COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM How and why people learn byattributing the process tocognitive activity. This theoryfollowed the behaviorist schoolof thought. Cognitivism means throughinteraction and self cognitiondevelopment to acquireknowledge, and concern whatlearner know and how to useefficiency way to processinginformation. Constructivism is a philosophy oflearning founded on the premisethat, by reflecting on ourexperiences, we construct ourown understanding of the worldwe live in. Each of us generates our own"rules" and "mental models,"which we use to make sense ofour experiences. Learning,therefore, is simply the processof adjusting our mental models toaccommodate new experiences.
Simply stated, it is a learningprocess which allows astudent to experience anenvironment first-hand,thereby, giving the studentreliable, trust-worthyknowledge. The student is required toact upon the environment toboth acquire and test newknowledge.
COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Teacher-centered learning. Cognitivism has two majorcomponents - Onemethodological, the othertheoretical. Methodologically, cognitivismadopts a positivist approachand the belief that psychologycan be (in principle) fullyexplained by the useof experiment, measurement and the scientific method Student centered learning. The role of the instructor -asfacilitators The nature of the learningprocess-Learning is an active, socialprocess-Dynamic interaction betweentask, instructor and learner-Collaboration among learners
The second is the beliefthat cognition consists ofdiscrete, internal mentalstates(representations/symbol)whose manipulation can bedescribed in terms of rulesor algorithms. Driven by human needs,degree of effort expandedinternal, individual force incontrol. Sensory motor Preoperational stage Concrete operational stage Formal operational stage Engaging and challengingthe learner-Learners should constantly bechallenged with tasks thatrefer to skills and knowledgejust beyond their currentlevel of mastery. The nature of the learner-The type of learner is self-directed, creative, andinnovative.
COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Know what students‟ priorknowledge is, and makeknowledge meaningful. Use the concepts ofinformation processing theoryto arrange learning materialand help student memorize, wealso need to organize newinformation and relate toexisting memory. Let student active research,give proper help when studentshave question. One of the biggestadvantages ofconstructivism is that thelearner will learn to applytheir knowledge underappropriate conditions. Use of scaffolding, providedby teacher or group, forindividual problem solving(Wilson & Cole, 1991).
Has revolutioniseddevelopmental psychologyby focusing attention onactive mental processes. We now understand thetypes of thinking that arepossible at various ages. Learners will be able todevelop metacognitive skills(Savery & Duffy, 1995). Learners will get support viacognitive apprenticeship inthe complex environmentrather than simplifying theenvironment for the learner(Savery & Duffy, 1995). Constructivism calls for theelimination of a standardizedcurriculum, allowing thecurricula customized to thestudents‟ prior knowledge.
COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Disadvantage of cognitivelearning theory is that it‟s limitedto teacher only. It is a teacherbased learning. So whatever theteachers‟ knowledge thats theonly things they can learn.While schemas help to makelearning more meaningful, alearner at a disadvantagewhenever relevant schemas orprerequisite knowledge do notexist. To account for this, adesigner will need to ensure thatthe instruction is appropriate forall skill levels and experiences. One of the biggestdisadvantages ofconstructivism is that thecurricula customized to thestudents‟ prior knowledge All students are going tohave different priorknowledge, teachers cannotcustomize curriculum toevery single student.
Designing such instructioncould be costly and time-consuming.it offers clear direction andpurpose but such a fixed set ofexpectations can limit thepotential of the learning. Learners and instructors maybecome satisfied with obtainingminimum competencies orcarry the attitude that “if it‟s notbroke, then don‟t fix it!” whenthe learning experience couldactually be designed better. Constructed knowledge isdifficult to test, sincelearners will constructindividual representations ofany to-be-learned content. Constructivism calls for theelimination of grades andstandardized testing. Makesit impossible to comparestudent progress.
COGNITIVISM SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM A cognitive theory of learning seessecond language acquisition as aconscious and reasoned thinkingprocess, involving the deliberate use oflearning strategies. ExampleThis view leads to a classroom focuson using learning strategies that havebeen observed in successful languagelearners and to a view of the learner asan information-processor, withlimitations as to how much newinformation can be retained, and whoneeds strategies to be able to transferinformation into memory. Jean Piaget point out that allknowledge is the result ofactive processes of knowledgeconstruction by the child inhis/her cognitive development. He argues that it is implausibleto assume no cross-influencesfrom a childs general cognitivedevelopment to her/hislanguage development (andvice versa). Lev Vygotsky underlines theimportance of socialinteractions for the cognitiveand language development ofchildren.
Cognitive theories viewsecond-language acquisitionas a special case of moregeneral learningmechanisms in the brain. In the classroomRelevant activities includereview and revision, classvocabulary bags, using ascaffolding approach withyoung learners, analysis anddiscussion of language andtopics, inductive approachesand learner training. All language learning is theresult of active processes ofknowledge construction bythe learner. In that view knowledge oflanguage emerges as theresult of interactions ofinnate cognitive abilities withsocial forces andenvironmental conditionsthat take a shaping influenceon their development.
Cognitive-code approach The cognitive-code approach ofthe 1970s emphasised thatlanguage learning involvedactive mental processes Emphasized the importance ofmeaningful practice, and thestructures were presentedinductively, i.e. the rules cameafter exposure to examples. ExampleThe aim of the class is forlearners to understand the „ruleof the day, which is that thepast form of regular verbs ismade using -ed. The teacherelicits a dialogue that includesclear examples of the structure.The learners practise it, andthe teacher uses it to elicit therules. Second languageacquisition is greatlyaffected by the degree ofsocial distance between thelearner and the target-language culture. Social distance refers to thelearner as a member of asocial group that is incontact with another socialgroup whose membersspeak a different language.