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Refining Qualitative Data            QRAM 9th National            Seminar 2012
Consistency-questions model   What are questions or purposes of the    research?   What then are the research methods? ...
Qualitative method & methodology               Research                                     ‘Hypothesis’                de...
Design validity criteria   Viable data   Reliable method   Generalisable analyses    truth value (credibility)
Viable data   Objectivity   Prolonged engagement on-site   Triangulation   Member checking   Structural relationships
Reliable method   Interviewing as method of generating data   Ethics in researching (MUHREC)   Theoretical sampling   ...
Generalisable analyses   Applicability   Context limited (transferability)   Replicability (consistency)   Leaving an ...
Sense of qualitative methods   Preference for qualitative data   Preference for naturally occurring data   Preference f...
Quan-Qual continuum   Qualitative                  Quantitative   Data  theory                Theory  data   Ground...
Interviewing   ‘purposeful conversation’   Method of generating data (interview    transcript as non-extant text)   Sem...
Interviewer-interviewee   Locating self in research   Being transparent & accountable   Epistemic privilege (who knows)...
Ethics in interviewing   Monash University Human Research Ethics    Committee (MUHREC)   High risk/ low risk research :...
Explanatory Statement   Sampling (how & why)   Research aims   Benefits   Method of generating data   Time involved ...
Consent Form   Data as information    Agree to be interviewed    Agree to allow interviewed to be recorded    Agree...
Sensitive topic   ‘one that potentially poses for those involved    a substantial threat, the emergence of which    rende...
Grounded Theory Methdology   Data as source of theory (hypothesis-    building)   ‘Theory’: relationship among categorie...
Data analyses using CAQDAS   CAQDAS: Computer-assisted Qualitative Data    Analysis Software (ALTAS.ti)   Data: intervie...
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QRAM 9th National Seminar 2012 Keynote

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The keynote speech by Dr Sharon Bong (Monash University) at the 9th QRAM National Seminar 2012 at UM on March 31, 2012.

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  • Purpose: To describe; uncover deep meaning; study ONE unit on many variables; build theory (not to generalise, make inferences about relationships, study many units on a few variables, inferentially, test theory) Methods: Interviews, focus groups, case studies, ethnography, phenomenological studies (not experimental studies) Assumptions: Value-laden (not value-free), context embedded (not context free), subject-object dependent 9not subject-object independent), many realities exist (one reality exists), relativism (not objectivism) Findings: in-depth description of a case, categories of themes/ data (not statistically on-significant or significant relationships among variables, support/ non-support for hypothesis Implications: no neutrality possible, findings generalisable to some extent, emerging theory/ hypothesis
  • Truth value: confidence of reader in research findings
  • ‘ strong objectivity’: intellectual rigour & political commitment (feminist standpoint epistemology); situating self in research (transparent with biases), reflexivity Ethnography: more accurate reflection of culture or history (i.e. cultural trends or idiosyncrasies); interviewing: follow-up Variety of data sources for reliabiltiy check  complete picture Accuracy of data (i.e. audio-taped interviews) Emerging meanings by interweaving data sets (quan-qual) rather than logical consistency between different data sets
  • Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee ( MUHREC ) confidentiality ≠ anonymity (high & low impact) Theoretical sampling: following where data leads you  hypothesis-generating
  • Applicability—can research be applied to other samples Context limited (transferability)—do findings hold upon other settings Replicability (consistency)—same circumstances  same outcomes  knowledge that is situated, contextual (partial truths)
  • Analyses of words and images ≠ nmbers Naturally occurring data  situations that exist independently of researcher’s intervention;  presuppositions in order to witness subjects’ world in their own time Attempting to document the words from point of view of people studied ≠ hypothesis testing
  • Interviewees who are ‘influential, prominent and well-informed’ (Marshall and Rossman 1995)
  • http://www.monash.edu.au/research/ethics/human/index.html
  • Transcript of "QRAM 9th National Seminar 2012 Keynote"

    1. 1. Refining Qualitative Data QRAM 9th National Seminar 2012
    2. 2. Consistency-questions model What are questions or purposes of the research? What then are the research methods? What are the underlying assumptions? What are the findings? What are the implications from the findings?
    3. 3. Qualitative method & methodology Research ‘Hypothesis’ design Theory Data building generation Data analyses
    4. 4. Design validity criteria Viable data Reliable method Generalisable analyses  truth value (credibility)
    5. 5. Viable data Objectivity Prolonged engagement on-site Triangulation Member checking Structural relationships
    6. 6. Reliable method Interviewing as method of generating data Ethics in researching (MUHREC) Theoretical sampling Data analyses (CAQDAS)—ATLAS.ti
    7. 7. Generalisable analyses Applicability Context limited (transferability) Replicability (consistency) Leaving an audit trail
    8. 8. Sense of qualitative methods Preference for qualitative data Preference for naturally occurring data Preference for meanings Preference for inductive research (hypothesis-generating)
    9. 9. Quan-Qual continuum Qualitative  Quantitative Data  theory  Theory  data Grounded theory  Hypothesis testing Empirical  conceptual  Conceptual  Inductive (theory- empirical building)  Deductive (theory testing) Political (value-laden)  Apolitical (value free)
    10. 10. Interviewing ‘purposeful conversation’ Method of generating data (interview transcript as non-extant text) Semi-structured, in-depth, face-to-face ‘paradigmatic feminist method’ Emancipatory paradigm: ‘praxis, empowerment/ reciprocity
    11. 11. Interviewer-interviewee Locating self in research Being transparent & accountable Epistemic privilege (who knows) Reciprocal reflexivity: Knower/ known  knower-known Theoretical sampling (Grounded Theory Methodlogy)  generalisability of analyses Elite interviewing
    12. 12. Ethics in interviewing Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (MUHREC) High risk/ low risk research : Participants Types of activities Informed Consent (≠ implied consent) Collection, use and disclosure of information
    13. 13. Explanatory Statement Sampling (how & why) Research aims Benefits Method of generating data Time involved Inconvenience/ discomfort Withdrawal from research Confidentiality Data storage (data for other purpose)
    14. 14. Consent Form Data as information  Agree to be interviewed  Agree to allow interviewed to be recorded  Agree to make myself available for follow- up interviews Data as potential information  Use of data for future research projects (optional)
    15. 15. Sensitive topic ‘one that potentially poses for those involved a substantial threat, the emergence of which renders problematic for the researcher and/or researched the collection, holding, and/ or dissemination of research data’ (Renzetti and Lee 199: 5) Researcher: stewardship of data
    16. 16. Grounded Theory Methdology Data as source of theory (hypothesis- building) ‘Theory’: relationship among categories that is inductively generated from ‘units of meaning’ (Kelle 1997) ‘Hypothesis’: tentative and imprecise conjecture about possible relationships between two domains of interest (Kelle 1997)
    17. 17. Data analyses using CAQDAS CAQDAS: Computer-assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (ALTAS.ti) Data: interview transcript Data analyses: data management & interpretation  coding (code-and-retrieve) Codes: heuristic devices (units of meaning)  theory-building Coding: De-contextualise (data reduction) & re- contextualise  Fine-grained hermeneutic analysis
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