1Writing Research paper_A to ZDr. Khalid Rehman HakeemPost Doc. ResearcherFaculty of ForestryUniversiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)Serdang-43400
2Research Paper Writing Process1. Assignment/data Clarification2. Time Management3. Topic Selection4. Topic Brainstorm5. Library Visit6. Locate/Select Sources7. Survey Sources/lab work8. Topic Focus9. Read Articles10. Preliminary Thesis/idea11. Outline12. Draft Paper13. Revise Paper14. Sources of Help
Who am I ?Post doc Research ScientistUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdang, Darul Ehsan, Selangor-Malaysia-43400www.upm.edu.myFounder & Former DIRECTORSOCIETY FOR PROMOTION OF ACADEMIC REVOLUTION IN KASHMIR (SPARK ) www.sparkeducation.webs.comACADEMIC PROFILEPhD (Botany) Jamia Hamdard (www.jamiahamdard.edu), with thesis title as“ Proteomics and Nanobiotechnologicalapproach for the improvement of Nitrogen use Efficiency (NUE) in Rice”in 2011MSc. (Environmental Botany), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi in 2006 (First Division)MSc. (Ecology & Environment) Sikkim Manipal University of Health & Technological Sciences, Gangtok in 2005 (FirstDivision)BSc. General, Kashmir University in 2003 (First Division)10+2 Hanfia College Anantnag in 1999 (First Division)10th Hanfia College Anantnag in 1997 (Grade A)Research publication (Publishing Career starts in 2011)Papers: 25 (some under review)Books: 07 (Published) 05 (Under process)Book Chapters: 10Visit my website: khalidhakeem.weebly.com3
4Research Paper Writing ProcessThe purpose of this Presentation is to identifyand examine the components essential toplanning and executing research writingassignments.
5Research Paper Writing ProcessAt the end of this presentation, YOU will be ableto :1. Identify and conceptualize the essential stepsin the research paper writing process;2. Access valuable campus resources to help atvarious stages of the writing process;3. Use time management strategies to plan for thesuccessful and timely completion of a researchpaper project.
14Time Management1. Write down all due dates.2. Break down the research process intosteps.3. Assign a due date for each step.4. Make weekly and daily priority lists.
15Topic Selection1. Previous knowledge about the subject/topic2. Course content/ literature study3. Personal or professional expertise /interestsThink critically but do not overhype
16Topic Selection1. Ask questions: who, what, where, when, whyWhat is it similar to or different from; whatare the causes; what are the consequences;what is the essential function; what are thedefinitions; what is the history; what is thepresent status; what case can be made for oragainst it; how did it happen; why did ithappen; what is my personal reaction to it?2. Identify subtopics
This method appeals to visual thinkers.Start with an idea.Draw a line and add the related idea.As one idea leads to another, record theconnections with simple lines.Before long, you will begin to see how variousgroupings of ideas relate, and eventually youshould be able to use the groupings to devise athesis/problem statement and create an outline.1. Idea Trees18
Set a timer to ten minutes and start writing withoutstopping to correct or change what you type.If you draw a blank, type "I cant think of anything to say"until a relevant idea comes to mind.Dont consider this your rough draft; instead, consider it away to generate and connect ideas.Youre your free-writes for gems of ideas, and use themto start writing again.Continue your ten-minute sprints until you have enoughcontent to draft a purpose statement and begin anoutline.2. FREE-WRITES19
3. Questions.Close your eyes until you conjure up the face(s) of youraudience. Then, put yourself into their place. Ask all thequestions they might have about your argument. Here aresome examples:o What is your point?o Do you know that for a fact? Prove it.o Who in the field agrees with you?o Who in the field disagrees with you?o Who does this affect and how?o Have others done similar research or replicated yours?o What theoretical approach are you applying here? Why?o Why is this a new idea, model, theory, or tool?o What does this viewpoint add to a general understanding ofyour topic?20
4. Paragraph outlines.Write down the first sentence ofevery paragraph you think youmight write.Then you can add the evidencefor each statement in the draftingphrase.21
5. Mapping.A map begins with an initial idea and builds anargument, step by step. In many ways it resemblesoutlining because it describes the function of eachstep of a paper. Here is an example:My initial idea is…The problem that I want to address is…The extent of the problem is…Evidence for this problem includes…My solution for the problem is…Opposition to my solution might be…But I can refute that opposition by…These are my conclusions…22
23Library Visit1. Browse the Putra library website(http://lib.upm.edu.my/).2. Tour the library.3. Meet with a reference librarian.4. Learn the difference between scholarlyjournals and other periodicals.5. Locate sources.
24Survey Sources1. Read abstracts, headings andsubheadings.2. Make note of charts, statistics, graphs.3. Read the reference lists.4. Read introductory and summaryparagraphs.5. Skim body.
25Topic FocusGo back to your original subjectand focus it further based uponthe information you gleanedduring the text survey activities.
26ReadRead once-Read write!Take notes as you read: Develop asystem of underlining, marking, and/orparaphrasing in the margins that ismeaningful to you.
27Outline1. Make a list of the main points. These pointswill form the organizational pattern of yourpaper.2. Make special note of concepts from yoursources that you wish to paraphrase in yourtext.3. Draft an outline, moving from main ideas todetails.4. Revise thesis as needed.
28Draft1. Begin to write in chunks of text defined bythe parameters of each main point.2. Continuously refer to the thesis in order tostay on track. Use key terms from the thesisto thread each section together.3. Integrate information from sources as youdraft, and include parenthetical citations.4. Move from point to point rather than fromauthor to author.
29Integrating SourcesResearch papers demand abundantreference to professional sources. Thatis, your research paper will begenerously populated with the voicesof the published experts. Your job is tomanage those voices, to synthesizethem, to use them to substantiate yourclaim.
30Revision Checklist1. Reread the assignment/data sheet.2. Underline your thesis/idea.3. Read aloud.4. Label the topic of each paragraph in the margin.5. Revise main ideas; consider clarity andrelevance.
31Revision Checklist6. Revise details; consider clarity and relevance.7. Check for cohesion.8. Check documentation format.9. Check grammar, punctuation, word choice,spelling.
How to write References ?Use software likeENDNOTE32
33Sources of Help1. Professors2. Librarians3. Writing Tutors4. Content Tutors5. Models of Successful Research Papers
PublishersChoose the Good ones Science direct, Springer, wily, Cambridge,Taylor &Francis Avoid the black listed34
What is an Impact Factor ?The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is ameasure reflecting the average number of citations torecent articles published in the journal. It is frequentlyused as a proxy for the relative importance of a journalwithin its field, with journals with higher impact factorsdeemed to be more important than those with lowerones. The impact factor was devised by EugeneGarfield, the founder of the Institute for ScientificInformation. Impact factors are calculated yearly forthose journals that are indexed in the Journal CitationReports.35
How it is calculated ?In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the averagenumber of citations received per paper published in thatjournal during the two preceding years. For example, if ajournal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its paperspublished in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each onaverage in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal wouldbe calculated as follows:A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the totalnumber of "citable items" published by that journal in 2006and 2007. ("Citable items" are usually articles, reviews,proceedings, or notes; not editorials or letters to the editor.)2008 impact factor = A/B.36
Avoid plagiarism What is Plagiarism ? (play-juh-rih-zem)Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongfulappropriation,“ "close imitation," or "purloining andpublication" of another author’s "language, thoughts,ideas, or expressions," and the representation of themas ones own original work. No Cut and paste Software like viper,Turnetin etc Problems associated37