Chapter 13 - News Gathering and Reporting

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Chapter 13 - News Gathering and Reporting

  1. 1. 1 News Gathering and Reporting Chapter 13 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2 CHAPTER OUTLINE • Deciding What is News • News Reporting in the Digital Age • Categories Of News and Reporting • The News Flow • The Wire Services • Media Differences in News Coverage • Readership and Viewership
  3. 3. 3 DECIDING WHAT IS NEWS • Timeliness • Proximity • Prominence • Consequence • Human Interest • Economics
  4. 4. 4 NEWS REPORTING IN THE DIGITAL AGE • The digital revolution has changed reporting.
  5. 5. 5 More Sources of News • Internet increased number of news sources – General news sites – News aggregators – Specialized news sites
  6. 6. 6 Blogs • Represent another source of news • Can have an agenda setting effect • Can provide check on traditional media • Provide additional outlet for reporters • Make it possible for everyone to be a reporter
  7. 7. 7 Citizen Journalism • Ordinary citizens become amateur reporters • Facilitated by digital and cell phone video cameras, high speed Internet access • Traditional media encourage citizen journalism • News organizations no longer monopolize what’s reported and how
  8. 8. 8 Hyperlocal News • Coverage of stories of interest to very small community – Single ZIP code – Interest group in defined area • Most hyperlocal news appears on web sites • Publishers hope will draw in people who don’t generally consume news
  9. 9. 9 The Converged Journalist • Has skills of print journalist and video journalist • Backpack journalists • Mobile journalists (mojos)
  10. 10. 10 New Tools • Internet allows reporters to access wide variety of information while at their desks – Must learn how to use these tools – Computer-assisted reporting
  11. 11. 11 CATEGORIES OF NEWS AND REPORTING • News can be broken down into broad categories
  12. 12. 12 Hard News • Traditional fact-oriented journalism – Who, what, where, when, why, how • Print media – Inverted pyramid format – Lead • Broadcast media – Square format • Online media – Varied writing styles
  13. 13. 13 Soft News • Features – Wide range of topics – Human interest • Inverted pyramid style • More common on TV than radio
  14. 14. 14 Investigative Reports • Significant information about matters of public importance • Non-routine methods • Longer than typical news item • Bloggers
  15. 15. 15 THE NEWS FLOW • Many gatekeepers in print and broadcast news • Online reporting may have fewer gatekeepers • Bloggers
  16. 16. 16 Print Media • Sources of print news – Staff reports & wire services • Other contributing sources, less important • Staff – City editor • Beat reporters • General assignment reporters – Copy desk – Managing editor & assistant managing editor – All are gatekeepers
  17. 17. 17 Broadcast Media • Sources of broadcast news – Local reporters & wire services • Syndicated news services • Network feeds • Staff – News director – Executive producer & producers – Assignment editor – Reporters and anchors (most reporters are general assignment reporters) – Camera crews, sound editors, writers, etc – All are gatekeepers
  18. 18. 18 Online Media • News flow and production process similar to traditional media – Top executives – Editors – Staff members – Reporters
  19. 19. 19 THE WIRE SERVICES • Two biggest wire services – AP: Associated Press – UPI: United Press International • Wire services provide most of the news about what’s going on outside the local community • Other wire services compete with AP & UPI
  20. 20. 20 MEDIA DIFFERENCES IN NEWS COVERAGE • Print, broadcast, and online media all have strengths and weaknesses • All play crucial role in informing the public
  21. 21. 21 Words and Pictures • Print & online news are organized in space; TV stories organized in time – TV covers fewer stories and in less detail • TV better at transmitting experience or impressions; print & online better at facts, information, lengthy analysis • Newspapers & online have more permanence; can cover complex stories better • TV has strong visual dimension, but visual is also important to print & online
  22. 22. 22 Print, Online, and Broadcast Journalists • Appearance and personality of reporters are more important in TV than in print and online – TV newscasters can become stars – Print & online reporters are more anonymous
  23. 23. 23 Similarities Among the News Media • Print, broadcast, and online journalists share basic values and journalistic principles – Honesty – Accuracy – Balance – Objectivity – Maintaining credibility • Credibility is key in keeping public’s trust
  24. 24. 24 READERSHIP AND VIEWERSHIP • Audiences for news have been shrinking and getting older • Except for Internet, exposure to all sources of news has decreased • Audience has become less likely to trust the media

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