Cognitivism vs constructivism


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Cognitivism vs constructivism

  2. 2. COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM How and why people learn byattributing the process tocognitive activity. This theoryfollowed the behaviorist schoolof thought. Cognitivism means throughinteraction and self cognitiondevelopment to acquireknowledge, and concern whatlearner know and how to useefficiency way to processinginformation. Constructivism is a philosophy oflearning founded on the premisethat, by reflecting on ourexperiences, we construct ourown understanding of the worldwe live in. Each of us generates our own"rules" and "mental models,"which we use to make sense ofour experiences. Learning,therefore, is simply the processof adjusting our mental models toaccommodate new experiences.
  3. 3.  Simply stated, it is a learningprocess which allows astudent to experience anenvironment first-hand,thereby, giving the studentreliable, trust-worthyknowledge. The student is required toact upon the environment toboth acquire and test newknowledge.
  4. 4. COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Teacher-centered learning. Cognitivism has two majorcomponents - Onemethodological, the othertheoretical. Methodologically, cognitivismadopts a positivist approachand the belief that psychologycan be (in principle) fullyexplained by the useof experiment, measurement and the scientific method Student centered learning. The role of the instructor -asfacilitators The nature of the learningprocess-Learning is an active, socialprocess-Dynamic interaction betweentask, instructor and learner-Collaboration among learners
  5. 5.  The second is the beliefthat cognition consists ofdiscrete, internal mentalstates(representations/symbol)whose manipulation can bedescribed in terms of rulesor algorithms. Driven by human needs,degree of effort expandedinternal, individual force incontrol. Sensory motor Preoperational stage Concrete operational stage Formal operational stage Engaging and challengingthe learner-Learners should constantly bechallenged with tasks thatrefer to skills and knowledgejust beyond their currentlevel of mastery. The nature of the learner-The type of learner is self-directed, creative, andinnovative.
  6. 6. COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Know what students‟ priorknowledge is, and makeknowledge meaningful. Use the concepts ofinformation processing theoryto arrange learning materialand help student memorize, wealso need to organize newinformation and relate toexisting memory. Let student active research,give proper help when studentshave question. One of the biggestadvantages ofconstructivism is that thelearner will learn to applytheir knowledge underappropriate conditions. Use of scaffolding, providedby teacher or group, forindividual problem solving(Wilson & Cole, 1991).
  7. 7.  Has revolutioniseddevelopmental psychologyby focusing attention onactive mental processes. We now understand thetypes of thinking that arepossible at various ages. Learners will be able todevelop metacognitive skills(Savery & Duffy, 1995). Learners will get support viacognitive apprenticeship inthe complex environmentrather than simplifying theenvironment for the learner(Savery & Duffy, 1995). Constructivism calls for theelimination of a standardizedcurriculum, allowing thecurricula customized to thestudents‟ prior knowledge.
  8. 8. COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Disadvantage of cognitivelearning theory is that it‟s limitedto teacher only. It is a teacherbased learning. So whatever theteachers‟ knowledge thats theonly things they can learn.While schemas help to makelearning more meaningful, alearner at a disadvantagewhenever relevant schemas orprerequisite knowledge do notexist. To account for this, adesigner will need to ensure thatthe instruction is appropriate forall skill levels and experiences. One of the biggestdisadvantages ofconstructivism is that thecurricula customized to thestudents‟ prior knowledge All students are going tohave different priorknowledge, teachers cannotcustomize curriculum toevery single student.
  9. 9.  Designing such instructioncould be costly and offers clear direction andpurpose but such a fixed set ofexpectations can limit thepotential of the learning. Learners and instructors maybecome satisfied with obtainingminimum competencies orcarry the attitude that “if it‟s notbroke, then don‟t fix it!” whenthe learning experience couldactually be designed better. Constructed knowledge isdifficult to test, sincelearners will constructindividual representations ofany to-be-learned content. Constructivism calls for theelimination of grades andstandardized testing. Makesit impossible to comparestudent progress.
  10. 10. COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM A cognitive theory of learning seessecond language acquisition as aconscious and reasoned thinkingprocess, involving the deliberate use oflearning strategies. ExampleThis view leads to a classroom focuson using learning strategies that havebeen observed in successful languagelearners and to a view of the learner asan information-processor, withlimitations as to how much newinformation can be retained, and whoneeds strategies to be able to transferinformation into memory. Jean Piaget point out that allknowledge is the result ofactive processes of knowledgeconstruction by the child inhis/her cognitive development. He argues that it is implausibleto assume no cross-influencesfrom a childs general cognitivedevelopment to her/hislanguage development (andvice versa). Lev Vygotsky underlines theimportance of socialinteractions for the cognitiveand language development ofchildren.
  11. 11.  Cognitive theories viewsecond-language acquisitionas a special case of moregeneral learningmechanisms in the brain. In the classroomRelevant activities includereview and revision, classvocabulary bags, using ascaffolding approach withyoung learners, analysis anddiscussion of language andtopics, inductive approachesand learner training. All language learning is theresult of active processes ofknowledge construction bythe learner. In that view knowledge oflanguage emerges as theresult of interactions ofinnate cognitive abilities withsocial forces andenvironmental conditionsthat take a shaping influenceon their development.
  12. 12.  Cognitive-code approach The cognitive-code approach ofthe 1970s emphasised thatlanguage learning involvedactive mental processes Emphasized the importance ofmeaningful practice, and thestructures were presentedinductively, i.e. the rules cameafter exposure to examples. ExampleThe aim of the class is forlearners to understand the „ruleof the day, which is that thepast form of regular verbs ismade using -ed. The teacherelicits a dialogue that includesclear examples of the structure.The learners practise it, andthe teacher uses it to elicit therules. Second languageacquisition is greatlyaffected by the degree ofsocial distance between thelearner and the target-language culture. Social distance refers to thelearner as a member of asocial group that is incontact with another socialgroup whose membersspeak a different language.
  13. 13. 