Gross Anatomy of Lungs• Each cone shaped lung is surrounded by pleurae and connected to the mediastinum by vascular and bronchial attachment , called the lung root• The anterior, lateral, and posterior lung surface lie in close contact with the ribs and form the continuously curving costal surface• The narrow superior tip of the lung is called the apex• The concave, inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm is the base• On the mediastinal surface of each lung, there is an indentation called the hilum
Gross anatomy of lungs• The two lungs differ in size and shape because the apex of the heart is slightly to the left of the median plane• The left lung is smaller than the right lung• Cardiac notch is a concavity in it’s medial aspect that is modeled to and accommodates the heart• The left lung is subdivided into two superior and inferior lobes by the oblique fissure• The right lung is subdivided into superior, middle and inferior lobes by the oblique and horizontal fissure• The smallest subdivisions of the lung visible with the naked eye are the lobules
Structure of the Lungs• The trachea divides into two main bronchi that enters the root of the lungs• The bronchi continue to divide with in the lung, and after multiple divisions, give rise to bronchioles• The bronchial tree continues branching until it reached the level of terminal bronchioles, which lead to alveolar sacs• Alveolar sacs are made up of cluster of alveoli• The individual alvioli are tightly wrapped in blood vessels and it is here that gas exchange actually occur• The surface area of the lung is larger than the surface area of the skin
Lungs Respiratory Function• Transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the blood stream• Release carbon dioxide from the blood stream into the atmosphere• The exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli• The drawing and expulsion of air (ventilation) is driven by muscular action
Lungs Non Respiratory Function• Filter out small blood clots formed in veins• May serve as a layer of soft, shock- absorbent for the heart• Maintains sterility by producing mucus containing antimicrobial compounds• Celiar escalator action is an important defense system against air-born infections• Provide airflow for the creation of vocal sound• Immunoglobin-A is secreted in the bronchial secretion and protects against respiratory infection
Lung Conditions• Chronic Bronchitis: Repeated, frequent episodes of productive cough• Pneumonia: Infection in one or both lugs• Asthma: The lungs airways (bronchi) becomes inflamed and can spasm, causing shortness of breath and wheezing• Acute Bronchitis: An infection of the lungs large airways, usually caused by virus• Pulmonary Fibrosis: The interstitum becomes scarred, making the lungs stiff and causing shortness of breath• Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining of the lung (pleura), which often causes pain when breathing in
Lung Conditions• Lung Cancer: Cancer can affect almost any part of the lung. Most lung cancer is caused by smoking• Tuberculosis: A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by a bacteria Mycobacterium Tuberculosis• Emphysema: The fragile walls between the lungs air sacs are damaged, trapping air in the lungs and making breathing difficult
Lung Tests• Chest X-ray: X-ray is most common first test for lung problem• Computer Tomography (CT Scan): A CT scan uses x-rays and a computer to make detailed picture of the lung• Spirometer: Measures how fast and how much air a person can breath out• Pulmonary Function Test (PFTs): Serious of tests to evaluate how well the lungs work• Sputum Culture: Culturing mucus can sometimes identify the organism responsible for a Pneumonia or Bronchitis• Lung Biopsy: A small piece of tissue is taken from the lung. Examining the biopsied tissue under microscope can help diagnose lung conditions
Lung Treatments• Thoracotomy: A surgery that enters the chest wall (thorax)• Video Assisted Thorascopic surgery (VATS): Less- invasive chest wall surgery using an endoscope• Plurocentesis: A needle is placed into the chest cavity to drain fluid that’s around the lung• Bronchodilators: Inhaled medicines can help expand the airways (bronchi)• Lung Transplant: Surgical removal of diseased lung and replacement with organ donor lungs• Lung Resection: A diseased portion of the lung is removed through surgery
Medical Terminology• Pulmon/o – Lung• Pulmonary – Pertaining to the lung• Pulmonology – Study of lungs• Pulmonologist – A physician who specializes in lungs• Pneumonitis – Inflammation of the lungs
References• Book – Human Anatomy and Physiology• By Elain N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn• Www. WebMD.com• en.wikipenda.org
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