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  • 1. Managing Individuals Chapter 6 and a Diverse Work Force Management 4th Edition Chuck WilliamsChapter 12Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 1
  • 2. What Would You Do? Wal-Mart Headquarters, Bentonville, Arkansas. An employment discrimination suit against Wal-Mart revealed that women were consistently paid less than men in the same jobs Pressure is building for Wal-Mart to address these issues, and it is affecting stockholder satisfaction What should Wal-Mart do to address these issues? What should be the company promotion policy? What should be done about its pay structure?Chapter 12Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 2
  • 3. Diversity and Why It Matters After reading this section, you should be able to: 1. describe diversity and why it matters.Chapter 12Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 3
  • 4. General Purpose of Diversity Programs To create a positive work environment where…  no one is advantaged or disadvantaged  “we” is everyone.  everyone can do his or her best work.  differences are respected and not ignored.  everyone feels comfortable.1.1 Adapted from Exhibit 12.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 4
  • 5. Diversity Makes Good Business Sense Cost Savings Attracting and Retaining Talent Driving Business Growth1.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 5
  • 6. Diversity Makes Good Business Sense Cost Savings  Reduces turnover  Decreases absenteeism  Avoids expensive lawsuits1.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 6
  • 7. Diversity Makes Good Business Sense Attracting and Retaining Talent  Attracts better and more diverse job applicants  Have higher stock market performance  Encourages workers to stay1.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 7
  • 8. Diversity Makes Good Business Sense Driving Business Growth  Improves understanding of the marketplace  Improves quality of problem solving1.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 8
  • 9. Diversity and Individual Differences After reading these sections, you should be able to: 2. Understand the special challenges that the dimensions of surface-level diversity poses for managers. 3. Explain how the dimensions of deep-level diversity affect individual behavior and interactions in the workplace.Chapter 12Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 9
  • 10. Surface and Deep-Level Diversity Surface-Level Diversity Age Personality AttitudesPhysical Race/Capabilities Deep-Level Diversity Ethnicity Values/Beliefs Gender Adapted from Exhibit 12.3Chapter 12Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 10
  • 11. Surface-Level Diversity Age Gender Mental or Race/Ethnicity Physical Disabilities2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 11
  • 12. Age  Treating people differently because of their age  Performance does not decline with age  Older employees show better judgment, and are less likely to quit, show up late, or be absent  Age discrimination is more pervasive than managers think2.1 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 12
  • 13. Gender  Treating people differently because of their gender  Glass ceiling  invisible barrier that keeps women and minorities from advancing to the top of the organization  Can be diminished by:  mentoring  stopping unintentional behavior2.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 13
  • 14. Gender2.2 Exhibit 12.4 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 14
  • 15. Gender2.2 Exhibit 12.5 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 15
  • 16. Race / Ethnicity  Treating people differently because of their race or ethnicity  Employment disparities do exist  Legislation has lessened the problem  Reduce by:  eliminating unclear selection and promotion criteria  training managers who make hiring and promotion decisions2.3 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 16
  • 17. Mental or Physical Disabilities  Disability is a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities  Disability discrimination means treating people differently because of their disabilities  Reduce by:  educating to address incorrect stereotypes  committing to reasonable workplace accommodations  recruiting qualified workers with disabilities Web Link http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm2.4 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 17
  • 18. Socio-Economics & Diversity  Can the model of surface- and deep-level diversity accommodate socio-economic difference as a metric? Why or why not?3 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 18
  • 19. Incorporating Religion into the Mix  Amric Singh filed a lawsuit against Manhattan’s police department claiming he was fired for wearing a turban on the job.3 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 19
  • 20. Deep-Level Diversity Differences communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors that are learned only through extended interaction with others. • personality differences, attitudes, beliefs, and values “Big Five” Other Work-Related Dimensions Aspects of of Personality Personality3 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 20
  • 21. Big Five Dimensions of Personality Extraversion Degree active, assertive, sociable, talkative, energized Emotional Stability Angry, depressed, anxious, emotion, insecure Agreeableness Cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good nature Conscientiousness Organized, hard-working, responsible, thorough Openness to Experience3.1 Curious, broad-minded, open to new ideas Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 21
  • 22. Work-Related Personality Dimensions Authoritarianism Machiavellian Tendencies Type A/B Personality Locus of Control Positive / Negative Affectivity3.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 22
  • 23. Work-Related Personality Dimensions  Authoritarianism  the extent to which an individual believes there should be power and status differences  Machiavellianism  believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it leads to goal accomplishment3.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 23
  • 24. Work-Related Personality Dimensions  Type A/B personality dimension  the extent to which people tend toward impatience, hurriedness, and hostility  Type A personalities • hard driving, competitive, perfectionist, angry, unable to relax  Type B personalities • Easygoing, patient, able to relax, engage in leisure activities3.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 24
  • 25. Work-Related Personality Dimensions  Locus of control: the degree to which people believe that their actions influence what happens to them  Internal locus of control (what happens to you is under your control)  External locus of control (what happens to you is beyond your control)3.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 25
  • 26. Work-Related Personality Dimensions  Affectivity: the stable tendency to experience positive or negative moods and to react in a generally positive or negative way.  Positive affectivity • consistently focusing on the positive aspects  Negative affectivity • consistently focusing on the negative aspects  Mood linkage • a phenomenon where one worker’s negativity spreads to others3.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 26
  • 27. How Can Diversity Be Managed? After reading these sections, you should be able to: 4. explain the basic principles and practices that can be used to manage diversity.Chapter 12Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 27
  • 28. Managing Diversity Valuing people’s differences both visible and non-visible; include sex, age, background, race, sexual orientation, disability, religion or belief Different Diversity Diversity Principles Paradigms Diversity Training and4 Practices Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 28
  • 29. Diversity Paradigms DIVERSITY FOCUS PARADIGM Equal opportunity Discrimination Fair treatment and Recruitment of minorities Fairness Strict compliance with laws Access Acceptance and celebration and of differences Legitimacy Learning Integrating deep-level And differences into organization4.1 Effectiveness Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Adapted from Exhibit 12.7 29
  • 30. Benefits of the Learning and Effectiveness Diversity Paradigm Values common ground Makes a distinction between individual and group differences Less likely to encounter conflict Focuses on bringing different talent and perspectives together4.1 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 30
  • 31. Diversity Principles 1. Carefully and faithfully follow and enforce all equal employment opportunity laws 2. Treat group differences as important, but not special 3. Tailor opportunities to individuals, not groups 4. Reexamine, but maintain, high standards 5. Set high but realistic goals Web Link http://www.eeoc.gov4.2 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved Adapted from Exhibit 12.9 31
  • 32. Diversity Training and Practices Training Practices  Awareness Training  Diversity Audits  Skills-Based  Diversity Pairing Diversity Training  Minority Experiences4.3 Chapter 12 Copyright ©2007 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved 32