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India Urban conference book

  1. 1. Urban India 2011: Evidence
  2. 2. Original publication: November 22, 2011. Second Edition: December 22, 2011. Third Edition: January 21, 2012
  3. 3. Urban India 2011: Evidence
  4. 4. URBAN INDIA 2011: EVIDENCE We would like to thank the several contributing authors in particular: Professor Martha Chen of Harvard University and Dr. Govindan Raveendran for generously sharing their analysis of 1999-2009 NSS data on urban employment; Somik Lall and the World Bank team working on the India Urbanisation Review for sharing their results on India’s economic geography and in particular the distribution of employment. Dr. Jyotsna Jha and Madhusudan B.V. of the Centre for Budgetary and Policy Studies, Bangalore provided intriguing data on Municipal Finance.IUC AUTHOR AND PRODUCTION TEAM PHOTO CREDITS:Aromar Revi, IIHS Cover Image - Red Fort : F.S. ShazuddinCharis Idicheria, IIHS Urban Dynamics: IIHS Geospatial LabGarima Jain, IIHS Economic Geography - Gurgaoun High Rises: F.S. ShazuddinGeetika Anand, IIHS Migration - Old Delhi Railway Station: Kavita Wankhade, IIHSDr. H.S. Sudhira, IIHS Urban Poverty & Livelihoods - Okhla: Garima Jain, IIHSDr. Jessica Seddon, IIHS Social Safety Nets - Abul Fazal Enclave: Garima Jain, IIHSKavita Wankhade, IIHS Urban Infrastructure - Metro Gurgaon: F.S. ShazuddinM.K. Rashmi, IIHS Urban Finance - Public Investments: Himanshu Dhandha, IIHSPriyadarshini Shetty, IIHSRevati Dhoble, CDF, IFMRShashikala Gowda, IIHSShriya Anand, IIHSSujatha Srinivasan, CDF, IFMR COPYRIGHT AND USE All the content created by the author(s) for the purpose of the IUC is copyrighted. For permission to reproduce copyrighted materials, contact the author(s) of the copyright, noted as the "Source" on each page. You are free to share, to copy, distribute and transmit the work under the following conditions: Attribution -You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you / or your use of the work). Non-commercial -You shall not use this work for commercial purposes. With the understanding that: Public Domain -Where the work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license. Other Rights-In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license: • Your fair dealing or fair use rights, or other applicable copyright exceptions and limitations; • The authors moral rights; • Rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work is used, such as publicity or privacy rights. • Trademarks: The logos and names of sponsors and organizers on the IUC briefing are trademarks of these organisations. Use, reproduction, copying or redistribution of trademarks, without the written permission of the logo/names respective owner is prohibited. The IIHS graphics in the IUC content are also considered trademarks of IIHS. This report is produced by Autumn Worldwide | www.autumnworldwide.com
  5. 5. Urban India 2011: Evidence India’s urban transition, a once in history phenomenon, has the as convenient linkages between economic hubs? Will cities grow as potential to shift the country’s social, environmental, political, and compact, efficient densely populated areas or continue to spread out economic trajectory. It could catalyse the end of calorie poverty over larger and larger territories? Will more people connect to the if post-1989 China is any example. It could deepen democracy and electricity grid or will diesel generators continue to power the emerging human development, enabling more Indians to live better quality, suburbs – this is an important question for emissions and energy healthier, and better-educated lives. It could enable the countrys security, above and beyond the more prominent discussion about the transition to a less resource- Intensive development, with lower move from coal to renewable energy. throughputs, footprints and environmental impacts that could reshape Third, urbanisation will, for better or for worse, play an enormous role global trends because of India’s demographic and economic size. in social transformation and economic mobility. It may exacerbate But these are only aspirations. Hard evidence indicates that much work inequalities, create new opportunities, or both. Cities could be engines needs to be done to realise these opportunities over the next twenty of poverty reduction, both within their boundaries and through the to thirty years. financial, people, and goods flow between urban and rural India. They India’s urbanisation will interact with the country’s ongoing could also replicate existing social stratification and exacerbate the demographic evolution to shape the extent of the “demographic misery of poverty by concentrating the poor in smaller, more polluted, dividend” as a young labour force moves into more or less productive more market-dependent, less safe areas. employment with unknown opportunities for economic and social In short, urbanisation is a transition to be reckoned with. mobility. The process will help redefine India’s imagination as a country that lives primarily in its villages with limited movement across IIHS originally produced this book for the India Urban Conference: geographies. We will need to understand and deepen the linkages that Evidence and Experience (IUC 2011), a series of events designed to raise enable small urban centres to become catalysts for rural non-farm the salience of urban challenges and opportunities in the ongoing debate employment, sites of opportunities, and a foundation for eliminating on India’s development. The series, comprising an academic conference rural poverty and exclusion. in New Haven, CT, USA, an ideas-forum and discussion of emerging evidence and research in Mysore, a policy conference in Delhi, and The spatial patterns of urbanisation will also affect the possibilities a national student challenge seeking innovative proposals for urban for the country to pioneer new, less resource-intensive forms solutions, was convened by the Indian Institute for Human Settlements of development. India has lower measured emissions per unit of output (IIHS), Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy (JCCD), and than many other countries at the moment, but the emerging economic the South Asian Studies Council at Yale University, in collaboration with geography will determine whether this pattern can be sustained as the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and the Ministry growth continues and consumption increases. Will road transport of Urban Development of the Government of India. The events also continue to dominate shipping or will rail and inland waterways emerge
  6. 6. relied on the expertise and networks of Context Anchors including The Urban India 2011: Evidence also marks the initiation of a seriesArghyam, Bangalore; DRONAH (Development and Research of thematic Urban Atlases in collaboration with leading scholars andOrganisation for Nature Art and Heritage), Gurgaon; IFMR Finance practitioners. The Indian Institute for Human Settlements is firmlyFoundation, Chennai; PHFI (Public Health Foundation of India), Delhi; committed to furthering “basic research” - to borrow an academic termIndia Urban Space Foundation (IUSF), Bangalore; SPA (School from the natural sciences - that helps civil society, academics, and policyof Planning and Architecture), Delhi; and Pratham, Mumbai and Delhi. makers at all levels of government understand and reflect upon the waysThe IUC series sought to contribute to building a strong and inclusive that our society, culture, and economy are changing every day. The Atlasknowledge foundation for this transition. The series of events sought programme will be a platform for collaboration between allto create a platform for research and dialogue among practitioners, of the various stakeholders in data production - civil society and citizensacademics, and citizens to identify priorities for policy, research, and as well as surveyors, academics, and governments - as well as a meansaction by all stakeholders in India’s urban transition. to disseminate the information that emerges from these exercise to a broad audience.We hope to extend the discussion beyond that series through widerpublication of the Urban India 2011: Evidence briefing and the evidencebehind it. This brief and intensive underlying analysis pulls togetheravailable evidence from national surveys, the Census of India, remotesensing data on urban spatial dynamics, as well as published and greyliterature. The picture created is far removed from the lived realityof urban India, and the aggregate summaries may be at odds with thevaried circumstances that policymakers, entrepreneurs and civil societyface as they seek to intervene in the urban transition. In some casesthese data may systematically misrepresent the context and dynamicsof urban India. However, the analysis captures one of the views availableto today’s policymakers and starts to place diverse individualexperiences in some semblance of a broader context. It providesa starting point for developing a shared understanding of the underlyingtrends behind the everyday and individual observations of how Indiaand its urban areas are evolving. We hope that it will be challenged,augmented, and improved.
  7. 7. Urban Dynamics Economic Geography MigrationTABLE OF CONTENTS Urban Poverty and Livelihoods1. Urban Dynamics 3-262. Economic Geography 27-403. Migration 41-474. Urban Poverty and Livelihoods 48-565. Social Safety Nets 57-62 Social Safety Nets6. Urban Infrastructure & Services 63-697. Urban Finance 70-78 Urban Infrastructure & ServicesEndnotes & Explanations 79-86Abbreviations 87-88 Urban Finance [1]
  8. 8. [2]
  9. 9. Longitude " Urban DynamicsLatitude " National Capital Region of Delhi: Urban Land Cover 2011 Urban Dynamics
  10. 10. Urban Dynamics Urban Dynamics This section provides an overview of India’s urban dynamics in both century as we move from a rural-agrarian to an urbanindustrial/ spatial and demographic terms. The first set of maps places India’s services-led economy. The second is the impact of the grey present settlement distribution in historic context and suggests one zone between Class IV to VI towns (<5,000-20,000) population and the scenario of how this may evolve over the next two decades. India’s large fraction of rural population who live in villages that have more impending urbanisation, particularly an acceleration of urbanisation than 5,000 people and have an increasing urban character. There are in southern and parts of western India, are apparent and formidable. between 80-140 million people estimated to be living in this zone. The next set of analyses disaggregates this overall pattern to show the broad spatial distribution of cities by size class. Insets on the pages A shift toward defining these areas as urban would mean a rise in India’s summarize the current distribution of population as well as estimates level of urbanisation to 40% or above, but a loss of rural entitlements of land covered and economic output across cities of various sizes. and an increased burden of urban taxation – both of which have major This analysis shows how urban areas account for a disproportionately policy implications. It is between the medium and small towns and this small amount of India’s terrain when compared with their significant grey zone of large villages that the success of India’s new manufacturing, and rising share of economic output. According to the Census of India livelihood and skill building policies will be sorely tested. The next series 2011 as well as calculations by the IIHS Geospatial Lab, the top 10 cities focuses in on the patterns of urbanisation as deduced from changes in of India account for almost 8% of India’s population, produce 15% of land cover over time. The short summary is that cities are sprawling. As total economic output but only occupy approximately 0.1% of the total they expand past their formal administrative boundaries, city densities land area. Similarly, the 53 million plus cities are estimated to account lower over time as population growth rates lag behind the rate of the for 13% of the population produce, about a third of total economic growth of built-up areas. The drop in built-up area densities is greater in output and occupy approximately 0.2% of the land. The top 100 cities the top 100 cities when compared to the top 10 or the million plus cities are estimated to account for 16% of the population, produce 43% of but sprawl is happening in large and small cities alike. This is hardly an India’s total output and occupy approximately 0.26% of the land. These unusual pattern when seen from a global perspective, but it does have estimates are necessarily rough given the absence of reliable obvious and possibly unfortunate consequences for urban governance, disaggregated data for urban areas but the emerging economic regional planning, and the sustainability of India’s cities. Urbanisation importance of cities as well their increasing demographic presence is has the potential to be an environmentally sustainable way to work and clear. live – life in compact settlements requires less transport, less energy for cooling and heating, and directly alters less terrain than more spatially The next set of plates traces the evolution of India’s entire settlement dispersed living patterns. Increasing sprawl challenges these structure – across villages, small towns and cities showing the changing possibilities. distribution of India’s population since Independence. The distribution has a high concentration in the million cities and a very long While the extent of land under urban cover remains small, the effects of decentralised tail – the 2011 Census estimated 8,000 urban centres, urban land dynamics may be more significant. For one, location of the situated in a sea of over 6,60,000 villages. The graphs show a decline in land matters – we may be urbanising in productive and eco-sensitive the number of people and proportion living in hamlets and small areas. Second, spatial size matters. Globally, cities typically sprawl and villages, partially because of population growth, but also because of the disturb land area twice their built up area – this relationship is clustering and agglomeration of settlements as mobility networks unstudied for India. Third, low density urban expansion affects energy increased in coverage and settlement sizes grew. The analysis shows that use for transport, the prospects for and costs of resource-efficient the most significant change is in the proportion of the smallest and the infrastructure, the extent of disruption to watersheds and albedo, and largest cities. other aspects of urbanisation that in turn affects extraction of water, energy and material resources from the hinterland for the construction Two striking questions emerge: the distribution of both India’s urban and operation of these cities and rural population across settlement size class over the next half [4]
  11. 11. Urban DynamicsUrban India: 1951 In 1951, there were only 5 Indian cities with a population greater than 1 million and only 41 cities greater than 0.1 million population. Much of India effectively lived in 0.56 million villages. 300 Top 100 Top 50 Top 25 Top 20 Top 10 250 Population in millions 200 150 100 50 0 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 Source: IIHS Analysis of Census data, 1951. (Satellite Map, Google Inc.) [5]
  12. 12. Urban Dynamics Urban India: 2011 In 2011, there are 3 cities with population greater than 10 million and 53 cities with population greater than 1 million. Over 833 million Indians live in 0.64 million villages but 377 million live in about 8,000 urban centres. 300 Top 100 Top 50 Top 25 Top 20 Top 10 250 Population in millions 200 150 100 50 0 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 Source: IIHS Analysis of Census data, 2011. (Satellite Map, Google Inc.) [6]
  13. 13. Urban DynamicsUrban India: 2031 By 2031, it is projected that there will be 6 cities with a population greater than 10 million. A key question is how many Indians would live in how many medium and small towns - the bridge between a transforming rural and urban India? 300 Top 100 Top 50 Top 25 Top 20 Top 10 250 Population in millions 200 150 100 50 0 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 Source: IIHS Analysis based on Census of India. (Satellite Map, Google Inc.) [7]
  14. 14. Urban Dynamics Indias Largest Cities: 2011 (List in descending order of population of Urban Agglomerations) Top Ten Million Plus Top Hundred Greater Mumbai Greater Mumbai Jamshedpur Greater Mumbai Srinagar Cuttack Delhi Delhi Srinagar Delhi Jabalpur Puducherry Kolkata Kolkata Jabalpur Kolkata Asansol Jammu Chennai Chennai Asansol Chennai Vasai Virar City (M Corp.)* Bikaner (M Corp.)* Bangalore Bangalore Vasai Virar City (M Corp.)* Bangalore Allahabad Amravati (M Corp.)* Hyderabad Hyderabad Allahabad Hyderabad Dhanbad Noida (CT) Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Dhanbad Ahmedabad Aurangabad Mangalore Pune Pune Aurangabad Pune Amritsar Belgaum Surat Surat Amritsar Surat Jodhpur Bhavnagar Jaipur (M Corp.)* Jaipur (M Corp.)* Jodhpur Jaipur (M Corp.)* Ranchi Firozabad (NPP) Kanpur Ranchi Kanpur Raipur Jamnagar Lucknow Raipur Lucknow Kollam Durgapur Nagpur Kollam Nagpur Gwalior Malegaon Ghaziabad Gwalior Ghaziabad Durg-Bhilainagar Nellore Indore Durg-Bhilainagar Indore Chandigarh Bokaro Steel City Coimbatore Chandigarh Coimbatore Tiruchirappalli Kolhapur Kochi Tiruchirappalli Kochi Kota (M Corp.)* Raurkela Patna Kota (M Corp.)* Patna Mysore Ajmer Kozhikode Kozhikode Bareilly Nanded Waghala (M Corp.)* Bhopal Bhopal Guwahati Jhansi Thrissur Thrissur Tiruppur Gulbarga Vadodara Vadodara Solapur (M Corp.)* Erode Agra Agra Hubli-Dharwad *(M Corp.)* Ujjain (M Corp.)* GVMC (MC)** GVMC (MC)** Salem Sangali Malappuram Malappuram Aligarh Tirunelveli Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Gurgaon Muzaffarnagar Kannur Kannur Moradabad (M Corp.)* Vellore Ludhiana (M Corp.)* Ludhiana (M Corp.)* Bhubaneswar Rajahmundry Nashik Nashik Jalandhar Vijayawada Vijayawada Warangal Madurai Madurai Bhiwandi Varanasi Varanasi Dehradun Meerut Meerut Saharanpur (M Corp.)* Faridabad (M Corp.)* Faridabad (M Corp.)* Siliguri Rajkot Rajkot Gorakhpur Jamshedpur Guntur **GVMC (MC): Greater Visakhaptnam Municipal Corporation | *(M Corp.): Municipal Corporation. Source: Census 2011 [8]
  15. 15. Urban DynamicsTen Largest Cities The top 10 cities are estimated to produce about 15% of the GDP, with Ten Largest Cities 8% of the population and just 0.1% of the land area. Land Land 0.1% Population Population 8% Output Output 15% 0 10 20 30 40 50 Estimated Proportion for all-India Average Density in Built-up Area of Top Ten Cities, people per sq km 40 Estimated number of people per square km Thousands 35 30 of built-up area 25 20 15 10 5 0 1990s 2000s 2010s Source: IIHS Analysis 2011(built-up area); Census 2011 (population); Planning Commission 2011 (DPP Estimates 2005-06). See endnotes for method of calculating urban output and built-up area. [9]
  16. 16. Urban Dynamics Cities with Populations over 1 Million The 53 Million-plus cities are estimated to produce about 32% of Cities with Populations the GDP, with 13.3% of the over 1 Million population and just 0.2% of the land area. Land Land 0.2% Population Population 13% Output Output 31% 0 10 20 30 40 50 Estimated Proportion for all-India Average Density in Built-up Areas of Million Plus Cities, people per sq km Estimated number of people per square km 45 Thousands 40 35 30 of built -up area 25 20 15 10 5 0 1990s 2000s 2010s Source: IIHS Analysis 2011(built-up area); Census 2011 (population); Planning Commission 2011 (DPP Estimates 2005-06). See endnotes for method of calculating urban output and built-up area. [10]
  17. 17. Urban DynamicsHundred Largest Cities The top 100 largest cities are estimated to produce about 43% of Hundred Largest Cities the GDP, with 16% of the population and just 0.24% of the land area. Land Land 0.24% Population Population 16% Output Output 41% 0 10 20 30 40 50 Estimated Proportion for all-India Average Density in Built-up Areas of Top Hundred Cities, people per sq km Estimated number of people per square km 45 Thousands 40 35 30 of built -up area 25 20 15 10 5 0 1990s 2000s 2010s Source: IIHS Analysis 2011(built-up area); Census 2011 (population); Planning Commission 2011 (DPP Estimates 2005-06). See endnotes for method of calculating urban output and built-up area. [11]
  18. 18. Urban Dynamics Distribution of India’s Population by Settlement Size (Urban & Rural): 1951-2011* Depending on the definition of urban, more settlements shift from the rural into the urban category. Est. 2011 100% Pop. 3% 1% 3% 4% 3% 3% 4% 4% Megacities (> 10 m) 1% 3% 2% Large Metropolitan Cities (5-10 m) 2% 3% 2% 3% 4% 4% Class I 7% 5% Cities 90% 6% 6% 8% 7% 265 m Million + Cities (1 - 5 m) 3% 8% 1% 8% 5% 8% 1% 9% Other Class I Cities (0.1 to 1 m) Other Urban Large 80% 8% 1% 8% Centres 10% 8% Class II (50-1,00,000) , Class III (20-50,000), Class Proportion of All India Population (%) 1% IV (10-20,000) 17% 12% 1% 9% 112 m 70% 1% Class V & VI (<5-10,000) 18% 14% 16% 20% Villages 60% 17% Very Large Villages (>10,000) , Large Villages 21% 200 m (>5,000) 20% 50% 22% 21% 23% Medium Sized Villages (2-5,000) 21% 40% 24% 20% small villages Medium and 21% 30% 19% 19% 537 m 18% 18% 20% 17% Small Villages (1-2,000) 15% 12% 22% 10% 10% 17% Hamlets (500-1,000) 13% 8% 10% 7% 5% Small Hamlets (<500) 3% 0% 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Definition of Urban (Census 2011): All statutory (estimate) places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee. A place satisfying All India: Number of Settlements (1971-2011) the following three criteria simultaneously: a minimum 1991 2001 2011 population of 5,000; at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and Urban 3,351 5,161 7,935 a density of population of at least 400 per sq. km. Rural 6,34,321 6,38,588 6,40,867 Source: Census, 2011 *The break-up of smaller cities Source: IIHS Analysis based + for 2011 is an estimate on Census 1951 to 2011 [12]
  19. 19. Urban DynamicsLargest 20 Urban Agglomerations by Population: 2011 The rapid growth of the largest metropolitan cities in the 20th century, is now beginning to slow down, whereas the smaller cities are expanding. 20 18 Greater Mumbai UA Delhi UA 16 Kolkata UA Chennai UA Bangalore UA 14 Hyderabad UA Ahmedabad UA Population in millions 12 Pune UA Surat UA 10 Jaipur (M Corp.) Kanpur UA Lucknow UA 8 Nagpur UA Ghaziabad UA 6 Indore UA Coimbatore UA 4 Kochi UA Patna UA Kozhikode UA 2 Bhopal UA 0 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Source: IIHS Analysis based on Census of India, 2011 [13]
  20. 20. Urban DynamicsPopulation and Built up Area: Inside and Outside India’s 10 Largest Cities 1990 2000 250 Population and builtarea outside the urban local body as a proportion of 250 Population and builtarea outside the urban local body as a proportion of population or built area inside the urban local body population or built area inside the urban local body 200 200 150 150 100 100 -up -up -up -up 50 50 0 0 Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur Mumbai Mumbai Population Built -up area Population Built -up area 2010 India’s largest cities have a significant portion of both 250 Population and builtarea outside the urban local body as a proportion of population and built-up areas outside ULB boundaries. In most cases, the proportion of built- up area outside ULB population or built area inside the urban local body 200 boundaries is greater than the proportion of population outside the administrative boundaries, implying relatively low-density sprawl. Comparison over time (highlighted in 150 the next page) shows that this spatial expansion has accelerated between 2000 and 2010. up 100 - -up 50 0 Source: H.S. Sudhira (2011) Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur and IIHS Analysis Mumbai See endnote for explanation Population Built -up area on methodology for calculating built-up area [15]
  21. 21. Urban Dynamics Urban Growth: Population vs. Built up Areas Percentage Change in Population and Built-up Area Percentage Change in Population and Built-up Area for 10 Largest Cities, 1990-2000 for 10 Largest Cities, 2000-2010 100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% Change (%) 60% Change (%) 60% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur Mumbai Mumbai Percentage Change in Population Percentage Change in Built- up Area Built-up area has been growing faster than population in nearly all of India’s largest cities for the past two decades. Source: H.S. Sudhira (2011) and IIHS Analysis See endnote for explanation on methodology for calculating built-up area [14]
  22. 22. Urban Dynamics Urban Growth: Density Built-up Densities inside Administrative Boundary Built-up Densities outside Administrative Boundary 100 1990 100 1990 Thousands Thousands 90 2000 90 2000 80 2010 80 2010 Persons per sq. km of Built -up area Persons per sq. km of built -up area 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur Greater Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Jaipur Mumbai Mumbai Built-up density, estimated as population over built-up area, is decreasing for most of the core areas of the ten largest cities. The evolution of density outside the urban local body boundaries varies more, but density is lower than in the city cores. Source: H.S. Sudhira (2011) and IIHS Analysis See endnote for explanation on methodology for calculating built-up area [16]
  23. 23. Urban DynamicsChange in Urban Built-up Area & Land Cover: Mumbai & Delhi Mumbai 12.6 million 1992 16.4 million 2001 18.4 million 2011 Delhi 8.7 million 1992 13.7 million 2000 16.3 million 2011 Built-up Vegetation Water bodies Others Source: H. S. Sudhira (2011). Urban Land Cover and Land Cover Change Dataset of Indian Cities. IIHS Working Paper, Mimeo. [17]
  24. 24. Urban Dynamics Change in Urban Built-up Area & Land Cover: Kolkata & Chennai Kolkata 10.3 million 1990 13.2 million 2001 14.1 million 2010 Chennai 5.2 million 1991 6.6 million 2000 8.7 million 2009 Built-up Vegetation Water bodies Others Source: H. S. Sudhira (2011). Urban Land Cover and Land Cover Change Dataset of Indian Cities. IIHS Working Paper, Mimeo. [18]
  25. 25. Urban DynamicsChange in Urban Built-up Area & Land Cover: Bangalore & Hyderabad Bangalore 3.4 million 1992 5.7 million 2001 8.5 million 2009 Hyderabad 4.3 million 1989 5.7 million 2001 7.7 million 2009 Built-up Vegetation Water bodies Others Source: H. S. Sudhira (2011). Urban Land Cover and Land Cover Change Dataset of Indian Cities. IIHS Working Paper, Mimeo. [19]
  26. 26. Urban Dynamics Change in Urban Built-up Area & Land Cover: Ahmedabad & Pune Ahmedabad 3.3 million 1992 4.5 million 2001 6.4 million 2011 Pune 2.3 million 1992 3.8 million 2001 5.0 million 2011 Built-up Vegetation Water bodies Others Source: H. S. Sudhira (2011). Urban Land Cover and Land Cover Change Dataset of Indian Cities. IIHS Working Paper, Mimeo. [20]
  27. 27. Urban DynamicsChange in Urban Built-up Area & Land Cover: Surat & Jaipur Surat 1.5 million 1990 2.8 million 2001 4.6 million 2011 Jaipur 1.5 million 1989 2.3 million 2000 3.1 million 2011 Built-up Vegetation Water bodies Others Source: H. S. Sudhira (2011). Urban Land Cover and Land Cover Change Dataset of Indian Cities. IIHS Working Paper, Mimeo. [21]
  28. 28. Urban Dynamics Change in Urban Built-up Area & Land Cover: Agra & Chandigharh Agra 0.9 million 1989 1.3 million 2000 1.7 million 2011 Chandigharh 0.6 million 1989 0.8 million 2000 1 million 2011 Built-up Vegetation Water bodies Others Source: H. S. Sudhira (2011). Urban Land Cover and Land Cover Change Dataset of Indian Cities. IIHS Working Paper, Mimeo. [22]
  29. 29. Urban DynamicsSpatial Variation in District-wise Distribution of Sectoral Output: 2005-06 100% All the districts of India are arranged in ascending Agriculture order of level of urbanisation, and the lines 90% represent the cumulative distribution of sectoral Cumulative Percentage of Total All-India Output Forestry and output. As expected, we see that some economic 80% Logging activity like banking, insurance and real estate is more concentrated in urban areas, whereas 70% Mining and Quarrying forestry, logging, agriculture, mining and quarrying are less concentrated in urban areas. 60% Manufacturing 50% Trade, Hotels and Restaurants 40% Banking and 30% Insurance 20% Real Estate Sectoral Composition of All India GDP, 2005-06 10% Public Total DDP Admn 5% Other 0% Services Districts, ordered by Level of Urbanisation 9% Agriculture 19% Forestry 1% Real Estate Fishing 1% 9% Banking Mining 2% 6% Manufacturing This chart shows the sectoral composition of the economy. Shades of green Communication 14% represent the primary sector, shades of blue represent the secondary sector 3% and shades of pink and purple represent the tertiary sector. Other Transport 4% Trade Railways 1% 15% Electricity 2% Construction 8% Source : District-level data on economic output from the Planning Commission [23]
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