CONSONANTSAND VOWELS IN ENGLISH PISMP1.09 KERY DAYANG SHEYR
VOWELS & CONSONANTSFOR LINKING To understand linking, it is important to know the difference between vowel sounds and consonant sounds. The important thing in linking is the sound, not the letter. Often the letter and the sound are the same, but not always. For example, the word "pay" ends with: the consonant letter "y" the vowel sound "a"
We could distinguishing all of the consonant sounds of English through the properties of; Voicing Nasality Place and manner of articulation
CONSONANTS Consonants = obstruents + sonorants Obstruents: (oral) stops, affricates, and fricatives Sonorants: nasals and liquids (l,r)o Consonants can be defined by:• Point of articulation (or “place”): Specification of the active and passive articulators.• Manner of articulation: Oral stop; nasal stop; fricative; affricate; lateral; flap; approximant; and some others.
Places of articulation: labial• Bilabial: made with two lips (pie, buy, my)• Labiodental: lower tip and Upper front teeth (fie, vie).
Places of articulation: coronal• Dental: tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth (thigh, thy). (interdental: the tip of the tongue protrudes between the upper and the lower front teeth).• Alveolar: tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge (tie, die, nigh, sigh, zeal, lie).• Retroflex: tongue tip and back of the alveolar ridge (rye, row, ray).• Palato-Alveolar (post-alveolar): tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge (shy, she, show).
Places of articulation: dorsal• Palatal: front of the tongue and hard palate (you). Palatal sounds are sometimes classified as coronal.• Velar: back of the tongue and the soft palate (hack, hag, hang).
Oro-nasal process [From: Dan Jurafsky slide]Oral sounds: soft palate Nasal sound: soft palate isis raised (closing the passage). lowered, so air passes through the nose.
MANNERS OF ARTICULATION Stop Fricative: near closure, creating frication (heavy air turbulence) Affricate (combined stop and fricative) Approximant (no turbulence) (y,w,r) Lateral approximant (l) obstruction in the middle, air passage around the side of the tongue. Tap or flap: American symbol [D], IPA [ɾ]
EXAMPLES FOR CONSONANTSStop b as in bat, sob, cubby d as in date, hid, ado g as in gas, lag, ragged p as in pet, tap, repeat t as in tap, pet, attack k as in king, pick, picking
Fricatives f as in fail, life v as in veil, live Ɵ as in thin, wrath ð as in this, bathe s as in soft, miss z as in zoo, as š (American) or ʃ (IPA) as in shame, mash ž (American) or ǯ (IPA)as in triage, garage, azure, h as in help, vehicular
Affricates č (American) or tʃ (IPA) as in cheap, hatch ǰ (American) or ʤ (IPA) as in jump, hedgeNasal m as in map, him n as in knot, tin (alveolar POA) ñ as in canyon ŋ as in sing, gingham, dinghyLiquids l as in large, gull r as in red, jarGlides and semi-consonants y (American) or j (IPA) as in boy, yellow w as in wall, cow
VOWELSo Vowels are displayed in a two-dimensional chart, corresponding only roughly to the position of the tongue, and the first two formants of the vowel. Plus: whether the lips are roundedo Monophthong or diphthong (no movement, or movement)o The fact that it’s harder is reflected in the fact that there is more than one way in which it’s done. IPA is one way; American is another.o Vowels are harder to characterize articulatorily, but we try!