ِ ِ ‫َُﺮ وﻳَـﺮﺟﻊ ِﰲ ﻃَْﺮﻓَﺔ ﻳْﻦ ُﱠ ﻛﻤﺮ اﻟﺮﻳﺢ ُﱠ ﻛﻤﺮ اﻟﻄﱠﲑ وﺷﺪ اﻟﺮﺟﺎل ﲡﺮي ِِﻢ أَﻋﻤﺎﳍُﻢ وﻧَﺒِﻴﱡﻜﻢ ﻗَﺎﺋِﻢ ﻋﻠَﻰ اﻟﺼﺮاط ﻳـَﻘﻮل رب ﺳﻠﱢﻢ ﺳﻠﱢﻢ ﺣﱴ ﺗَـﻌﺠﺰ أَﻋﻤﺎل اﻟْﻌِﺒَﺎد‬ ُ َ ْ َ ِ ْ ‫ﱢَ ِ ُ ُ َ ﱢ َ ْ َ ْ َ ﱠ‬ َ ٌ ْ ُ َ ْ ُ َ ْ ْ ِ ْ َ ِ َ ‫ٍ ﰒ َ َ ﱢ ﱢ ِ ﰒ َ َ ﱢ ِْ َ َ ﱢ ﱢ‬ ُ ْ َ ‫ﳝﱡ‬ ِ ِ ِ ِ َِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ . " ‫ﺣﱴ ﳚﻲءَ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓَﻼَ ﻳَﺴﺘَﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﺴﻴْـﺮ إِﻻﱠ زﺣﻔﺎ - ﻗَﺎل - وِﰲ ﺣﺎﻓَـﱴ اﻟﺼﺮاط ﻛﻼَﻟِﻴﺐ ﻣﻌﻠﱠﻘ ٌ ﻣﺄْﻣﻮرٌ ﺑِﺄَﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ أُﻣﺮت ﺑِﻪ ﻓَﻤﺨﺪوش ﻧَﺎج وﻣ ْﺪوس ِﰲ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر‬ ًْ َ َ ‫ْ ِ ُ ﱠ‬ َ ٌ ُ ‫َ َ َ َِ ﱢ َ َ ُ ُ َ َ ﺔ َ ُ َة ْ َ ْ َ ْ َ ْ ُ ٌ ٍ َ َ ﻜ‬ ُ ُ‫ﱠ‬ َِ َ ُ ‫َ ِ ْ ِ ُ َ ََ ِ ﱠ‬ . ‫واﻟﱠﺬي ﻧـَﻔﺲ أَﰊ ﻫﺮﻳْـﺮة ﺑِﻴَﺪﻩِ إِن ﻗَـﻌﺮ ﺟﻬﻨﱠﻢ ﻟَﺴﺒْـﻌﻮن ﺧﺮﻳﻔﺎ‬ ً َ َ َ َ َْ ُ It is narrated on the authority of Muḥammad bin Ṭarīq bin Khalīfat An-Njalī, from the ḥadīth of Muḥammad bin Fuḥammad, from the ḥadīth of Abū Mālik Al ʾAshjaʿī, from Abī Ḥāzim, from Abī Huraiah and Abū Mālik from Riʿiyy, from Ḥudhaifah who said that the Messenger of Allāh () said: Allāh, the Blessed and Exalted, would gather people. The believers would stand till the Paradise would be brought near them. They would come to ◊dam () and say: O our father, open for us the Paradise. He would say: What turned you out from the Paradise was the sin of your father ◊dam. I am not in a position to do that; better go to my son Ibrāhīm (), the Friend of Allāh. He (the Holy Prophet) said: He (Ibrāhīm ) would say: I am not in a position to do that. Verily I had been the Friend (of Allāh) from beyond, beyond; you better approach Moses () with whom Allāh conversed. They would come to Moses (), but he would say: I am not in a position to do that; you better go to Jesus, the Word of Allāh and His Spirit. Jesus () would say: I am not in a position to do that. So they would come to Muḥammad (). He would then be permitted (to open the door of Paradise). Trustworthiness and kinship would be dispatched, and Page | 14
  23. 23. ‫‪these would stand on the right and left of the Path and the first of you would pass with (the swiftness) of‬‬ ‫‪lightning. He (the narrator) said: I said, O you are far dearer to me than my father and my mother I which‬‬ ‫‪thing is like the passing of lightning? He said: Have you not seen lightning, how it passes and then comes‬‬ ‫‪back within the twinkling of an eye? Then (they would pass) like the passing of the wind, then like the‬‬ ‫‪passing of a bird, and the hastening of persons would be according to their deeds, and your Messenger‬‬ ‫‪would be standing on the Path saying: Save, O my Lord, save. (The people would go on passing) till the‬‬ ‫‪deeds of the servants would be failing in strength, till a man would come who would find it hard to go along‬‬ ‫‪(that Path) but crawlingly. He (the narrator) said: And on the sides of the Path hooks would be suspended‬‬ ‫‪ready to catch anyone whom these would be required (to catch). There would be those who would somehow‬‬ ‫‪or other succeed in traversing that Path and some would be piled up in Hell. By Him in Whose Hand is the‬‬ ‫.)591 ‪life of Abū Hurairah it would take one seventy years to fathom the depth of Hell. (Muslim‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ ِ ِ‬ ‫وﺣﺪﺛَﲏ ﺳﻮﻳْﺪ ﺑْﻦ ﺳﻌِﻴﺪ، ﻗَﺎل ﺣﺪﺛَﲏ ﺣﻔﺺ ﺑْﻦ ﻣْﻴﺴﺮةَ، ﻋﻦ زﻳْﺪ ﺑْﻦ أَﺳﻠَﻢ، ﻋﻦ ﻋﻄَﺎء ﺑْﻦ ﻳَﺴﺎر، ﻋﻦ أَﰊ ﺳﻌِﻴﺪ اﳋُﺪري، أَن ﻧَﺎﺳﺎ، ِﰲ زﻣﻦ رﺳﻮل‬ ‫َ َ ﱠ ِ َ ْ ُ ُ َ ََ َ ْ َ ِ ْ َ َ ْ َ‬ ‫َ َُ‬ ‫ِْْﱢ ﱠ ً‬ ‫َ َ ﱠ ِ َُ ُ ُ َ‬ ‫ِ َ ٍ َْ ِ َ‬ ‫ﱡ َ ِْ‬ ‫ِ ِ َ ُ ِ‬ ‫َ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻗَﺎﻟُﻮا ﻳَﺎ رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻫﻞ ﻧَـﺮى رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﻳـَﻮم اﻟْﻘﻴَﺎﻣﺔ ﻗَﺎل رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ " ﻧـَﻌﻢ " . ﻗَﺎل " ﻫﻞ ﺗُﻀﺎرون ِﰲ رؤﻳَﺔ‬ ‫َ َْ َ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫َ ْ َ َ َْ َ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﺸْ ِ ِ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َ ٌ َ َ َ ﱡ َ ُْ ِ َ َ ِ‬ ‫اﻟ ﱠﻤﺲ ﺑِﺎﻟﻈﱠﻬﲑةِ ﺻﺤﻮا ﻟَْﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺳﺤﺎب وﻫﻞ ﺗُﻀﺎرون ِﰲ رؤﻳَﺔ اﻟْﻘﻤﺮ ﻟَﻴْـﻠَﺔَ اﻟْﺒَﺪر ﺻﺤﻮا ﻟَْﻴﺲ ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺤﺎب " . ﻗَﺎﻟُﻮا ﻻَ ﻳَﺎ رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ . ﻗَﺎل "‬ ‫َُ َ ِ َ‬ ‫ْ ِ َ ًْ َ َ َ َ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ َ ًْ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺗُﻀﺎرون ِﰲ رؤﻳَﺔ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺗَـﺒَﺎرك وﺗَـﻌﺎﱃ ﻳـَﻮم اﻟْﻘﻴَﺎﻣﺔ إِﻻﱠ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗُﻀﺎرون ِﰲ رؤﻳَﺔ أَﺣﺪﳘَﺎ إِذا ﻛﺎن ﻳـَﻮم اﻟْﻘﻴَﺎﻣﺔ أَ ﱠن ﻣﺆ ﱢن ﻟِﻴَﺘﱠﺒِﻊ ﻛﻞ أُﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧَﺖ ﺗَـﻌﺒُﺪ .‬ ‫َ َ ﱡ َ ُ ْ ِ ِ َ َ َ َ َ ْ َ ِ َ ِ َ َ َ ﱡ َ ُ ْ ِ َ ِ َ َ َ ْ ُ ِ َ ِ ذ َ ُ َذ ٌ ْ ُ ﱡ ﱠ ٍ َ َ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٌَ َ ُ َ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ َﱠ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُ ِ ْ ﱟ َ ِ ٍ‬ ‫ﻓَﻼَ ﻳـَﺒْـﻘﻰ أَﺣﺪ ﻛﺎن ﻳـَﻌﺒُﺪ ﻏﻴْـﺮ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺳْﺒﺤﺎﻧَﻪُ ﻣﻦ اﻷَﺻﻨَﺎم واﻷَﻧْﺼﺎب إِﻻﱠ ﻳـَﺘَﺴﺎﻗَﻄُﻮن ِﰲ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر ﺣﱴ إِذا ﱂْ ﻳـَْﺒﻖ إِﻻﱠ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎن ﻳـَﻌﺒُﺪ اﻟﻠﱠﻪَ ﻣﻦ ﺑـَﺮ وﻓَﺎﺟﺮ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ َ َ ْ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍِ‬ ‫ﱠَ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫و ُﱪ أَﻫﻞ اﻟْﻜﺘَﺎب ﻓَـﻴُﺪﻋﻰ اﻟْﻴَـﻬﻮد ﻓَـﻴُـﻘﺎل ﳍُﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨْﺘُﻢ ﺗَـﻌﺒُﺪون ﻗَﺎﻟُﻮا ﻛﻨﱠﺎ ﻧـَﻌﺒُﺪ ُﺰﻳْـﺮ اﺑْﻦ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ . ﻓَـﻴُـﻘﺎل ﻛﺬﺑْـﺘُﻢ ﻣﺎ اﲣَﺬ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒَﺔ وﻻَ وﻟَﺪ ﻓَﻤﺎذَا‬ ‫َ ﻏ ﱠِ ْ ِ ِ ِ ْ َ ُ ُ َ ُ َ ْ َ ُ ْ ْ ُ َ‬ ‫َ ُ ََ ْ َ‬ ‫ْ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ ُ ﻋَ َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺗَـﺒْـﻐُﻮن ﻗَﺎﻟُﻮا ﻋﻄﺸﻨَﺎ ﻳَﺎ رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﻓَﺎﺳﻘﻨَﺎ . ﻓَـﻴُﺸﺎر إِﻟَْﻴﻬﻢ أَﻻَ ﺗَﺮدون ﻓَـﻴُﺤﺸﺮون إِﱃ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر ﻛﺄَﻧﱠﻬﺎ ﺳﺮاب ﳛﻄﻢ ﺑـَﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑـَﻌﻀﺎ ﻓَـﻴَﺘَﺴﺎﻗَﻄُﻮن ِﰲ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر . ُﱠ ﻳُﺪﻋﻰ‬ ‫َ ُ ِ ْ ُِ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ ِ َ ـ َ َ َ ٌ َ ْ ِ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ ً َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ ﰒ َْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍِ‬ ‫ﱠَ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﱠﺼﺎرى ﻓَـﻴُـﻘﺎل ﳍُﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻛْﻨﺘُﻢ ﺗَـﻌﺒُﺪون ﻗَﺎﻟُﻮا ﻛﻨﱠﺎ ﻧـَﻌﺒُﺪ اﻟْﻤﺴﻴﺢ اﺑْﻦ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ . ﻓَـﻴُـﻘﺎل ﳍُﻢ ﻛﺬﺑْـﺘُﻢ . ﻣﺎ اﲣَﺬ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺎﺣﺒَﺔ وﻻَ وﻟَﺪ . ﻓَـﻴُـﻘﺎل ﳍُﻢ ﻣﺎذَا‬ ‫ََ َ ُ َْ َ ُ ْ ْ ُ َ‬ ‫ْ َ‬ ‫َ ُ َْ َ‬ ‫َ ُ َ ْ ََ ْ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺗَـﺒْـﻐُﻮن ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن ﻋﻄﺸﻨَﺎ ﻳَﺎ رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﻓَﺎﺳﻘﻨَﺎ . - ﻗَﺎل - ﻓَـﻴُﺸﺎر إِﻟَْﻴﻬﻢ أَﻻَ ﺗَﺮدون ﻓَـﻴُﺤﺸﺮون إِﱃ ﺟﻬﻨﱠﻢ ﻛﺄَﻧـﱠﻬﺎ ﺳﺮاب ﳛﻄﻢ ﺑـَﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑـَﻌﻀﺎ ﻓَـﻴَﺘَﺴﺎﻗَﻄُﻮن ِﰲ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ ُ ِ ْ ُِ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ٌ َ ْ ِ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ ً َ َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ ُ َ َ ْ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﱠﺎر ﺣﱴ إِذا ﱂْ ﻳـَْﺒﻖ إِﻻﱠ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎن ﻳـَﻌﺒُﺪ اﻟﻠﱠﻪَ ﺗَـﻌﺎﱃ ﻣﻦ ﺑـَﺮ وﻓَﺎﺟﺮ أَﺗَﺎﻫﻢ رب اﻟْﻌﺎﻟَﻤﲔ ﺳْﺒﺤﺎﻧَﻪُ وﺗَـﻌﺎﱃ ِﰲ أَدﱏ ﺻﻮرةٍ ﻣﻦ اﻟﱠﱵ رأَوﻩُ ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ . ﻗَﺎل ﻓَﻤﺎ‬ ‫َ َ ِْ ﱟ َ ٍِ ُْ َ ﱡ َ ِ َ ُ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫ِ َﱠ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُ‬ ‫َْ ُ َ َ ِ َْ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺗَـْﻨﺘَﻈﺮون ﺗَـْﺘﺒَﻊ ﻛﻞ أُﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧَﺖ ﺗَـﻌﺒُﺪ . ﻗَﺎﻟُﻮا ﻳَﺎ رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﻓَﺎرﻗْـﻨَﺎ اﻟﻨﱠﺎس ِﰲ اﻟﺪﻧْـﻴَﺎ أَﻓْـﻘﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﱠﺎ إِﻟَْﻴﻬﻢ َﱂْ ﻧُﺼﺎﺣﺒْـﻬﻢ . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل أَﻧَﺎ رﺑﱡﻜﻢ . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن ﻧـَﻌﻮذُ‬ ‫ُِ َ ُ ُ ﱡ ﱠ ٍ َ َ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ﱡ َ َ َ ُ ِ ْ وَ َ ُ ْ ُ ُ َ ُ ْ ُ َ ُ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺔ ِْ‬ ‫ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﻨْﻚ ﻻَ ﻧُﺸﺮك ﺑِﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺷﻴْﺌًﺎ - ﻣﺮﺗَـﲔ أَو ﺛَﻼَﺛًﺎ - ﺣﱴ إِن ﺑـَﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻟَﻴَﻜﺎد أَن ﻳـَﻨْـﻘﻠِﺐ . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل ﻫﻞ ﺑـَﻴْـﻨَﻜﻢ وﺑـَﻴْـﻨَﻪُ آﻳٌَ ﻓَـﺘَـﻌﺮﻓُﻮﻧَﻪُ ِ َﺎ ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن ﻧـَﻌﻢ .‬ ‫ْ ُِ ِ َ‬ ‫ِِ َ‬ ‫َﱠ ْ ِ ْ‬ ‫ُ َ َْ‬ ‫َﱠ ﱠ ْ َُ ْ َ ُ ْ َ َ ُ ُ َ ْ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ َ ُُ َ ِ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُُ ِِ ِ ْ َِ ِ ْ ِِ َِ‬ ‫ﻓَـﻴُ ْﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎق ﻓَﻼَ ﻳـَﺒْـﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎن ﻳَﺴﺠﺪ ﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠْﻘﺎء ﻧـَﻔﺴﻪ إِﻻﱠ أَذن اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﻟَﻪُ ﺑِﺎﻟﺴﺠﻮد وﻻَ ﻳـَﺒْـﻘﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎن ﻳَﺴﺠﺪ اﺗﱢـﻘﺎءً ورﻳَﺎءً إِﻻﱠ ﺟﻌﻞ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ‬ ‫ﻜ َ ُ َْ َ‬ ‫ﱡُ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ََ َ‬ ‫ﻇَﻬﺮﻩُ ﻃَﺒَـﻘﺔً واﺣﺪة ﻛﻠﱠﻤﺎ أَراد أَن ﻳَﺴﺠﺪ ﺧﺮ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻗَـﻔﺎﻩُ . ُﱠ ﻳَـﺮﻓَـﻌﻮن رءُوﺳﻬﻢ وﻗَﺪ ﲢَﻮل ِﰲ ﺻﻮرﺗِﻪ اﻟﱠﱵ رأَوﻩ ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ أَول ﻣﺮةٍ ﻓَـﻘﺎل أَﻧَﺎ رﺑﱡﻜﻢ . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن‬ ‫ْ َ َ َ ِ َ ً ُ َ َ َ ْ ْ ُ َ َ ﱠ َ َ ﰒ ْ ُ َ ُ َ ُ ْ َ ْ َ ﱠ َ ُ َ ِ ِ َ ْ ُ َ ﱠ َ َﱠ َ َ َ ُ ْ ُ َ‬ ‫ِﺔ ِ‬ ‫َ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫أَﻧْﺖ رﺑـﱡﻨَﺎ . ُﱠ ﻳُﻀﺮب اﳉِﺴﺮ ﻋﻠَﻰ ﺟﻬﻨﱠﻢ وﲢﻞ اﻟﺸﻔﺎﻋﺔُ وﻳـَﻘﻮﻟُﻮن اﻟﻠﱠﻬﻢ ﺳﻠﱢﻢ ﺳﻠﱢﻢ " . ﻗِﻴﻞ ﻳَﺎ رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ وﻣﺎ اﳉِﺴﺮ ﻗَﺎل " دﺣﺾ ﻣﺰﻟﱠ ٌ . ﻓِﻴﻪ‬ ‫ََ ْ ُْ َ َ ْ ٌ َ‬ ‫َ َُ‬ ‫َ َ ﰒ َْ ُ ْ ْ ُ َ َ َ َ ََ ﱡ ﱠ َ َ َ ُ َ ُ ﱠ َ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫َ ِ ُ وَ ُ َ َ َ ٌ ُ ُ ْ ٍ َ ُ َ َ ﺔ َ ُ َ ﱠ ْ َ ُ ُ ﱡ ُ ْ ِ َ َ ْ ِ َ ْ ِ وَ ْ ِ وَ ﱢ ِ وَ ِْ وَ َ ِ ِ ْ ِ‬ ‫ﺧﻄَﺎﻃﻴﻒ َﻛﻼَﻟِﻴﺐ وﺣﺴﻚ ﺗَﻜﻮن ﺑِﻨَﺠﺪ ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ ﺷﻮﻳْﻜ ٌ ﻳـُﻘﺎل ﳍَﺎ اﻟﺴﻌﺪان ﻓَـﻴَﻤﺮ اﻟْﻤﺆﻣﻨُﻮن ﻛﻄَﺮف اﻟْﻌﲔ َﻛﺎﻟْﺒَـﺮق َﻛﺎﻟﺮﻳﺢ َﻛﺎﻟﻄﱠﲑ َﻛﺄَﺟﺎوﻳﺪ اﳋَْﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺮَ ِ‬ ‫ِ َ َ َ َ ﱠ َ َ َ ُ ِْ َ ِ َ ِ َ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ ِ ُ ْ ِ ْ َ ٍ َ ﱠ‬ ‫و ﻛﺎب ﻓَـﻨَﺎج ﻣﺴﻠﱠﻢ وَْﺪوش ﻣﺮﺳﻞ وﻣ ْﺪوس ِﰲ ﻧَﺎر ﺟﻬﻨﱠﻢ . ﺣﱴ إِذا ﺧﻠَﺺ اﻟْﻤﺆﻣﻨُﻮن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر ﻓَـﻮاﻟﱠﺬي ﻧـَﻔﺴﻲ ﺑِﻴَﺪﻩِ ﻣﺎ ﻣْﻨﻜﻢ ﻣﻦ أَﺣﺪ ﺑِﺄَﺷﺪ‬ ‫َﱢ‬ ‫ٍ ُ َ ٌ َﳐ ُ ٌ ُ ْ َ ٌ َ َ ﻜ ُ ٌ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ََ ِ‬ ‫ﻣﻨَﺎﺷﺪةً ﻟِﻠﱠﻪ ِﰲ اﺳﺘِﻘﺼﺎء اﳊَﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟْﻤﺆﻣﻨِﲔ ﻟِﻠﱠﻪ ﻳـَﻮم اﻟْﻘﻴَﺎﻣﺔ ﻹﺧﻮا ِِﻢ اﻟﱠﺬﻳﻦ ِﰲ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر ﻳـَﻘﻮﻟُﻮن رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﻛﺎﻧُﻮا ﻳَﺼﻮﻣﻮن ﻣﻌﻨَﺎ وﻳُﺼﻠﱡﻮن وﳛُﺠﻮن . ﻓَـﻴُـﻘﺎل‬ ‫ُ ُ َ ََ َ َ َ ََ ﱡ َ َ ُ‬ ‫ِ ُ ََ َ‬ ‫ْ ْ َ ْ ﱢ َ ُْ َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َْ َ ِ َْ ُ َ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ أَﺧﺮﺟﻮا ﻣﻦ ﻋﺮﻓْـﺘﻢ . ﻓَـﺘﺤﺮم ﺻﻮرﻫﻢ ﻋﻠَﻰ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر ﻓَـﻴﺨﺮﺟﻮن ﺧﻠْﻘﺎ ﻛﺜﲑا ﻗَﺪ أَﺧﺬت اﻟﻨﱠﺎر إِﱃ ﻧِﺼﻒ ﺳﺎﻗَـﻴﻪ وإِﱃ ﻛﺒﺘـﻴﻪ ُﱠ ﻳـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن رﺑـﱠﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻓِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ َ رْ ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ َ ً َ ْ َِ‬ ‫َ ْ ِ‬ ‫َُ ْ ْ ِ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ُ ََ ْ ﰒ َ ُ َ َ َ َ َ َ ﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ُ َ ْ ََ ُ ْ ُ َ ﱠ ُ ُ َ ُ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫أَﺣﺪ ِﳑﱠﻦ أَﻣﺮﺗَـﻨَﺎ ﺑِﻪ . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل ارﺟﻌﻮا ﻓَﻤﻦ وﺟﺪﰎ ِﰲ ﻗَـﻠْﺒِﻪ ﻣﺜْـﻘﺎل دﻳﻨَﺎر ﻣﻦ ﺧﲑ ﻓَﺄَﺧﺮﺟﻮﻩُ . ﻓَـﻴُﺨﺮﺟﻮن ﺧﻠْﻘﺎ ﻛﺜِﲑا ُﱠ ﻳـَﻘﻮﻟُﻮن رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﱂْ ﻧَﺬر ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ أَﺣﺪا‬ ‫ُِْ َ َ ً َ ً ﰒ ُ َ َ َ َْ َ َ ً‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُْ‬ ‫َ َ ٍ ْ َ ٍْ ْ ِ ُ‬ ‫َ ٌ ْ َْ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ ِ ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ِﳑﱠﻦ أَﻣﺮﺗَـﻨَﺎ . ُﱠ ﻳـَﻘﻮل ارﺟﻌﻮا ﻓَﻤﻦ وﺟﺪﰎ ِﰲ ﻗَـﻠْﺒِﻪ ﻣﺜْـﻘﺎل ﻧِﺼﻒ دﻳﻨَﺎر ﻣﻦ ﺧﲑ ﻓَﺄَﺧﺮﺟﻮﻩُ . ﻓَـﻴُﺨﺮﺟﻮن ﺧﻠْﻘﺎ ﻛﺜِﲑا ُﱠ ﻳـَﻘﻮﻟُﻮن رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﱂْ ﻧَﺬر ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ ِﳑﱠﻦ‬ ‫ْ َ ْ ﰒ ُ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُْ‬ ‫ََ ْ‬ ‫ُِْ َ َ ً َ ً ﰒ ُ َ َ َ َْ َ ْ‬ ‫ٍ ْ َ ٍْ ْ ِ ُ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫أَﻣﺮﺗَـﻨَﺎ أَﺣﺪا . ُﱠ ﻳـَﻘﻮل ارﺟﻌﻮا ﻓَﻤﻦ وﺟﺪﰎ ِﰲ ﻗَـﻠْﺒِﻪ ﻣﺜْـﻘﺎل ذرةٍ ﻣﻦ ﺧﲑ ﻓَﺄَﺧﺮﺟﻮﻩ . ﻓَـﻴُﺨﺮﺟﻮن ﺧﻠْﻘﺎ ﻛﺜِﲑا ُﱠ ﻳـَﻘﻮﻟُﻮن رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ ﱂْ ﻧَﺬر ﻓِﻴﻬﺎ ﺧﻴْـﺮا " .‬ ‫َ ْ َ ً ﰒ ُ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُْ‬ ‫َ َ َ ﱠ ْ َ ٍْ ْ ِ ُ ُ‬ ‫ْ ُ َ َ ً َ ً ﰒ ُ َ َ َ َْ َ َ ً‬ ‫ِ ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وَ َ َ ٍ ْ ْ ِ ﱡ ُ ُ ْ َ َ ﱢ ِ َ ْ ِ ِ َ ْ ِ ْ ﱠ‬ ‫َﻛﺎن أَﺑُﻮ ﺳﻌِﻴﺪ اﳋُﺪري ﻳـَﻘﻮل إِن ﱂْ ﺗُﺼﺪﻗُﻮﱐ ِ َﺬا اﳊَﺪﻳﺚ ﻓَﺎﻗْـﺮءُوا إِن ﺷْﺌﺘُﻢ } إِن اﻟﻠﱠﻪَ ﻻَ ﻳَﻈْﻠِﻢ ﻣﺜْـﻘﺎل ذرة وإِن ﺗَﻚ ﺣﺴﻨَﺔً ﻳُﻀﺎﻋِﻔﻬﺎ وﻳـُﺆت ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ُ َ َ َ ﱠٍ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ ْ‬ ‫51 | ‪Page‬‬
  24. 24. ِ ِ ِ ِِ ِ ِ ‫ﻟَﺪﻧْﻪُ أَﺟﺮا ﻋﻈﻴﻤﺎ{ " ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﻋﺰ وﺟﻞ ﺷﻔﻌﺖ اﻟْﻤﻼَﺋِﻜﺔُ وﺷﻔﻊ اﻟﻨﱠﺒِﻴﱡﻮن وﺷﻔﻊ اﻟْﻤﺆﻣﻨُﻮن وﱂْ ﻳـَْﺒﻖ إِﻻﱠ أَرﺣﻢ اﻟﺮاﲪﲔ ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﺒِﺾ ﻗَـْﺒﻀﺔً ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﱠﺎر‬ ُ ُ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ‫َﱠ َ َ ﱠ‬ ً َ ًْ ُ َ َ ُ ْ َ ‫َ َ َ َ َ ُ ْ َ ََ َ ْ َ ُ ﱠ‬ ٍ ْ ْ ِ ِ ً ُ ُ َ ْ ‫ْﺮُ ِ َ ْ ً َ ْ َ َ ﱡ‬ ِ ‫َِ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓَـﻴُﺨ ِج ﻣﻨْـﻬﺎ ﻗَـﻮﻣﺎ ﱂْ ﻳـَﻌﻤﻠُﻮا ﺧﻴْـﺮا ﻗَﻂ ﻗَﺪ ﻋﺎدوا ﲪَﻤﺎ ﻓَـﻴُـﻠْﻘﻴﻬﻢ ِﰲ ﻧـَﻬﺮ ِﰲ أَﻓْـﻮاﻩِ اﳉَﻨﱠﺔ ﻳـُﻘﺎل ﻟَﻪُ ﻧـَﻬﺮ اﳊَﻴَﺎةِ ﻓَـﻴَﺨﺮﺟﻮن ﻛﻤﺎ ﲣُْج اﳊِﺒﱠﺔُ ِﰲ ﲪﻴﻞ اﻟﺴْﻴﻞ‬ ْ ُ‫ُْ ُ َ َ َ َ ﺮ‬ ْ ُْ ُ َ ِ ْ َ ً ِ ِ ‫ُ ُ َ ْ ِ َ ﺸ ِ ُ ُ َ ﱠ‬ ِ ‫أَﻻَ ﺗَـﺮوﻧـَﻬﺎ ﺗَﻜﻮن إِﱃ اﳊﺠﺮ أَو إِﱃ اﻟ ﱠﺠﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن إِﱃ اﻟﺸﻤﺲ أُﺻﻴﻔﺮ وأُﺧﻴﻀﺮ وﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻨْـﻬﺎ إِﱃ اﻟﻈﱢﻞ ﻳﻜﻮن أَﺑـﻴﺾ " . ﻓَـﻘﺎﻟُﻮا ﻳﺎ رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠ‬ ُِ ُ ِ ‫َ َ َُ َ ﻪ‬ َ َْ ُ ُ َ ‫َ َ ﱢ‬ ْ ْ ََ َ َْ َ َ َ ُ ْ َ َ ُ َْ َ َ َ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ ِ ِْ ِِ ِ‫ﻛﺄَﻧﱠﻚ ﻛْﻨﺖ ﺗَـﺮﻋﻰ ﺑِﺎﻟْﺒﺎدﻳﺔ ﻗَﺎل " ﻓَـﻴﺨﺮﺟﻮن ﻛﺎﻟﻠﱡﺆﻟُﺆ ِﰲ رﻗَﺎ ِِﻢ اﳋَﻮاﰎُ ﻳـﻌﺮﻓُﻬﻢ أَﻫﻞ اﳉﻨﱠﺔ ﻫﺆﻻَء ﻋﺘَـﻘﺎء اﻟﻠﱠﻪ اﻟﱠﺬﻳﻦ أَدﺧﻠَﻬﻢ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ اﳉﻨﱠﺔَ ﺑ‬ ِ ِ ْ َ َ ُ ْ َ َ َ َ َْ َ ُ َ َ ٍ َ َ ِْ ‫َْ ﻐَﲑ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ُ ُ ُ َ َ ُ ْ ْ ُ‫ُ َ َِْـ‬ ُُ َْ َ ُ ِ ‫ﻋﻤﻠُﻮﻩ وﻻَ ﺧﲑ ﻗَ ﱠﻣﻮﻩ ُﱠ ﻳـﻘﻮل ادﺧﻠُﻮا اﳉﻨﱠﺔَ ﻓَﻤﺎ رأَﻳـﺘﻤﻮﻩ ﻓَـﻬﻮ ﻟَﻜﻢ . ﻓَـﻴـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن رﺑـﱠﻨﺎ أَﻋﻄَﻴﺘـﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﺗُـﻌﻂ أَﺣﺪا ﻣﻦ اﻟْﻌﺎﻟَﻤﲔ . ﻓَـﻴـﻘﻮل ﻟَﻜﻢ ﻋْﻨ‬ ِ ُ ُ ُ ِ ً ِ َ َ ْ َ َ ُ ِ ِ ‫ْ ﺪي‬ َ َ َ َ َ ْ ْ َ َْ َ ْ ُ َ ُ ُ ُ ُْ َ َ َْ ُ ْ ُ ُ َ ‫َ ُ َ َ ٍْ ﺪ ُ ُ ﰒ‬ َ ِ . " ‫أَﻓْﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮﻟُﻮن ﻳَﺎ رﺑـﱠﻨَﺎ أَى ﺷﻰء أَﻓْﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا . ﻓَـﻴَـﻘﻮل رﺿﺎى ﻓَﻼَ أَﺳﺨﻂ ﻋﻠَْﻴﻜﻢ ﺑـَﻌﺪﻩُ أَﺑَﺪا‬ ََ ْ ِ ُ َ ٍْ َ ‫َ ُ ِ ْ ََ ُ َ َ ﱡ‬ ً َْ ْ ُ َ ُ َ ْ َ َ ُ ُ And it was reported to me by Suwaid bin Saʿīd, who reported from Ḥafṣu bin Maisarat, from Zaid bin Aslam, from ʿAṭāʾi bin Yasār, from Abī Saʿīd Al Khudri: Some people during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allāh  said: Messenger of Allāh! Shall we see our Lord on the Day of Resurrection? The Messenger of Allāh  said: Yes, and added: Do you feel any trouble in seeing the sun at noon with no cloud over it, and do you feel trouble in seeing the moon (open) in the full moonlit night with no cloud over it? They said: No, Messenger of Allāh! He (the Holy Prophet) said: You will not feel any trouble in seeing Allāh on the Day of Resurrection any more than you do in seeing any one of them. When the Day of Resurrection comes a Muʾadhdhin (a proclaimer) would proclaim: Let every people follow what they used to worship. Then all who worshipped idols and stones besides Allāh would fall into the Fire, till only the righteous and the vicious and some of the people of the Book who worshipped Allāh are left. Then the Jews would be summoned, and it would be said to them: What did you worship? They will say: We worshipped ʿUzair, son of Allāh. It would be said to them: You tell a lie; Allāh had never had a spouse or a son. What do you want now? They would say: We feel thirsty, O our Lord! Quench our thirst. They would be directed (to a certain direction) and asked: Why don't you go there to drink water? Then they would be pushed towards the Fire (and they would find to their great dismay that) it was but a mirage (and the raging flames of fire) would be consuming one another, and they would fall into the Fire. Then the Christians would be summoned and it would be said to them: What did you worship? They would say: We worshipped Al Masīḥ, son of Allāh. It would be said to them: You tell a lie; Allāh did not take for Himself either a spouse or a son. Then it would be said to them: What do you want? They would say: Thirsty we are, O our Lord! Quench our thirst. They would be directed (to a certain direction) and asked: Why don't you go there to get water? But they would be pushed and gathered together towards the Hell, which was like a mirage to them, and the flames would consume one another. They would fall Into the Fire, till no one is left except he who worshipped Allāh, be he pious or sinful. The Lord of the Universe, Glorified and Exalted, would come to them in a form recognizable to them and say; What are you looking for? Every people follow that which they worshipped. They would say: Our Lord, we kept ourselves separate from the people in the world, though we felt great need of them; we, however, did not associate ourselves with them. He would say: I am your Lord. They would say: We take refuge with Allāh from You and do not associate anything with Allāh. They would repeat it twice or thrice, till some of them would be about to return. It would be said: Is there any sign between you and Him by which you will recognize Him? They would say: Yes. and the things would be laid bare. Those who used to prostrate themselves before Allāh of their own accord would be permitted by Allāh to prostrate themselves. But there would remain none who used to prostrate out of fear (of people) and ostentation but Allah would make his back as one piece, and whenever he would attempt to prostrate he would fall on his back. Then they would raise their heads and He would assume the Form in which they had seen Him the first time and would say: I am your Lord. They would say: You are our Lord. Then the bridge would be set up over the Hell and intercession would be allowed and they will say: O God, keep safe, keep safe. It was asked: Messenger of Allāh, what is this bridge? He Page | 16
  25. 25. to the intellect about two men who are buried in one grave, who on the Day of Judgement later, one of them will become an inhabitant of Paradise whilst the other will become an inhabitant of Hell? This is the basic principle of Islāmic ʿaqīdah.15 A person who contradicts any part of these basic principles is considered not to have imān and this is encompassed said: The void in which one is likely to slip. There would be hooks, tongs, spits like the thorn that is found in Najd and is known as Saʿdān. The believers would then pass over within the twinkling of an eye, like lightning, like wind, like a bird, like the finest horses and camels. Some will escape and be safe, some will be lacerated and let go, and some will be pushed into the fire of Hell till the believers will find rescue from the Fire. By One in Whose hand is my life, there will be none among you more eager to claim a right than the believers on the Day of Resurrection for (saying their) brethren in the Fire who would say: O our Lord, they were fasting along with us, and praying and performing pilgrimage. It will be said to them: Take out those whom you recognize. Then their persons would be forbidden to the Fire; and they would take out a large number of people who had been overtaken by Fire up to the middle of the shank or up to the knees. They would then say: O our Lord I not one of those about whom Thou didst give us command remains in it. He will then say: Go back and bring out those in whose hearts you find good of the weight of a dinar Then they will take out a large number of people. Then they would say: O our Lord! we have not left anyone about whom You commanded us. He will then say: Go back and bring out those in whose hearts you find as much as half a dinar of good. Then they will take out a large number of people, and would say: O our Lord! not one of those about whom Thou commanded us we have left in it. Then He would say: Go back and in whose heart you find good to the weight of a particle bring him out. They would bring out a large number of people, and would then say: O our Lord, now we have not left anyone in it (Hell) having any good in him. Abū Saʿīd Khudrī said: If you don't testify me in this hadith, then recite if you like:" Surely Allāh wrongs not the weight of an atom; and if it is a good deed. He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward" (Al-Qurʾān, Sūrah An-Nisāʾ [4], ayāh 40). Then Allāh, Exalted and Great, would say: The angels have interceded, the messengers have interceded and the believers have interceded, and no one remains (to grant pardon) but the Most Merciful of the mercifuls. He will then take a handful from Fire and bring out from it people who never did any good and who had been turned into charcoal, and will cast them into a river called the river of life, on the outskirts of Paradise. They will come out as a seed comes cut from the silt carried by flood. You see it near the stone or near the tree. That which is exposed to the sun is yellowish or greenish and which is under the shade is white. They said: Messenger of Allāh! It seems as if you had been tending a flock in the jungle. He (the Holy Prophet ) said: They will come forth like pearls with seals on their necks. The inhabitants of Paradise would recognise them (and say): Those are who have been set free by the Compassionate One. Who has admitted them into Paradise without any (good) deed that they did or any good that they sent in advance Then He would say: Enter the Paradise; whatever you see in it is yours. They would say: O Lord, Thou hast bestowed upon us (favours) which Thou didst not bestow upon anyone else in the world. He would say: There is with Me (a favour) for you better than this. They would say: O our Lord! Which thing is better than this? He would say: It is My pleasure. I will never be angry with you after this”. (Muslim 183). 15 A part of the basic principles of the ʿaqīdah of Islām is to have imān in all of the Messengers, without carrying out differentiation between any of them. Likewise also to have imān in the Books that have been revealed by Allāh to the Messengers and to have imān in the angels, good and evil fortune. This is in line with the ḥadīth of the Messenger of Allāh  which states: Page | 17
  26. 26. within the shahādat , ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ ﻻ إﻟﻪ إﻻ‬which is obligatory for each and every Muslim to confirm. By this we understand the contents of the first part of the understanding of imān – at-Taṣdīq. After that we also ask what is contained within those deeds. Is it obligatory to submit to all of the commands of Allāh and the Messenger of Allāh ? And also what are those kinds that must be obeyed? In order to answer these questions we will explain a number of matters:Submission in carrying out all acts of ʿibādāt is divided into two sorts: the first sort is conviction and the second sort is implementation. For example, there is fighting in the Way of Allāh. First sort: From the aspect of conviction, it is firstly obligatory to be of the conviction that fighting in the Way of Allāh is an obligation upon each and every Muslim. Once that has taken place then its implementation takes place when the time to fight is obligatory upon each particular individual or particular jamāʿah in accordance with the conditions already mentioned within books of aḥādīth and fiqh; because of that, the Messenger of Allāh  has said: ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎت وﱂ ﻳﻐﺰ، أو ﳛﺪث ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻐﺰو، ﻣﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻌﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔﺎق‬ “He who dies without having fought in the Cause of Allah or without having thought of doing so, will die with one characteristic of hypocrisy in him”.16 Thinking within oneself about fighting is the aspect of conviction, in the sense of preparing oneself to make battle with the proper preparation. Every Muslim is obligated to believe (be of the conviction) that fighting in the Way of Allāh is obligatory upon every individual Muslim based on the decree of Allāh: ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِ ِْ ِ ِ .ِ‫اﻹﳝَﺎن أَن ﺗُﺆﻣﻦ ﺑِﺎَﻟﻠﱠﻪ وﻣﻼﺋِﻜﺘِﻪ َﻛﺘُﺒِﻪ ورﺳﻠِﻪ واﻟْﻴَـﻮِم اﻵﺧﺮ، وﺗُﺆﻣﻦ ﺑِﺎﻟْﻘﺪر ﺧﲑﻩِ وﺷﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ اﷲ‬ َ ‫َ َ َ َ وُ َ ُ ُ َ ْ ْ ِ َ ـ ْ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ﱢ‬ َ ْ‫ْ ـ‬ “Imān is to believe in Allāh, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last day and to believe in fortune good or bad is from Allāh”. (Muslim). 16 Narrated by Muslim, Abū Dāwūd, An-Nasāʾī, and Aḥmad. Page | 18
  27. 27. ٞ ۡ َ َ ُ ‫ُ ِ َ َ َ ۡ ُ ُ ٱ ۡ ِ َ ل و ُ َ ُ ۡ ه ٞ ُ ۡ و َ َ أَن َ ۡ َ ُ ا ْ َ ۡ و‬ َ َ ۖ َ ُ َ ُ َ ۡ َ َ ۡ ُ َ َ ُ َ ۡ َ ُ َ ۡ ُ ّٞ َ َ ُ َ ۡ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ َ ۡ ُ ‫وأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ۚ وٱ‬ ‫أن ِ ا‬ ‫ۖو‬ Fighting is enjoined on you, and it is an object of dislike to you; and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allāh knows, while you do not know.17 Such conviction of belief is not restricted to the matter of fighting in jihād, but it encompasses all compulsory acts or deeds. It is obligatory for every Muslim to have the conviction of belief that acts or deeds are obligatory; after that conviction, then ‘he’ fulfils them practically, assuming that there are no excuses or legally acceptable emergencies that hinder ‘him’ from doing so. Denial of this aspect of conviction is disbelief and this is what has been called by the ʿUlamāʾ as “juḥūd – denial, rejection, disbelief”, and wherein they have ststed: “Anyone who denies the obligation of ḥajj, ‘he’ is a disbeliever, that is, anyone who does not have imān that Allāh has made ḥajj compulsory upon ‘himself’ when ‘he’ has the capacity to perform it then ‘he’ is a disbeliever”. Second sort: Meanwhile the second sort is implementation, that is to perform those acts or deeds that have already been legislated. The ʿUlamāʾ have already differentiated between abandoning or desisting form the implementation (of an act or deed) because of laziness, miserliness and an excuse or pretext that is Islāmically unacceptable, such as abandoning fasting because of laziness and not wanting to be distressed by hunger, abandoning ḥajj because of laziness and abandoning fighting in the Way of Allāh because of fear and cowardice…they have differentiated the abandoning of these matters because of the above reasons by means of their abandonment because of denial and recalcitrance. They are of the opinion that the first group (the group that does not implement deeds because of laziness, etc) are perpetrators of disobedience and the second group (the 17 Sūrah Al Baqarah (2), ayāh 216. Page | 19
  28. 28. group that does not implement deeds because of denial) as disbelievers. Yet there is a kind of worship that raises differences of opinion amongst the scholars; whether the abandoning of that form of worship because of laziness is disbelief or not. The form of worship referred to here is ṣalat. Some of the ahli ḥadīth primarily Imān Aḥmad bin Ḥambal are of the opinion that abandoning ṣalāt because of laziness is disbelief, based on the distinguished ḥadīth which states that the abandonment of ṣalāt because of laziness is disbelief, as stated by the Messenger of Allāh : َََ ْ َ َ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ ُ‫َ ة‬ ْ َ ‫ا َ ْ ُ ا ِي َ ْ َ َ و َ ْ َ ُ ُ ا‬ “The covenant between us and them is the Ṣalāt, so whoever abandons it he has committed disbelief”.18 Also the ḥadīth of the Messenger of Allāh  which says: ِ‫ة‬ َ ُ‫َ ْ َ ا ْ َ ْ و َ ْ َ ا ْ ُ ْ َ ْك‬ َ ِ ‫ا‬ ِ “Between a servant and unbelief there is the abandonment of ṣalāt”.19 Furthermore, the words of the ahli ṣalāt who say: “we are not of the opinion that the abandonment of an obligatory act or deed is disbelief except for the abandonment of ṣalāt”. Another group of scholars are also of the opinion that the abandonment of ṣalāt because of laziness or an excuse which is illegitimate - being on the basis that there is no legitimate excuse for the abandonment of ṣalāt - is not held to be disbelief, but rather is held to be disobedience. That is no difference between the abandonment of obligatory ṣalāt and the abandonment of other obligatory acts or deeds. This second group has already interpreted the aḥādīth held to by the first group by means of stating that what is meant by ṣalāt in these aḥādīth is because of denial, all that the disbelief meant within these aḥādīth is minor disbelief, disbelief that does 18 19 This ḥadīth narrated by Imām Aḥmad and the ahli sunnah. This ḥadīth narrated by Aṣḥābus-Sunan and held to be ṣaḥīḥ by Tirmidhī. Page | 20
  29. 29. not exile the person from the religion of Islām, but rather only disbelief by disobedience. There is a clear fact in this matter that we are unable to depict that the jamāʿah of the muʾminīn would abandon ṣalāt. This is able to be understood by those who truly understand the two sorts of the understanding of imān that we have already discussed, wherein we already understand that imān is ʿaqīdah and acts or deeds and I have already cited the words of Ibnul Qayyim  in regard to this matter, because how can we presume such a person has faith in and believes in Paradise and Hell and hears warnings about disbelief and its punishment yet ‘he’ still discontinues to perform his obligations, which have already been required of ‘him’ above merely by reason of laziness. It is highly improbable, impossible, that it makes any sense to us to classify them into the group of muʾminīn. Besides that there is a group of ʿUlamāʾ who are of the opinion that there is no impediment to judge as disbelievers those who abandon ṣalāt, in accordance with naṣṣ that states such, yet they refuse to equate this group with absolute disbelief and the rejection of tauḥīd. Besides that, this group is of the opinion that the group who are disbelievers because of the abandonment of ṣalāt are entitled to be placed into Hell, but they do not remain therein in the same manner as the permanent dwelling (in Hell) of those absolute disbelievers. On the whole, if the layman and the ignorant abandon ṣalāt and differ by only having faith in the obligation of ṣalāt tried to examine their imān and corrected themselves, they would understand that they do not possess imān even in the slightest and they that they have been fooled by empty delusions, akin to the reverie of the Jews and Christians who hope to enter Paradise merely by adhering to their religions and they assume and suppose that the punishment of Allāh will afflict them but for a short time, merely a few days only. This is an extremely weak assumption on their part. By Allāh, how appropriate this is with the decree of Allāh addressed to the Jews. Allāh decrees: ََ ٗۡ َ َٗ َ ِ ۡ ُ ۡ َ َ ۡ ُ ‫و َ ُ ا ْ َ َ َ َ ٱ ر إ ٓ َ ٗ ۡ ُ ودة‬ َ ُ ‫ا‬ ِ ‫ٱ‬ ۚ ِ ََ َ ُ َُ َۡ ُٓ َ ۡ َ ُ َ ُۡ َ ََُۡ َ َ ‫ن‬ ‫ِ ٱ‬ ‫ه ۖۥ أم‬ ِ ‫ن ٱ‬ Page | 21
  30. 30. And they say: Fire shall not touch us but for a few days. Say: Have you received a promise from Allāh, then Allāh will not fail to perform His promise, or do you speak against Allāh what you do not know?20 Due to this difference of opinion amongst the ʿUlamāʾ regarding their issue over the abandonment of ṣalāt revolving around whether they will remain in Hell or not. A Muslim who concludes that he will not remain in Hell as a reason to abandon ṣalāt, is a Muslim who is subject to a common fallacy, because by merely entering Hell, even briefly, the day of punishment spoken of lasts for 50,000 years and that is already enough to make a Muslim avoid therefrom. Perhaps the strongest dalīl in proving that the person who abandons ṣalāt is a disbeliever and will dwell in Hell for a period of time known only to Allāh alone, is that which is not mentioned, the existence of retribution that is able to cleanse the sin of abandoning salat on the Day of Reckoning in the Field of Maḥshar (congregation of the dead), just as the existence of retribution like it for those who abandon zakat and other practices. As a general conclusion on this matter, it can be said that that acts or deeds constitute an integral part of the demands of faith, because acts or deeds form a parts of the understanding of faith itself and it is obligatory to believe that compulsory acts or deeds are obligatory and that acts or deeds that are sunnah are sunnah and also that acts or deeds that haram are ḥarām, and so on. After this conviction (once this conviction of belief has been established), then those obligatory acts or deeds are done and implemented. Acts or deeds that are ḥarām are also distanced from and abandoned. The scholars of Islam are already of the opinion and have stated that the abandonment of an act of deed that is obligatory is not disbelief, except and unless it is the abandonment of ṣalāt. Imām Aḥmad and the scholars of the salaf who are of the same opinion as him state that the abandonment of ṣalāt is disbelief that exiles one from the religion of Allāh. Once matters associated with obligatory acts or deeds are clear, then it will also be clear as to those matters that are associated with acts or deeds that are haram. With that, to be of the conviction that acts or deeds that are haram are haram is 20 Sūrah Al Baqarah (2), ayāh 80. Page | 22
  31. 31. obligatory. Anyone who is of the conviction that alcohol, adultery, theft, and murder are ḥalāl is already a disbeliever, and likewise for all matters that have already been deemed ḥarām as in Al Qurʾān or the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh . Anyone who makes or pronounces as ḥalāl anyone of those matters, or is of the opinion that those matters are ḥalāl for ‘himself’ is undoubtedly already a disbeliever according to the consensus of the Islamic scholars; there is no opinion that overturns that amongst them. There is no further doubt that acts or deeds that demand or insist upon making something ḥalāl that has been declared ḥarām by Allāh are acts disbelief which are outside of the religion of Islām, because in essence those deeds fight against the religion of Allāh, and by disdainful of the laws, regulations and sharīʿat of Allāh. This is the secret falseness of a person who makes that which is ḥalāl from that which is ḥarām, because in essence those of his deeds are against the sharīʿat of Allāh. And such opposition as that will not come about except from those who hold with disdain all the regulations of Allāh. Holding disdain against the regulations of Allāh means to sanction deficiencies and shortfalls towards Allāh, something which confirms deficiencies and shortfalls towards Allāh and such are acts or deeds of disbelief. Those who understand these basic principles will know why it is that Allāh cursed Iblīs and removed him His mercy because Iblīs stated: ٗ َ ۡ َ َ ۡ َ ِ ُ ُ ۡ َ ‫… ءأ‬ َ ِ “…Shall I make obeisance to him whom You have created of dust?21 Because of words such as this, the command of Allāh has been belittled and the wisdom of Allāh has been opposed. Because of that, whomsoever states: “What is the issue with alcohol so much so that Allāh declares it to be ḥarām?; or ‘he’ states that adultery is only a natural act that has no connection with akhlāq, religion, and morality…whoever says such then ‘he’ is already a disbeliever in the same manner as the disbelief of Iblīs who is cursed and condemned by Allāh. This matter by itself will befall those who are commanded by Allāh to carry out acts or deeds that are obligatory, yet ‘he’ answers: “I cannot carry this out and I 21 Sūrah Al Isrāʾ (17), ayah 61. Page | 23
  32. 32. will not submit; What is ṣalāt anyway? What is with zakāt?” In fact the disbelief of Iblīs is nearer to the disbelief of a person who abandons matters that are obligatory than the person who carries out matters that are ḥarām because Iblīs and those people who abandon matters that are obligatory as well as commanded, and not prohibited from committing matters that are ḥarām. Both the command addressed to Iblīs and the command addressed to the person who abandons obligatory matters are the same. Thus, in the case of unwillingness and refusal towards obligatory matters, the action of refusal is disbelief. Vice versa if the act or deed of carrying out matters that are ḥarām and making then ḥalāl, those actions are disbelief. Al Ḥamdulillāh, these matters are not matters of conflict between the scholars of Islām. Besides that, the scholars of Islām are not at odds with the statement that the doer or agent of disobedience (vice) will not permanently remain in hell except in regards to the killing of a Muslim. The ʿulamāʾ of the Muslims also do not pass the judgement of disbelief upon that killer, but it is the opinion of those who state that the killer remains in Hell as guided by the decree of Allāh: ُ ۡ َ َ ُ ‫ٗ ا َ َ َ آؤهُۥ َ َ ُ َ ٰ ِ ٗ ا ِ َ و َ ِ َ ٱ‬ َ ِ ٗ ِ َ ِّ ََ ِٗ ۡ ُ ُۡ ۡ َ ً ‫َ ُۥ َ َ ا‬ َ‫و‬ َ َ ََ ََََُ ‫و ۥ وأ‬ And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell; he shall abide in it, and Allāh will send His wrath on him and curse him and prepare for him a painful chastisement. This opinion is also the opinion of some of the ʿulamāʾ of the salaf, while some other ʿulamāʾ of the salaf also state that what is meant by permanent in this ayāh carries the meaning to dwell in hell for a long time after which the killer will come out of Hell. This opinion is in order to coordinate (harmonize) this ayāh with other āyāt and aḥādīth that explain that whoever states (declares, testifies) ‫ﻻ إﻟﻪ إﻻ‬ ‫ اﷲ‬then that statement will bestow benefits within their lives. Once we know that, then the conviction of belief is required for every Muslim in matters of deeds – the conviction of belief that I mean here is that which I have already explained earlier, like the conviction of belief for the obligation of ṣalāt, Page | 24
  33. 33. zakāt, ḥajj and fighting in the Way of Allāh, the conviction of belief that killing is ḥarām, except when justified, the conviction of belief that adultery is ḥarām, theft and drinking alcohol are ḥarām. Etc., etc., etc.,.. Once we know that those who contradict or act counter to this conviction of belief are not considered to be Muslim, we must also understand what that conviction of belief is and what is its impact upon the soul. The matter of ṣalāt for instance, the conviction of belief in relation to it means that someone truly acknowledges that Allāh has already made it obligatory upon ‘him’ to perform ṣalāt five times each day and night and ‘he’ must not refuse or deny it, and neither refuse it by means of ‘his’ tongue or ‘his’ heart. Supposing ‘he’ did not truly acknowledge that ṣalāt was obligatory or denied that ṣalāt was obligatory, then this means ‘he’ is a disbeliever. Al Ḥamdulillāh this matter is not disputed amongst the ʿulamāʾ of Islām. Now let us try to understand what is the effect of this conviction of belief towards the soul. If we present a Muslim as being one who knows that there is no ilāh except Allāh, Muhammad is the messenger of Allāh and that ‘he’ is of the conviction of belief that the performance of ṣalāt five times a day and night is obligatory as well as hearing of the terrible recompense and terrifying threats against those we neglect the performance of their ṣalāt, would not be conviction and hearing of it give rise to feelings of submission and obedience? Certainly the answer we would give would be “yes”. Whoever answered “no” would assuredly be wrong in their answer. Supposing at some time ‘he’ was lazy or he was overcome by desires, would not such an issue give rise to feelings of remorse and here within ‘his’ heart? Would not ‘his’ heart tremble with fear if in the future ‘he’ was grouped tobether with those who are tortured, those who have already been promised punishment from Allāh because of abandoning ṣalāt? As an answer surely we would say “yes”. Supposing ‘his’ heart did not tremble with the feeling of the fear of being tortured, did not feel at a loss or regretful, how would we be able to regard ‘him’ as believing in Allāh? Supposing we accept ‘his’ false shahādat, and ‘he’ continues unwillingly to carry out ṣalāt for the rest of ‘his’ life until ‘he’ meets with Allāh who ‘he’ believes in…try a person who is still alive and has never performed ṣalāt to try and correct Page | 25
  34. 34. the imān of that dead person earlier, but ‘he’ must be fearful of Allāh at the time ‘he’ confirms imān to the person who has been judged to be a disbeliever by the Messenger of Allāh , a person who has already acknowledged that Allāh will punish ‘him’, whereas a healthy intellect has already acknowledged that that which is toward Allāh and total vice will never be united within the heart of any person. This conviction of belief will also inshāʾ Allāh be clear within matters of vice, because the first matter that is obligatory upon a Muslim in matters that are evil is to be of the conviction of belief that evil, viceful matters are ḥarām. To be of the conviction of belief that adultery is ḥarām is obligatory. Whoever does not hold to be true or believe in Allāh in (regard to) matters that are evil, is arrogant and makes matters ḥalāl that have already been pronounced ḥarām by Allāh, and that means that ‘he’ is a disbeliever – in a state of disbelief. This justification and belief will produce a feeling of fear in approaching sin and carrying out evil. Supposing lust, instinct and desire win, a Muʾmin will fall and carry out evil. We do not say that ‘he’ is already a disbeliever, but rather we say ‘he’ is already carrying out evil (disobedience, rebelliousness), but despite ‘him’ not being a disbeliever ‘he’ has earned punishment and ‘he’ has exposed (rendered liable) ‘himself’ to the wrath of Allāh. Supposing ‘he’ truly has imān, ‘he’ will feel regret and fear over ‘his’ excesses. Supposing ‘he’ did not feel fear or pity and did not remember the punishment of torture, then he truly is a disbeliever. It is impossible for your intellect to be able to describe and represent a Muʾmin who consumes alcohol or commits adultery or carries out evil because of the influence of circumstances and then after those circumstances have elapsed and ‘he’ returns to his true state of normalcy, but not the least amount of fear emerges in ‘his’ heart for Allāh, has no regret for the crimes ‘he’ has committed and ‘he’ is not fearful of being questioned in front of Allāh on the Day of Resurrection…but rather ‘he’ persist and continues unabated in the carrying out of evil without regard for anything, heedless of accountability to the commands of Allāh…far, far away is ‘he’ from belonging within that group of people who have faith. Allāh has already identified ‘man’ who is a disbeliever with the characteristic of arrogance witin His decree: Page | 26
  35. 35. َ ۡ ُ َٰ ۡ‫َۡ َ ُ ٱ‬ ِ َ‫ِ ٱ ا‬ ِ ُ ُ َۡ ُ َ َ َ ‫َ َ أَن َ ّ ي‬ َ ‫ۥ‬ ِ ِ ُ َ ٰ َ ِ ۡ ‫َ ۡم ٱ‬ ِ ُ َ ُ ِ ۡ ‫وَ ٓأ‬ ِ َ ‫َ َ ٰ َ ٰ ِر‬ ِ َ َ ُ َۡ ‫ن‬ ۡ ِ ِ َ ٰ َ ِ ‫ِ َ ۡم ٱ‬ َ ‫َ ِ َ ُۥ‬ ُ َ َ َ‫ِ َ ۡ ُ َ أ‬ ‫ۥ‬ ُ ُ ِ ۡ ‫َ ٓأ‬ َ َۡ ُ َٰ ۡ‫ٱ‬ ِ Nay! I swear by the day of resurrection. Nay! I swear by the self-accusing soul. Does man think that We shall not gather his bones? Yea! We are able to make complete his very fingertips Nay! man desires to give the lie to what is before him. He asks: When is the day of resurrection?22 ‘Mankind’ who continues to carry out evil regardless of that, is ‘mankind’ who denies and rejects the Day of Resurrection, in the sense that ‘he’ assumes and considers that the Day of Resurrection will not occur. There is nothing that motivates or prompts ‘him’ to continue carrying out evil except ‘his’ maintenance of falsehood towards the existence of the Day of Resurrection. How is it possible for a person to continue to carry out evil regardless of ‘his’ being held at some point in time as responsible for the crimes that ‘he’ has already carried out…? Nevertheless, we still do not pass the judgement of disbelief upon the doer of evil, and also not upon the person who perpetuates the carrying out of evil because of feelings of compunction that we assume to be a condition to maintain ‘him’ as a Muʾmin since that can only be known by Allāh, who knows the secrets of ‘his’ heart; but we only say to the doer of evil or who remains in a state of carrying those things out: “Supposing you have no regrets about what you have done and your heart is not in the least bit moved or feels fearful of the crimes you have carried out, then you rectify your imān; supposing you really and truly were of the belief that you would feel terrified and fearful of the retribution of punishment that you would receive. Supposing you really and truly were not of the belief then you would ignore 22 Sūrah Al Qiyāmah (75), āyāt 1-6. Page | 27
  36. 36. those matters and you would not care whether you disputed the commands of Allāh or not”. What I have presented here is the content and demands of imān, therefore implementation of acts or deeds is part of the requirements of imān. This opinion forms the general opinion of the ahli salaf, whereas the group that states that: “Imān does not require/demand the implementation of acts or deeds and evil does not destroy imān”, is the group known as the “Murjiʾah”, a group that makes imān an abstract in essence, having no reality and reflection in life, and there is no effect upon the soul. These words of theirs are truly wrong and invalid, because in essence the separation between faith in Allāh and obedience as well as submission towards His commands, and the granting of His wisdom, is the separation between two matters that are common to each other. This opinion of theirs is the same as the opinion of those people who say “Religion is only between ‘man’ and Allāh”. By means of these words they mean to separate religion with the reality of life and improvement of the soul. These words are the same as the person who says, “Religion is for Allāh and the state is for all (the rest)”. By means of these words they mean to disassociate the structuring of the community from accordance with the requirements of Allāh and the creed of Islām. I declare that all of these words have the same objective, even though the persons who say them have differing opinions in terms of their form and presentation. Their goals disassociate and alienate the community and the lives of ‘mankind’ from the creed and requisites of Islām and this is a very dangerous matter. Because of that the Dawāʿin – callers - to the Way of Allāh must examine which way they must follow and the ʿaqīdah they must hold to. To end this section we must answer the question: “Just which obligatory, definitive acts or deeds are to be carried out in order to express and bring into emergence imān and the reality of life”? In actual fact we are unable to determine which specific obligatory, definitive acts or deeds are to be carried out in order to bring about the emergence of imān; we also are unable to determine the amount that has already been tasked upon them, because those obligatory acts or deeds themselves differ with one another according to differences of environment, circumstances, specific personalities and sharīʿat Page | 28
  37. 37. emergencies. Can we force a Muslim who is living within a society of disbelievers that is fighting Islām to express and advertise ‘his’ Islām as well as perform and discharge the teachings of Islām at a predetermined time, such that by ‘his’ actions ‘he’ may well be expelled, isolated or restricted from furthering ‘his’ studies.23 Is there dispensation for hiding the belief and religion given to those who are constantly exposed to such intimidation provided to the person who lives within groups of disbelievers who do not hold enmity towards Islām and do not prevent other religions and beliefs to them? The degree of acts or deeds that must be carried out in order to prove the imān of a person can only be determined by the circumstances and society, is also able to be determine laws made by a sincere Muʾmin, a Muʾmin who must be accepted by Allāh, as contained within the decree no Allāh: ََ َٓ َ َ ُ ْ ُ ُ َّ ٗ َ َ ٗ ُ ۡ ُ َۡ َ َ َ َ ََ ُ ُ َ ُ ََ ٰ ِ ِٰ ‫و‬ ‫نٱ ل‬ ‫اء ٱ س و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ و‬ ِ ٗ َ ُ ََ …ۗ ِ ۡ ۡ And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you;…24 The Messenger of Allāh  has explained that the shahādah of this Islāmic community is accepted by Allāh, when at a time a corpse was being carried for burial, and a Muʾmin is to make duʿāʾ for that corpse. The Messenger of Allāh  said: “It is obligatory”, and then the ṣaḥābat asked: “What is obligatory O Messenger of Allāh ?” The Messenger of Allāh  said: “Whilst the corpse is being carried you make duʿāʾ upon it for its good, thus I say; it is obligatory, that is Paradise for ‘him’, and likewise whilst the corpse is being carried and you make duʿāʾ for its 23 Learning is not included within the sharīʿat that acts as a prompt for a Muslim to hide ‘his’ Islām, ignore and suspend Islāmic teachings, especially in Communist nations which openly fight against Islām. In essence these nations are more backward and lean towards science than European nations that provide freedom of belief for the fulfillment of Islāmic teachings. Because of that muslims still have the opportunity to gain knowledge in European nations if they are compelled to learn abroad…- - Al Jamaah Al Islāmiyah, University of Kahirah. 24 Sūrah Al Baqarah (2), ayāh 143 Page | 29
  38. 38. evils, thus I say; it is obligatory, that is Hell for ‘him’, you are Allāh’s witnesses on this earth”.25 This ḥadīth does not mean to punish disbelief or imān as the last penalty, because the final assessment is only with Allāh who knows all secrets, but rather this ḥadīth is proof illustrating that external (apparent) acts or deeds in the ordinary course of events exemplify inner belief, because the Messenger of Allāh  had permitted punishment to be witnessed by the Muʾminīn. Even so a gathering of Muʾminīn in any society is not permitted to apostatise someone who has never performed the slightest of the teachings of Islām, excepting ‘he’ states clearly that ‘he’ has not fulfilled those teachings because you are against the commands of Allāh and feel self-important, and even to apostatise a person who abandons ṣalāt who is considered not to believe – anyone who does not fulfil these within their time is dependent upon proof presented to ‘him’ and that proof is not considered complete except after ‘he’ knows the āyāt and aḥādīth related to those who abandon ṣalāt. To conclude this issue, we are unable to determine the obligatory degree upon ‫َ إ ﻪ إﱠ‬ those who have declared ‫ ﻻ ِٰﻟ َ ِﻻ اﻟﻠّٰﻪ‬and have judged to be disbelievers those who have not performed those stipulations, because the differences in circumstances and societies in our times are very clear, as I have already said. However, despite this, there are still extant laws that are determined by sincere Muʾminīn towards themselves as well as others; these laws generally are accepted by Allāh. We must not pass any judgement upon someone who has not carried out ‫َ إ ﻪ إﱠ‬ obligatory acts or deeds in accordance with the demands of ‫ ﻻ ِٰﻟ َ ِﻻ اﻟﻠّٰﻪ‬except that ‘he’ says clearly that ‘he’ has abandoned those acts or deeds because of a reluctance to submit to the commands of Allāh and feelings of self-importance. Nevertheless, there are still two qaḍīyah (pl. qaḍāyāh –matters) that must be separated (kept apart):1. The first qaḍīyah is the essence of imān and disbelief. 25 Narrated by Bukhārī, Muslim, Tirmidhī, and others. Page | 30
  39. 39. 2. The second qaḍīyah is the implementation of those matters. What I mean is, to pin the law of disbelief upon someone or any group or to pin the law of imān upon someone or any group. We are still discussing the first qaḍīyah, that is, explaining the essence of imān and disbelief, whereas the second qaḍīyah possesses a number of conditions, disciplines and backgrounds that I will present within the coming paragraphs. What is important here is that we confirm (endorse) that the implementation of acts or deeds is a part of the requisites of imān and determination of the degree of obligatory acts or deeds should never happen, as I explained earlier above and this is not impaired by putting acts or deeds as prerequisites for imān. Page | 31
  40. 40. MATTERS THAT INVALIDATE IM◊N Within the previous part we came to understand the contents of imān, that is, to truly allow the authority of Allāh within all information that comes to us about Himself, His Attributes, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, His Qaḍāʾah (Judgement) and His Qadr (Fore-ordainment) and the Last Day. We have accepted all of those matters as those explanations of Allāh or His Messenger . We have also come to understand the requisites of imān, that is, those acts or deeds that encompass two aspects: obligatory acts or deeds that must be carried out by the Muʾminīn immediately and acts or deeds that are ḥarām and that must be avoided and kept away from by the Muʾminīn. One more matter that we must know about is: just where are the contents of imān to be found and how is the essence of imān proven within the soul as well as the implementation of the requisites of imān, namely acts or deeds. People who are submissive and carry out the commands of Allāh, they are those who are true in the call to implement belief, whereas those who are negligent of and belittle the commands of Allāh, they are of the group that lie and deceive themselves. Once this essence of imān is clear towards and with us, it is obligatory for us to know that there are matters that invalidate that essence of imān, matters that may revoke the root stems of imān, matters that may strip our armour of imān. It may be that the essence of imān that we have already mentioned is already present within someone, but all of a sudden ‘he’ is out of the essence of imān and has entered into the environs of disbelief, because ‘he’ was doing a certain act or deed or ‘his’ heart was approached by another creed of belief. So, what are the actions and words that make ‘him’ withdraw from the essence of imān and enter into the environment of disbelief? In order to answer these questions, by means of detailing all of the creeds that lead to disbelief, it would make this small treatise into a considerably greater book than it should be. Therefore, I will only mention the basic principles regarding these matters with the objective of explaining something that is right in a very dangerous Page | 32

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