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Accruals

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  • 1. Accruals and Deferrals:Timing is Everything in Accounting Khalid aziz**2010 1
  • 2. JOIN KHALID AZIZ CLASSES ICap module b & d FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING, ECONOMICS & COST ACCOUNTING INDIVIDUAL & GROUPS Khalid aziz**2010 2
  • 3. JOIN KHALID AZIZ ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA- ECONOMICS, B.COM. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. CONTACT: 0322-3385752 0312-2302870 R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. Khalid aziz**2010 3
  • 4.  COACHING CLASSES FOR O/A LEVEL ACCOUNTS , URDU, BUSINESS STUDIES & ECONOMICS CONCEPTUAL LEARNING COMPLETE PAST PAPERS Khalid aziz**2010 4
  • 5. More About AccrualsAccrual Accounting: Recording thefinancial transactions of a businessin the period in which theyoccur, rather than in the period inwhich cash is exchanged.The economic substance of thetransaction signals therecording…not disbursing orreceiving cash. Khalid aziz**2010 5
  • 6. Examples of Accrual Events Sales made “on account” Purchases made “on credit” Wages expense for employees » when they’ve worked but you haven’t yet paid them Interest on money borrowed or lent » when time has passed (so interest has been earned by the lender) but the actual cash for the interest has not changed hands Income tax expense » when you owe it but haven’t yet paid the IRS Khalid aziz**2010 6
  • 7. Accounts Receivable: Amounts owed by customers for goods and services received Recognition of event versus realization of cash  recognizing a revenue or expense means to record it in the accounting records so that it shows up on the income statement When is revenue recognized?  when the amounts are earned (required activities are complete) Realization means you actually get the cash. Khalid aziz**2010 7
  • 8. Accounts Payable:Amounts you owe creditorsfor the purchase of goods and services When are costs recognized as INVOICE expenses?  when the “matching” revenue is recognized, or  when the benefits of the expenditures are received Khalid aziz**2010 8
  • 9. Accruals that need to be made before the financial statements are prepared -- adjustments to the “books”1. Any revenue earned that has not been billed (no receivable has been recorded)2. Any interest revenue that has been earned on investments that has not been recorded3. Any expense that has been incurred (used) but has not been recorded (a common one is salary expense)4. Income tax expense incurred but not recorded Khalid aziz**2010 9
  • 10. Revenue that needs to be accrued Work that has been completed -- but nothing has been recorded for the financial statements.  This situation arises when a customer has not been billed yet has not paid  Computerization of record- keeping has made this situation less frequent Khalid aziz**2010 10
  • 11. Example:1. Revenue to be accrued  An employee of Maids-R-Us finished cleaning a house on January 31, but didn’t get the paperwork into the office in time to get it included in the January records.  An income statement for January must include the revenue because it has been earned. Khalid aziz**2010 11
  • 12. Accruing Revenue  Accruing revenue affects the accounting equation in the following way:Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings + A/R + Revenue Income Statement: Increases income Statement of Changes in Equity: Increases equity Statement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flows Khalid aziz**2010 12
  • 13. What happens when the customer pays? When the customer pays, the accounting equation is affected on the asset side only.  A/R is decreased by the amount of the payment  Cash is increased by the amount of the payment The revenue has already been recognized. Khalid aziz**2010 13
  • 14. 2. Accruing Interest (Revenue or expense)  The most common accrual is for interest-- the cost of borrowing money.  If you loaned the money or purchased a CD, you’d be dealing with interest revenue.  If you borrowed the money, you’d be dealing with interest expense. Khalid aziz**2010 14
  • 15. Interest Revenue You have a 6-month, Rs100 CD that earns 12%, (always given as an annual rate), purchased on January 1. The natural recording of this interest revenue will happen when you receive the money. An income statement for January needs to show the amount of interest revenue for January. Khalid aziz**2010 15
  • 16. Accruing Interest Revenue Interest = principal x rate x time Interest = Rs100 x .12 x 1/12 = Rs1  Since the rate is “per year,” the time has to be given in terms of a year. Interest receivable and interest revenue will each be Rs1. Show how that keeps the accounting equation in balance. Khalid aziz**2010 16
  • 17. Accruing Interest RevenueAssets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings +1 interest +1 interest receivable revenue Income Statement: Increases income Statement of Changes in Equity: Increases equity Statement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flow Khalid aziz**2010 17
  • 18. 3. An Expense to be Accrued Salary expense is a common expense that needs to be accrued before financial statements are prepared. Suppose employees work five days per week and are paid every Friday, but January 31 falls on a Tuesday. The salary expense for the week from January 30 to February 3 will not be paid until Friday, February 3. Khalid aziz**2010 18
  • 19. Accruing Salary Expense The income statement for January should have the expense for January 30 and 31, while the February income statement will have the expense for February 1, 2, and 3. Khalid aziz**2010 19
  • 20. Accruing Salary Expense Suppose a week’s payroll is Rs5,000. On January 31, the company should accrue Rs2,000 worth of salary expense. i.e., 2 out of 5 days’ worth of the salary must be a January expense. How is this reflected in the accounting equation? Khalid aziz**2010 20
  • 21. Accruing Salary ExpenseAssets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings + 2,000 salaries (2,000) salary payable expense Income Statement (Jan.): Decreases income Statement of Changes in Equity: Decreases equity Statement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flows Khalid aziz**2010 21
  • 22. What happens when the salaries are actually paid to the employees on Friday, February 3? Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings(5,000) cash (2000) salaries (3000) salary payable expense•Income Statement (for Feb!): Decreases income•Statement of Changes in Equity: Decreases equity•Statement of Cash Flows: Operating cash outflow Khalid aziz**2010 22
  • 23. 4. Taxes to be accrued Tax expense is a common expense that needs to be accrued when financial statements are prepared. The income statement for January needs to include the income taxes for January, even though they will not be paid until several months later. WHY?? Khalid aziz**2010 23
  • 24. What is a Deferral? A deferral event occurs when cash is received or paid before revenue is earned or an expense is incurred. Deferral events are a part of the accrual basis of accounting Khalid aziz**2010 24
  • 25. Deferred Revenue You’ve received payment for something you have NOT yet provided. Dollars first, action later. Revenue is not recognized until the service is performed or the goods are delivered...but you have to record the fact that you have received the cash. Khalid aziz**2010 25
  • 26. Example of deferred revenue:A publishing company collects moneyfor magazine subscriptions before themagazines are actually delivered.  What is exchanged? Cash is received but the give part will come later.  In the meantime, the company has an obligation--a liability. (The company gives a promise of future delivery of magazines.) Khalid aziz**2010 26
  • 27. How does receiving a payment in advance affect the accounting equation?Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings+ cash + unearned revenueIncome Statement: No effectStatement of Changes in Equity: No effectStatement of Cash Flows: Operating cash flows Khalid aziz**2010 27
  • 28. What happens when the service is finally performed or the goods are delivered?Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings+ cash - unearned revenueIncome Statement: Increases incomeStatement of Changes in Equity: Increases equityStatement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flows Khalid aziz**2010 28
  • 29. Deferred ExpensesYou’ve paid the cash “up-front” but you haven’treceived the goods or services yet. Remember: DEFERPrepaid Expenses means to postpone. Rent Here, we postpone Insurance recognizing the expense Supplies until we actually use the goods or services. Khalid aziz**2010 29
  • 30. Deferred Expenses A special deferral--depreciation: Recognizing an expenditure by spreading it over several years, allocating a part of the expense to each of several periods during which the asset is used: Depreciation of plant and equipment Khalid aziz**2010 30
  • 31. JOIN KHALID AZIZ ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. CONTACT: 0322-3385752 0312-2302870 R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. Khalid aziz**2010 31
  • 32. PREPAID RENT Often companies pay rent in advance. When the cash is paid, the company has purchased an asset called prepaid rent. Dollars first--action later. What’s the action that triggers recognition of the expense? Passing of the time to which the rent applies. Khalid aziz**2010 32
  • 33. How does paying the rent in advance affect the accounting equation?Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings+ prepaid rent+ cashIncome Statement: Decreases incomeStatement of Changes in Equity: Decreases equityStatement of Cash Flows: Operating Cash Outflows Khalid aziz**2010 33
  • 34. The expense is recorded when the time of the rent has passed – when it’s been used up. Usually it’s an adjustment, made when the financial statements are being prepared.Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings- Prepaid rent - rent expenseIncome Statement: Decreases incomeStatement of Changes in Equity: Decreases equityStatement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flow Khalid aziz**2010 34
  • 35. PREPAID INSURANCE Often companies pay insurance in advance. When the cash is paid, the company has purchased an asset called prepaid insurance. Dollars first--action later. What’s the action that triggers recognition of the expense? Passing of the time to which the insurance applies. Khalid aziz**2010 35
  • 36. How does paying for the insurance in advance affect the accounting equation? Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings+ prepaid insurance- cashIncome Statement: No effectStatement of Changes in Equity: No effectStatement of Cash Flows: Operating cash outflow Khalid aziz**2010 36
  • 37. The expense is recorded when the time to which the insurance applies has passed--when it’s been used up. Usually it’s an adjustment, made when the financial statements are being prepared.Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings- prepaid - insurance expenseinsurance Income Statement: Decreases income Statement of Changes in Equity: Decreases equity Statement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flow Khalid aziz**2010 37
  • 38. BUYING SUPPLIES Companies purchase supplies to be used later. When the cash is paid, the company has purchased an asset called supplies. Sometimes they are called supplies-on-hand to differentiate them from supplies expense (used). Dollars first--action later. What’s the action that triggers recognition of the expense? Actually using the supplies. Khalid aziz**2010 38
  • 39. How does buying the supplies in advance affect the accounting equation? Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings+ supplies- cashIncome Statement: No effectStatement of Changes in Equity: No effectStatement of Cash Flows: Operating cash outflow Khalid aziz**2010 39
  • 40. The expense is recorded when supplies are used.Usually, supplies-on-hand are counted at the end of theperiod, and an adjustment is made to get the amount ofthe remaining asset correct for the balance sheet.Assets = Liab. + Cont. Cap. + Retained Earnings- supplies - supplies expenseIncome Statement: Decreases incomeStatement of Changes in Equity: Decreases equityStatement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flow Khalid aziz**2010 40
  • 41. DEPRECIATION When a company buys an asset that is used up in the business (i.e., they didn’t buy it to resell it) AND it will be useful for more than one year, GAAP says that the expense must be spread over the accounting periods during the useful life of the asset. Khalid aziz**2010 41
  • 42. DEPRECIATION The portion of the cost of an asset allocated to any one accounting period-- DEPRECIATION EXPENSE Depreciation of an asset is an allocation process--spreading the cost of an asset that benefits more than one accounting period over the estimated useful life of the asset. Khalid aziz**2010 42
  • 43. Example of Depreciation  ABC Co. bought a satellite dish for Rs5,000. The asset is expected to last five years and have no salvage value at the end of its useful life. How will the purchase and use of the asset affect the financial statements? Khalid aziz**2010 43
  • 44. Purchase of the asset:How does it affect the financial statements? Assets = Liabilities + CC + RE+5,000 satellite dish(5,000) cash Income Statement: no effect Statement of Changes in Equity: no effect Statement of Cash Flows: Rs5,000 investing activity cash outflow Khalid aziz**2010 44
  • 45. USE OF THE ASSET We want to allocate the cost of the asset to the income statement as an expense during the time period we use the asset. If we depreciate the asset using the STRAIGHT LINE method, we will divide the cost of the asset (minus any estimated salvage value) by the useful life: Rs5,000/5 = Rs1,000 each year. Khalid aziz**2010 45
  • 46. Use of the asset: How does it affect the financial statements? Assets = Liabilities + CC + RE(1,000) (1,000)reduces the asset expense Income Statement: Reduces income Statement of Changes in Equity: Reduces equity Statement of Cash Flows: No effect on cash flow Khalid aziz**2010 46
  • 47. Use of the asset: How does it affect the financial statements? Each year for five years, we will reduce the asset’s value on the balance sheet by Rs1,000. Each year for five years, we will have an expense of Rs1,000 on the income statement. Instead of netting out the subtracted amount on the balance sheet, we will always show the original cost and then the amount of the total reduction. That amount is called accumulated depreciation and it is a contra-asset. The expense is called depreciation expense. Khalid aziz**2010 47
  • 48. JOIN KHALID AZIZ ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. CONTACT: 0322-3385752 0312-2302870 R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN.aziz**2010 Khalid 48

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