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6.1 concepts of information systems

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  • 1. 2012 6.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.1 CONCEPTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMSINFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 2. 20126.1.1 DefinitionWhat is Data?  Raw material, not organized, has little value  Each data will contribute useful informationWhat types of data?  Text - sentences and paragraphs  Numerical - 0 to 9  Image - graphical image  Audio - sound, tone, voice  Video - moving image INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 3. 2012 Text Numerical Image Voice VideoINFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 4. 20126.1.1 DefinitionWhat is Information?  Organized data  Has value and meaningful ORGANIZED Text + Numerical + Voice + Image + Video is INFORMATION INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 5. 20126.1.1 DefinitionWhat is Information Systems?  Combination of information technology and peoples activities that support operations, management and decision making  Collect data + Filter + Process + Create + Distribute data  Making calculation, comparing, storing data INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 6. 20126.1.2 Usage of Information Systems In Various FieldsEDUCATION  Student Access gives students access to information through the Internet  Student Learning can improve student learning  Classroom Teaching allowing the teachers and students to find more creative ways to teach and learn  Administration manage school information INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 7. 20126.1.2 Usage of Information Systems In Various FieldsBUSINESS  Buying and Selling Manage buying and selling through internet  Manage Company store information, collect data, records customer transaction  Manage Supply Chain integrating the links in a supply chain  Customer Relationship manage relationships with potential and current customers INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 8. 20126.1.2 Usage of Information Systems In Various FieldsMANAGEMENT  Track Record Use for keep all company record, employee data, finding information and data for company  Manage Company Operation Inventory check, manage day to day operation INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 9. 20126.1.3 Information System Components5 COMPONENTS Data procedure Hardware People Software INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 10. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsDATA  Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information.  Data are generally stored in machine- readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them. INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 11. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsHARDWARE  Refers to machinery.  Often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipments.  Among the support equipments are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices. INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 12. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsSOFTWARE  Computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them.  Computer programs are machine-readable instructions  2 type of software is System Software and Application Software INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 13. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsPEOPLE  Needs people if it is to be useful.  Often the most over-looked element are the people, probably the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems. INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 14. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsPROCEDURE  Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system.  Procedures can be in the form of guidelines in the user manuals INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 15. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsINTERRELATION BETWEEN ALL COMPONENTS Data Procedure Hardware People Software INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 16. 20126.1.3 Information System ComponentsINTERRELATION BETWEEN ALL COMPONENTSPeople use computer (hard and software) toaccess information (data), between all of that,there are procedure people need to follow INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 17. 20126.1.4 Types of Information Systems5 TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS  Management Information System (MIS)  Transaction Processing System (TPS)  Decision Support System (DSS)  Executive Information System (EIS)  Expert System (ES)/Artificial Intelligence (AI) INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 18. 20126.1.4 Types of Information SystemsMANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM  Mainly concerned with internal sources of information.  MIS usually take data from the transaction processing systems and summarize it into a series of management reports.  MIS reports tend to be used by middle management and operational supervisors. INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 19. 20126.1.4 Types of Information SystemsTRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM  Designed to process routine transactions efficiently and accurately.  A business will have several TPS  Example of TPS  Billing systems to send invoices to customers  Systems to calculate the weekly and monthly payroll and tax payments INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 20. 20126.1.4 Types of Information SystemsDECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM  Help management make decisions in situations where there is uncertainty about the possible outcomes of those decisions.  DSS comprise tools and techniques to help gather relevant information and analyze the options and alternatives  DSS often involves use of complex spreadsheet and databases to create "what-if" models. INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 21. 20126.1.4 Types of Information SystemsEXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM  Designed to help senior management make strategic decisions.  Gathers, analyses and summarizes the key internal and external information used in the business.  Typically involve lots of data analysis and modeling tools such as "what-if" analysis to help strategic decision-making. INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 22. 20126.1.4 Types of Information SystemsEXPERT SYSTEM / ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  System that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert  Designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert, and not by following the procedure of a developer as is the case in conventional programming INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 23. 20126.1.5 Hierarchy of DataTYPE OF DATA  bit - Smallest unit of data the computer can store that consist of binary 1 and 0  byte - Collection of eight bits. A byte represents a character  Field - Unit of data consisting of one or more character  Record - A collection of related fields  File - A collection of related records  Database - structured collection of data INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 24. 20126.1.5 Hierarchy of DataBIT & BYTE INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • 25. 20126.1.5 Hierarchy of Data Database File Record Field Byte Bit INFORMATIAN AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY LITERATURE INFORMATION SYSTEMS