GenreFrench Word means ‘kind’ or ‘sortLatin Word – Genus a loose set of criteria for a category of composition
Genre A vague categories with no fixed boundaries. It is sometimes confined to art and culture, literature particularly. In genre, works are recognized as either reflecting on or participating in the conventions of genre. Genres are not fixed. They change over time, reflecting changes in society.
GenreIt allows teacher to : Collect real samples of appropriate texts Design activities to foster understanding of the genre Draw attention to key vocabulary and grammatical structures associated with that genre Demonstrate to the students how these interact with the who, what, where, when, how, and why of the text in terms of situation and context, allowing relationship between culture and language to be directly addressed.
Descriptive Text A descriptive text is a text which lists the characteristics of something.Type of Descriptive Text Autobiography, magazine (car magazine, fashion magazine, etc)
Purpose / Social Function To describe a particular person, place or thing
Generic Structure Identification Identify phenomenon to be described. Introduction where or who is the subject being described. Description Describe parts, qualities, characteristics, appearance , use, habit. The supporting part of the paragraph to describe in detail to assist the reader to ‘ see’ and ‘ feel ‘ the subject.
Language Feature Focus on specific participants The use of adjectives and compound adjectives Debby is brown – skinned Debby looks attractive and beautiful The use of linking verbs She always appears young John is a model from Jakarta The use of Simple Present Tense The use of Degree of comparison
Procedure A factual piece of writing that instructs the reader how to do something.Examples of a procedure : Recipes, sets of instructions, manuals, directions, science experiment, rules of games.
Purpose / Social Function To describe (or instruct) how something is done through a series of sequences and steps
Generic Structure Statement of goal Title of an introductory paragraph The final goal of doing instruction List of materials Needed for doing the procedure which may be a list or a paragraph Ingredients, utensils, materials to do the instruction Sequence of steps In the order they need to be done which may use number A set of instruction to achieve the final purpose It uses words such as now, next and after this. Each step usually begins with a command such as add, stir or push.
Language Feature Written in the imperative Sift the flour In chronological order First, next Use of number, alphabet or bullet points and color to signal order Focus on the generalized human agents rather than named individuals
Purpose / Social Function To amuse or entertain the reader / listener with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deal with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into the solution to the problems.
Generic Structure Orientation Introduction of setting and characters Complication A problem arises followed by other problems Evaluation Reaction to the complication Resolution Solution to the complication are found Coda (optional) Message to the reader
Language Feature The use of dialogues The use of Simple Past Tense The use of : ◦ Action Verbs : walk, sleep, wake up ◦ Saying Verbs : say, tell, ask ◦ Thinking Verbs : think, assume, decide ◦ Feeling Verbs : feel ◦ Verbs of senses : smell, taste, hear The use of adverbial phrase of time and place in the garden, two days ago The use of connectives first, before that, then, finally The use of noun phrase
Recount Text A Recount is the reconstruction of past experience. It is the use of language to share a past experience and to interpret it.
Purpose / Social Function Expressions of attitude and feeling – made by the narrator about the events. To retell and document a series of past events, experiences or achievements, and evaluate their significance in some ways.
Generic StructureOrientation Sets time, place and participants. Provides information about who, where and whenEvents A record of events, usually in temporal sequence (chronological order).Evaluative Remarks These are interspersed throughout the record of events. / evaluate the events.Re-orientation (Optional) rounds off the sequence of events. May end with personal comment or return to the present.
Language Features Focus on specific or individual participants (e.g. our dog, Mrs Jones) Focus on temporal sequence of events (e.g.then, On Monday, next, later) Use of past tense to locate events in relation to speaker’s or writer’s time (e.g. she smiled, it barked, he ran) Use of nouns and pronouns to identify people, animals or things involved Use of adjectives to describe nouns Use of adverbs or adverbial phrases to indicate place and time.
ReportReport is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis
Purpose / Social Function To describe they way things are. The things must be a representative of their class.
Generic Structure1. General classification Introduces the topic of the report Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general2. Description Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials Tell the shape / form, parts, behavior, habitat, way of survival
Language Feature Introducing group or general aspect Sparrows in general, not Sam the sparrow. Using simple present tense They nest Using conditional logical connection when, so, etc Non Chronological
News Items A text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important.
Purpose / Social Function to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Generic Structure Newsworthy event Main Event Recounts the event in the summary form Background event It is an elaboration of what happened, to whom, in what circumstances (background, participant, time, place) Resource of information Comments by the participants in witnesses to and authorities expert on the event
Language Feature Information on the use of headlines The use of action verbs hit, attack, jolt The use of saying verbs said, added, claimed The use of passive sentences The victim was hit by Tsunami in 2004
Spoof A text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending.
Purpose / Social Function To entertain and share the story To tell an event with humorous twist
Generic Structure Orientation Who were involved in a story, when, and where Events Tell what happened in chronological order Twist Provide the funniest part in the story
Language Feature Focusing on people, animals or certain things The use of simple past tense The use of action verbs ate, ran, walked, laughed The use of connective first, then, finally The use of adverbial phrases of time and place in the park, a week ago Told in a chronological order
Explanation Text A text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say why and how of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
Purpose / Social Function To explain the processes involved in the information and working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena
Generic Structure General Statement Positioning the reader Stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained Sequenced Explanation Stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena Closing
Language Feature Featuring generic, non human participants sun, rain, etc The use of general and abstract noun The use of action verbs The use of passive voice The use of simple present tense The use of conjunction of time and cause The use of technical language
Analytical Exposition A text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding.Types of analytical exposition text Newspaper editorials, debates, speeches
Purpose / Social Function Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.
Generic Structure Thesis Introduces topic and indicates writer’s position / opinion. The writer also outlines the main arguments to be presented. ( Issue of concern) Argument Arguments for and against the main points outlined in thesis in a series of statement that supports the writer’s point of view. (Reasons) Each argument stage consists of a ‘point and elaboration’ . In the elaboration, the argument is supported by evidence Reiteration The final stage restates the writer’s point of view.
Language Feature The use of emotive words alarmed, worried, disappointed Words that qualify arguments firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore The use of simple present tense The use of compound and complex sentence
Hortatory Expression A text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way.
Purpose / Social Function To persuade the readers / listeners that something should be / should not be done in the case
Generic Structure Thesis Issue of concern The writer’s opinion Arguments Reasons Recommendation Stating what should be / should not be done
Language Feature Focusing on the writer The use of emotive words alarmed, worried, disappointed Words that qualify argument firstly, however, on the other hand, therefore The use of present tense The use of compound and complex sentence The use of modal and adverbs can, may, certainly, surely The use of subjective opinion using pronoun I, we The use of passive voice
Discussion A text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. It is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text.
Purpose / Social Function To present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue
Generic Structure Statement of issue Stating the issue which is to discussed Presenting the issue List of supporting points presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue List of contrastive point presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point Recommendation stating the writer s recommendation of the discourse A conclusion
Language Feature Introducing category or generic participant Using relating verbs is, are, etc Using thinking verb feel, hope, believe, etc Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection similarly, on the hand, however, etc Using modalities must, should, could, may, etc Using adverbial of manner deliberately, hopefully, etc
Review A criticize or evaluation of an art work or event for a public audience
Purpose / Social Function To summarize, analyze, and respond to art works To criticize an art work or event for public
Generic Structure Orientation Background information on the text Interpretative Recount Summary of an art work Including characters and plot Evaluation Concluding statement, judgment, opinion or recommendation Evaluative Summation The last opinion consisting of the appraisal of the art work being reviewed.
Language Feature Focus on specific participants Using adjectives Using long and complex clauses Using metaphor
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