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Struktur analytical exposition

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  • 1. Struktur Analytical ExpositionSeperti yang telah dipaparkan sebelumnya, tujuan jenis teks yang bernamaanalytical exposition ini adalah mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwaterdapat sebuah masalah atau kasus yang memerlukan perhatian khusus. Ketikamenyusun sebuah cerita atau teks dalam hal ini, ada beberapa hal yang harusdiperhatikan. Hal tersebut dikarenakan jenis teks memiliki perbedaan satu sama lain.Untuk membedakannya, berikut merupakan struktur teksanalytical exposition. 1. Pernyataan pendapat (thesis statement). Poin pertama ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan sebuah topik atau tema yang akan dibahas atau sedang dalam sebuah pembicaraan. 2. Argumen (argument). Poin-poin yang dikemukakan atau dibahas terdapat pada poin kedua ini. Biasanya ketika sebuah pendapat dikemukakan, sering terjadi argument atau alasan dari pendapat yang pro dan kontra. 3. Simpulan (conclusion). Sebuah teks yang berisi pendapat dan terdapat perbedaan di dalamnya akan diakhiri dengan solusi. Namun, tidak semua teks diakhiri dengan sebuah solusi. Ada yang dibiarkan menggantung saja dengan tujuan pembaca atau pendengar yang menyimpulkan sendiri. Dalam teks analytical exposition ini, sebuah simpulan atas sebuah kasus atau kejadian biasanya dibuat dengan maksud agar pembaca atau pendengar memperoleh gambaran dengan solusi yang ditawarkan.Teks analytical exposition memiliki ciri kebahasaan tersendiri. Pembaca ataupendengar akan mengetahui sebuah teks termasuk jenis teks ini denganmemperhatikan ciri kebahasaannya. Ciri-ciri tersebut sebagai berikut. 1. Teks memiliki general nouns atau dalam bahasa Indonesia kata benda yang umum. Misalnya, polusi, Internet, makanan cepat saji, dan sebagainya. Contoh analytical exposition dalam bahasa Inggris di antaranya traffic jam, disadvantages of fast food, dan using computer. 2. Verbs yang digunakan dalam teks analytical exposition, misalnyabelieve, think, suggest, say. Kalimat yang biasa digunakan dalam teksanalytical exposition adalah sebagai berikut: a. Many people believe that smoking is bad habit. b. She thinks that using computer too much is not good for children. c. Mother says that it is not good studying late at night. 3. Adverbs yang biasa digunakan dalam teks analytical exposition, misalnya Nervously, Certainly, Surely, Honestlye, dll. 4. Connectives atau penghubung, misalny First, Second, Third, Next,Finally.Bagaimana menyusun teks analytical exposition yang sesuai dengan struktur yangtelah disebutkan tersebut? Perhatikanlah contoh teks analytical expositionberikut ini.What comes to your mind when you hear about air pollution? Air pollution is one ofthe dangerous substances that make damage to the whole environment, human life,health, and many creatures in this world. Air pollution makes many problems ofhealth, such as cancer and many other breathing problems.
  • 2. What makes air pollution? Air pollution also comes from many vehicles from thestreet. Decomposing garbage also makes such pollution. People should realize thatthis air pollution is dangerous for human life. Air pollution causes dangerous gassubstances.Nowadays, air pollution also comes from many forest fires and it also because ofhuman mistakes. Many problems in the world comes from human mistakes and theygive feedback for their mistakes.However, we can reduce this kind of pollution by doing some actions, such as usingvehicles without many gases. You can try to use bicycle to go to school or to work.Air pollution also can be reduced by not using deodorant and Freon substances.What should we do with the trees near the street? We can start by planting manytrees near the street. Those who have cars can take care of their cars well to reducethe dangerous gases.Internet is considered as good way to get information from the whole world. Peopleuse Internet nowadays to make their life easier. Many people use Internet to keep intouch with people from around the world. What will happen if children use Internetwithout realizing the effect from it? Does Internet have any bad effect?Children are familiar with the Internet. They get information from the Internet to helptheir work from school. However, Internet has bad effect for children if their parentslet them alone using the Internet. What will happen to them?The role of parent in watching their children in using the computer to access theInternet is very important. Parents cannot prevent children from using the Internet.Internet has good benefit, actually. It depends on their parents to make them realizeand understand about using Internet as good access to help their work andrelationship with their friends around the world.
  • 3. Analytical Exposition Purpose : to persuade by presenting arguments to analyze or explain ‘how’ and ‘why’ Text Organization: A thesis Arguments Reiteration or Conclusion Language Features : Emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc) Words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, Probably etc) Words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc) An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion. A.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition 1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position; Outlines of the arguments are presented. 2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument 3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position B. Generic Features of Analytical Exposition1. An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants.2. It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.3. It uses emotive and evaluative words4. It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.5. It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.6. Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc. Corruption and Indonesian Culture
  • 4. Thesis:Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia forthree reasonsArgument 1:Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen inmany places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reportedcorruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country.Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to getsome documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay.Manipulations happen everywhereArgument 2:The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come toan end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commitcorruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges,public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called MahkamahAgung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you haveto try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of briberyand other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture.Do you like it?Argument 3:The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations inwhich people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rulesbecause they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ridemotorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they arecaught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. Theofficer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doingcorruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, andwilling to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corruptingcountry in the world.Reiteration/ conclusion:Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culturein Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severepenalty for the Corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country? A Campaign of the Importance of ReadingThesis:Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people haven’t realized the
  • 5. importance of readingArgument 1Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows theworld. He or she will understand what he doesn’t see by himself or herself. The lines of theparagraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improvethe quality of human’s life. Technology transformation from other country can only be doneby reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstoresmean nothing if they are not read.Argument 2Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we knowthat something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try toget or do the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information ornews, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make atransaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or readingand they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks,people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge andinspiration.Argument 3A good understanding toward the importance of reading can be achieved by well organizedand effective campaign. To plant an understanding in a generation’s minds is not an easy job.It needs a hard work from all components of the nation, especially the government. A seriouscampaign which is organized by the central and local government can help common peoplewake up and stand to face the real competition. The campaign can be done through variouskinds of mass media such as TV, radio, booklets, bulletins, newspapers, magazines. It canalso be conducted by teachers, parents and all people who care.RecommendationTherefore, a nation-wide effective campaign of the importance of reading by all componentsof the nation should be done, facilitated by the government, to face the tighter competition.The world has forced globalization. Those people with little knowledge will be left behind.To speed up the better change in this country, a good reading habit is really important. CorruptionThesis(Announcement of issue concern)Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and
  • 6. corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States.It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claimsJakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia.Argument 1The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. Asmost people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs whowant to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe theofficials.Argument 2Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptorsis still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a badmentality caused by corruption.RecommendationI believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should beinvolved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction.Adapted from: The Jakarta Post, February 2005Is Smoking Good for Us?; Example ofAnalytical ExpositionBefore we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousandspeople die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times asmany as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseasescaused by smoking.Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettesa day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If wesmoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent ofpeople who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two andhalf times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.
  • 7. Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis andpneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substancecausing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much moneyfrom smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.Notes on the generic structure of this example of analytical expositionAs we know that both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition are classifiedas argumentative essay. Both present argument to support the thesis state in theorientation. This thesis places the writer’s position on the essay. From the genericstructure, what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraphto strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about thetopic discussed. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic.Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of thevery fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say thatsmoking is not a good habit.Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important asgiving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen thethesis stated before. In this example of analytical exposition text, paragraph 2 and 3are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is notgood even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who do not smoke butthey are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something likeconclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of thisexample of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokersand people around smokers. However smoking is very good for CigaretteCompanies