An Overview Conceptions of Learning What is PBL? Why PBL?
What is and why PBL? Activity 1.4What do you understand about PBL? Listthree reasons why you want to implementit?
PBL An education process that requires the learner to go through the same activities during learning that are valued in the real world… The intent is to challenge the learner withproblems found in practice both as a stimulus for learning and focus for organizing what has been learned for later recall and application to future work. Howard Barrows (2000)
The PBL Approach Change in Starting Point Change in Roles Existing PBL Content Learn new Problem knowledgeLecturer Student Problem Facilitator Solver
PBL Essentials Students should be responsible and plan their own learning of new content. A problem is the starting point of learning new knowledge for the students. Teacher’s role is to facilitate students’ thinking to achieve the learning outcomes. Students engage in self-directed, collaborative learning & problem-solving.
From textbook information PBLto knowledge co-construction From individualism to collaborative learningusing real-life problems From “the answer” fixationFrom subject matter to product and processsegregation to multi- integrationdisciplinary integration Empowers Learning Life skillsFrom lesson-and-lecturer From passive learning todependence to learner- foundations for lifelongdirected discovery learning
YUMMY BAKESAndy bought a loaf of bread from hisneighborhood bakery, Yummy bakes, butopen reaching home, discovered smalldark green specks of mould on it. Hegoes back to Yummy to get a refund, butYummy refuses, insisting the bread wasfreshly made. Andy is now wonderingwhat has caused the mould to grow, andwhat he can do about the situation.
PBL Thinking Template : FILAFACTS IDEAS LEARNING ACTION ISSUES PLANInformation Possible Phrased as Activities toextracted causes/effects/ questions be carried outfrom the ideas/solution. to answerproblem Based on facts When gaps in orderscenario. identified. to help solve answered the problemGrouped Accepted shouldaccording to without e.g. conduct contribute research,themes, where judgment. towards interviewpossible. Evolves over solving the time. problem
CAUSE OF MOULD ON BREAD AND RIGHTS OF CONSUMERS WHEN THEY ARESOLD MOULD BREADFACTS IDEAS LEARNING ACTION ISSUES PLANConsumer bought Indicate expiry What is mould? Contact CAM forloaf of bread. period of bread. Why does bread guidelines andMouldy when Educate public on turn mouldy? customer rights toconsumer opened checking expiry How long does it compensationit. period of bread take for bread to against bakeries before buying. that sell mouldyBought from local turn mouldy? bread.bakery. Bakeries to be How to prevent made to comply ConductBakery refused to bread turning with regulations investigation tocompensate. mouldy? on stating expiry determine time What are the taken for bread to date. guidelines that turn mouldy. bakeries must observe to keep Use internet to search information bread from going on bread moulds. mouldy? What rights have customers when they are sold mouldy bread?
PBL Process Stage 2 Problem Identification Facts Stage 3 Ideas Stage 6 Idea Generation Synthesis & Stage 1 ApplicationGroup Setting Stage 4 Learning Issues Stage 7 Learning Issues Reflection & Stage 5 Action Feedback Self-directed Plan Leaning
Differences between PBL and Didactic Method of Teaching PBL Didactic Method of TeachingTeacher : facilitator and coach. Teacher : content expert and purveyor of knowledge.Mode of learning : inquiry driven Mode of learning : transmission ofby a problem. knowledge from teacher to student.Goals of learning : negotiated Goals of learning : prescribed bybetween facilitator and student. teacher.Locus of control : Student takes Locus of control : Teacher directs,active responsibility for learning student is passive and a recipient ofand conducts self-directed learning content.with the guidance of a facilitator.
Differences between PBL and Didactic Method of Teaching (Cont.)Social : Students learn through Social : Student learn individually.social interactions, discussions andpeer-teaching with group mates.Outcomes of learning : Acquisition, Outcomes of learning :integration and application of Understanding content.content and development of processskills like problem-solving,teamwork, emotional intelligence,time management, research,inquiry and creative/criticalthinking etc.modes : Could be aAssessment Assessment modes : Usually writtencombination of journals, portfolios, examination.presentation, self/peer evaluation,written report, examination etc.Approach : Deep learning. Approach : Surface learning.
Benefits of PBL Results on most cognitive outcomes are comparable to those from traditional curriculum. Students enjoy the PBL curriculum more, demonstrate higher motivation, and more productive attitudes towards their learning. PBL curricula cover less content but in more depth. Students retain more core factual knowledge longer and re-use it. Relate theory to practice. Higher order thinking-critical & creative. More engagement & empowerment for students.
STRENGTHS OF PBL IN EL&M COURSES Problem solving skills and attitudes: confidence to take on problems as opportunities, ability think systematically, analytically, and creatively. Global perspective: broad perspective based on understanding of issues in both local and global environments. Leadership competencies: ability to work collaboratively, create vision for organization, develop socially responsible strategy for implementation, motivate others. Ethical judgment and decision making: awareness of ethical impact of decisions, importance of values managing people and organizations in a diverse, global society.
STRENGTHS OF PBL IN EL&M COURSES Adaptability, self-reflection, and personal development: understanding one’s own value orientation, develop capacity for reflection, cultivate skills and attitudes that support lifelong learning. Communication: able to communicate effectively, orally, in writing with culturally diverse audiences. Functional knowledge: comprehensive knowledge of the functional areas of EL&M including ability to apply relevant theories and craft knowledge in managing organizations. Managing information and technologies: knowledge of and ability to plan for and use of information technologies as tools for productive management of organizations.
PBL in and for the future needs to be as an approach to learning that is not just about employability… or the “happening” new genre in higher education learning. It needs to be seen as an approach to learning that really does help learners to engage with and live in a complex world. Savin-Baden, M. & Major, C.H. (2004)