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Unit 1 bac 2 formal informal and non-formal education
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Unit 1 bac 2 formal informal and non-formal education

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unit 1 of Gateway to english 2

unit 1 of Gateway to english 2

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  • 1. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 2. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 3. Formal Informal Non-formal Education Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 4. Formal education refers to learning through a programme of instruction in an educational institution, adult training centre or in the workplace. This type education is generally recognized in a qualification or a certificate. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 5. Non-formal education refers to learning through a programme but it is not usually evaluated (no exams needed) and does not lead to certification. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 6. Informal education refers to learning that results from activities related to daily life experiences, work, family, or leisure. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 7. Vocabulary: Collocations • When two words are used together regularly and make a sense it is called a collocation. Collocations always appear in the same order; putting them the other way around seems wrong. Here are some examples: • With free access to internet, more people will benefit from the advantages of the World Wide Web. • Amazigh people have a huge cultural background that passes from one generation to another. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 8. Communication: making and responding to requests • When people want someone to do something, they use a request. To make a request is to ask for something in a polite way. For this reason, some expressions are always used to make the request more appropriate. Check these examples: Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 9. Making a request • Can you help me, please? • Could you say it again more slowly? • Would you pass the salt please? ( would you + verb infinitive form without “to”) • Would you mind waiting a moment? ( would you mind + gerund form “verb + ing”) • Can I see you in my office, Bob? • Please, would you open your suitcase, Madam? Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 10. Responding to a request People respond to a request in many different ways. Here are some examples: • Yes, sir! • yes of course • Sure • that will be fine • I will see what I can do • I am afraid I can’t • "Please" is often used with requests or instructions to make them more polite. "Please" comes at the beginning or end of a sentence. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 11. GRAMMAR: gerund or infinitive • Gerund form is : verb + ing e.g.: speaking • Infinitive form is: to + verb e.g.: to speak Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 12. Gerund / Infinitive Verbs normally followed by GERUND Verbs normally followed by INFINITIVE Acknowledge - admit - adore - appreciate - avoid - confess - deny - detest - discuss - dislike - enjoy - finish imagine - involve - keep - miss - mind - quit - regret - suggest - understand ( …) Afford - agree - ask - choose - come - decide - deserve - expect - fail - hope - learn - manage - plan - pretend - promise - refuse - want ( …) The table below contains some of the verbs that are usually followed by one of the forms: gerund or infinitive. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 13. Here are some examples: • Verb + gerund • I adore reading English fiction books. • My father quit smoking long ago. • He suggested visiting the historical monuments of the city first. • Verb + infinitive • I can’t afford to buy a car. • My teacher agreed to postpone the final exam till next week • We should learn to express ourselves. • The students managed to solve the problem. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 14. Gerund AND Infinitive( Both)  Some verbs, however, can be followed by both infinitive or gerund without any change in meaning. Example: • He began to lean English when he was fourteen years old. • He began learning English when he was fourteen years old. • I hate to leave early. • I hate leaving early. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 15. Gerund after prepositions and expressions • The gerund must be used when a verb comes after a preposition as well as some expressions such as: against/at/after/by/on/tired of/without/keen on/would you mind/…. Here are some examples: • I am against smoking in public places. • I went home after leaving the party. • That girl is good at speaking languages. • I am tired of hearing excuses every time. • You can’t go to France without having a visa. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 16. Writing: cohesive devices: linking words Some words and phrases help to develop ideas and relate them to one another. These kinds of words and phrases are often called linking words. They help to give a kind of coherence and logical relationship to what we write. Linking words are of different kinds: Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 17. On the other hand; while; whereas; however, nonetheless, nevertheless These expressions relate two ideas which contrast but do not contradict each other. Examples: • Football is popular in England, while in Australia they prefer cricket. • Jack thinks we're ready to begin whereas Tom things we still need to wait. • Smoking is proved to be dangerous to the health; Nonetheless, 40% of the population smokes. • Our teacher promised to take us on a field trip; However, he changed his mind last week. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 18. moreover, furthermore, in addition, both …. And…, ….. too/as well, also, We use these expressions to add information to what has been said. Examples: • His problems with his parents are extremely frustrating. Moreover, there seems to be no easy solution to them. • Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. In addition to these costs, our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com
  • 19. therefore, as a result, consequently / , because, due to, since • These expressions show the cause/effect relationship between two sentences where one is the cause and the other is an effect. Examples: • He reduced the amount of time studying for his final exams; As a result, his marks were rather low. • We’ve lost over 3,000 customers over the past six months; Consequently, we have been forced to cut back our advertising budget. • A number of programs have been cancelled because the government has drastically reduced its spending. Friday, October 04, 2013 Khalid DRIOUCH - teacher of english k.driouch79@yahoo.com