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Presentation 10 kidane

  1. 1. Presentation 10ByKidane Hailemichael
  2. 2. Reproductive System• Terms • Gynecologist • Gestation Period • Endometrium
  3. 3. Gynecologist• A physician who specializes in treatment of women is called a gynecologist
  4. 4. Gynecology• Gynecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of female reproductive system• A gynecologist specialize in issues regarding a woman’s reproductive system i.e. • Ovaries • Uterus • Vagina • Urinary tract issue, such as stress incontinence
  5. 5. Gynecologist• Gynecologists are trained to evaluate, recognize and treat potential diseases of the reproductive system• They are also trained to perform surgeries like hysterectomy (removal of uterus)• Many gynecologists are also obstetricians • They help women with reproductive issues • They oversee the care of a pregnant women • They are present for the birth of children • They perform cesarean section • They induce labor • They halt premature labor • They perform any other treatment required before, during or immediately after a woman has given birth
  6. 6. Gynecologist• In the United States a gynecologist must be board certified• Gynecologist may work in a medical clinic, a hospital, a clinic devoted to birth control or abortion, or birth centers• One of the main jobs in a medical clinic devoted to gynecology is performing yearly exam• Gynecologists also use these yearly check-ins to help educate women about reproductive health and concerns, and to listen to any concern a woman might have regarding, • menstrual cycle • birth control methods • beginning menopause or others
  7. 7. Procedures• Adhesiolysis - Cutting of adhesions (scar tissue)• Cervical bone biopsy• Colporrhapy – Surgical repair f vaginal wall• Colposcopy – use of a surgical magnifying device to look at the vagina, vulva and cervix• Myomectomy – Surgical removal of uterine leiomyomas• Oophorectomy – Surgical removal of the ovaries• Trachelectomy - Surgical removal of the cervix
  8. 8. Gestation Period• The time required for the development of a fetus is called gestation period
  9. 9. Gestation• Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth• During this time, the baby grows and develops inside the mother’s womb• Gestation age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is
  10. 10. Gestation• Gestation age is measured in weeks, from the first day of the woman’s last menstrual cycle to the current date• A normal pregnancy can range from 38 to 42 weeks• Infants born before 37 weeks are considered premature• Infants born after 42 weeks are considered post mature• Gestation age can be determined before or after birth • Before birth – A doctor will use ultrasound to measure the baby’s head, abdomen, and thigh bone. • This will determine how well the baby is growing in the womb • After birth – By looking at the baby’s weight, length, head circumference, vital signs, reflexes, muscle tone, posture, and condition of the skin and hair
  11. 11. Gestation• Determination of the gestation age is important • It gives the doctor key information and directly affect the medical treatment plan for the baby • So they may choose the times at which to perform various screening tests and assessments, such as • Serum screening • Assessment of maturity • Induction of labor for post date pregnancies
  12. 12. Gestation Period• In many societies’ medical or legal definitions, human pregnancy is somewhat arbitrarily divided in to three trimester periods, as a means to simplify reference to the different stages of prenatal development • 1st trimester – carries the highest risk of miscarriage • 2nd trimester – The development of the fetus can be more easily monitored and diagnosed • 3rd trimester – Often approximates the point of viability, or the ability of the fetus to survive with or with out medical help, outside of the uterus
  13. 13. Endometrium• The inner lining of the uterus is called the endometrium
  14. 14. Uterus• The uterus consist of two parts, the body and the cervix• The uterus is the hollow muscular organ in female in which the blastocyst normally becomes embedded and in which the developing embryo and fetus is nourished • When a woman is not pregnant the body of the uterus is about the size of a fist • During pregnancy the walls of uterus are pushed apart as the fetus grows • The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus, it has a canal opening into the vagina, which allows menstrual blood to flow out
  15. 15. Endometrium• The endometrium is the innermost grandular layer and functions as a lining for the uterus, preventing adhesions between the opposed walls of the myometrium, thereby maintaining the patency of the uterine cavity
  16. 16. Endometrium• The endometrium consists of a single layer of columnar epithelium resting on the stroma, a layer of connective tissue that varies in thickness according to hormonal influence• During pregnancy the endometrium thickens and becomes enriched with blood vessels to house and support the growing fetus• If pregnancy did not occur, the endometrium is shed as part of menstrual flow
  17. 17. Endometrium• In a woman of reproductive age , two layers of endometrium can be distinguished • The functional layer- This layer is built up after the end of menstruation during the first part of the previous menstrual cycle • This layer is completely shed during menstruation • The basal layer- Is not shed at any time during the menstrual cycle, and from it the functional layer develops• In the absence of progesterone, the arteries supplying blood to the functional layer constrict, so that cells in that layer become ischemic and die, leading to menstruation
  18. 18. Pathological Conditions• Adenomyosis – The growth of the endometrium into the muscle layer of the uterus• Endometriosis – The growth of endometrial tissue out side the uterus• Endometrial cancer – the most common cancer of the human female genital tract• Asherman’s syndrom – occurs when the basal layer of the endometrium is damaged by in
  19. 19. References•• University of Rochester medical center••