A Process Framework to Capture TacitKnowledge Using StorytellingKhairul Shafee Kalid and Ahmad KamilMahmoodUniversiti Teknologi PETRONAS KMICE 2012 Johor Bahru
Presentation OutlineIntroductionProblem StatementObjectiveRelated WorkResearch MethodFindings – Knowledge Story Construction Process FrameworkDiscussionLimitation of StudyConclusion
Introduction• One of the main challenges of KM is to capture tacit knowledge (Linde, 2001)• Tacit knowledge is defined as personal knowledge embedded in individual experience.• One of the way to capture and communicate tacit knowledge is storytelling.• Storytelling is defined as orally communicating ideas, beliefs, personal experiencec and lessons learned (Groce, 2004)• Stories provide a bridge between the tacit and explicit (Gabriel, 2000)
Problem Statement• Storytelling is a powerful mean to share knowledge (Denning, 2000)• Some of the challenges of storytelling are: Lack of understanding on what storytelling is and how it can be used in the organization (Iofredda and Angelo, 2008) The more-experienced might have difficulties in transferring their tacit knowledge to less-experienced colleagues (Awad and Ghaziri, 2010)• Lack of emphasis on how knowledge story is constructed.
Objective• To understand the process of constructing knowledge story.• To identify the roles and phases involved in constructing a knowledge story.• To develop a process framework that guides KM people to construct knowledge stories.
Related Work Source Application ConstructionSantoro and Brezillon (2005) TellStory Context Framework 5W1H StructuredAcosta et al (2004) StoryMapper Concept Maps Each node represent eventsKatzeff and Ware (2006) The Well Video record UnstructuredOther related storytelling Main charactersliterature from literary work Settings Plot Problem Resolution
Research Method• Exploratory appraoch• Group semi-structured interview 5 groups with 4-5 participants in each group Students in Knowledge Management classes.
Research Methods• Data are collected from the interview sessions and the knowledge story that has been written.• The interview questions generally revolves around their approach in constructing the story.• Interview sessions were transcribed and analyzed hermeneutically.• Nvivo8 were used in organizing and analyzing the data.
Knowledge Story Construction Process Framework• Provides purpose of knowledge • Identify knowledgestory • Embed knowledge into story The term “understanding” and “familiarize” • was used • Capturing Knowledge • Source
Knowledge Story ConstructionProcess Framework • List and organize of ideas and events
Knowledge Story ConstructionProcess Framework • Manager • Editor • Colleagues Wrap knowledge into • narrative form.
Knowledge Story Structure• Knowledge Story Title Knowledge Transfer Factors in an IT Organization• Begin (Introduction)Settings, context and characters What should I write about En Ahmad? Well, I tell you a story about En AhmadsIntent significant contribution in my eyes. I remember En Ahmad just came back from a knowledge management course. When he got back, he introduced changes.Problems/Conflict. . .• Middle (Knowledge) . En Ahmad spear headed the knowledge portal project. In this portal, I am able to• Authors journey know who knows what in the department. I know what are the expertise and the• Visualization of concept skills that each personnel has in the IT department.• Simplification of concept• Solutions to problem• Contextual information Overall, I think that En Ahmad, has done a lot in terms of promoting knowledge transfer in the organization. Even though he is retired, but his contributions will always be remembered.Ending (Reflective)•Lessons learnedSolutionsOutcome
Discussion• Experiential knowledge Convey conflict, failures, lessons learned and contextual information Enhance awareness and change mental model Easier to construct• Procedural knowledge Provides contextual information to the phases Constructing the story can be challenging• Declarative knowledge Simplify complex concepts Constructing the story is quite challenging. Requires understanding on the subject.
Limitation of the Study• The knowledge stories constructed are written-based therefore the process framework could be biased towards written knowledge story.• The participants of this study are students. Thus the story is not really organizational type.• The type of knowledge that was storytized in this study are experiential, declarative and procedural.
Conclusion• This process framework guides KM personnel to construct stories that are used in the context of KM.• The findings of this exploratory study has identified the roles and the phases. Knoweldge articulation, Develop story sequence, Embed knowledge and Review Knowledge owner, story constructor, approver/editor, knowledge user