1
Newspapers
Chapter 4
© 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
2
CHAPTER OUTLINE
• History
• Newspapers in the Digital Age
• Defining Features of Newspapers
• Organization of the Newspa...
3
HISTORY
• Newspapers have had a long history in the
US
4
Journalism in Early America
• General features of colonial newspapers
– Few newspapers existed
– Publishers were printer...
5
The Beginnings of Revolution
• Tension between Colonies and Britain
• Truth as libel defense (John Peter Zenger
trial)
•...
6
The Political Press: 1790-1833
• First Amendment, 1971, guarantees press
freedom
• Papers grew rapidly, read mostly by w...
7
Birth of the Mass Newspaper
• Prerequisites for mass press
– Fast, cost-effective printing presses
– Critical mass of li...
8
The Penny Press
• In contrast, other newspapers cost 6 cents
• Examples
– New York Sun, New York Herald
– New York Tribu...
9
Newspapers Become Big Business
• Civil War and development of telegraph changed
how stories were written
– Lead
– Invert...
10
Yellow Journalism
• Yellow journalism: increased use of sex,
murder, self-promotion, and human interest
stories
• Posit...
11
The Early Twentieth Century
• Consolidation of the newspaper industry
• Circulation and profits increased, but
number o...
12
The Impact of the Great
Depression
• Social and economic impact on
newspapers
– Many dailies went out of business
– Rad...
13
Postwar Newspapers
• After World War II, economic forces
affected the newspaper industry
– More consolidation
– Growth ...
14
Contemporary Developments
• 1980s: USA Today influenced
– Graphics and colors
– Short stories
– Graphs, charts, tables
...
15
NEWSPAPERS IN THE DIGITAL
AGE
• The newspaper industry is still
experimenting with how best to
incorporate an online pr...
16
Online Newspapers
• Vary in size and complexity
• Advantages over print newspapers
– Not limited by news hole size
– Ca...
17
Replica Editions
• Not the same as online editions
– Look the same as traditional editions, with
same content
– Read on...
18
Mobile Media
• Newspapers can be delivered to a person
rather than a place
• Cell phones, PDAs, laptops
• Advertising a...
19
User-Generated Content
• Citizen reporters
• Workshops teaching readers about
reporting
• Citizen journalists may not b...
20
DEFINING FEATURES OF
NEWSPAPERS
• Diverse array of content
• Conveniently packaged
• Local
• Historical record
• Watchd...
21
ORGANIZATION OF THE
NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY
• There are various ways to categorize the
newspaper industry, including by thei...
22
Print Dailies
• Circulation decline continues
• Circulation = subscription +
vending/newsstand sales
• Categories of ne...
23
Print Weeklies
• Number of weeklies has remained stable
• Circulation totals have increased
• Rising production costs
24
Recapturing Readers
• Eye appeal
• Writing style
• Story content
• Giving free tabloids to younger readers
25
Special-Service and Minority
Newspapers
• African-American press
• Spanish press
• Varied ethnic newspapers
• College p...
26
Organization of Online Papers
• Paid access
• Registration access
• Free access
27
NEWSPAPER OWNERSHIP
• Consolidation is increasing.
• The biggest newspaper group owners are
the Gannett Company, the Tr...
28
The Decline of Competition
• Increasing concentration of ownership
• Decreasing number of cities with
competing papers
...
29
The Pros and Cons of Group
Ownership
• Cons
– Less diversity of opinion
– Absentee ownership
– Less local concern
– Pro...
30
PRODUCING THE PRINT AND
ONLINE NEWSPAPER
• Convergence has appeared in print and
online newspapers
31
Departments and Staff
• Departments
– Business
– Production
– News-Editorial
• Operational Convergence
• Staff
– City e...
32
Prepublication Routine
• Sources of news
– Local reporting
– Wire services
• News hole
• Print papers are laid out and ...
33
ECONOMICS
• Business model is changing
• Two main revenue sources
– Advertising
– Circulation
• Cost-cutting
• Online r...
34
Advertising Revenue
• Print versions of newspapers
– Local advertising
– Classified advertising
– Preprinted inserts
– ...
35
Circulation Revenue
• Subscription and single-copy sales
– Distributors receive some of the cover price
– Price of news...
36
General Expenses
• News and editorial costs
• Generating advertising sales
• Mechanical costs
• Printing costs
• Circul...
37
FEEDBACK
• Circulation figures are very important to
the newspaper industry
38
The Audit Bureau of Circulation
(ABC)
• ABC audits about ¾ of all US and
Canadian print media
• Nielsen/NetRatings repo...
39
Newspaper Audiences
• US total newspaper circulation: about 53
million copies daily
• Declining since 1970 despite popu...
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Chapter 4 - Newspaper

  1. 1. 1 Newspapers Chapter 4 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2 CHAPTER OUTLINE • History • Newspapers in the Digital Age • Defining Features of Newspapers • Organization of the Newspaper Industry • Newspaper Ownership • Producing the Print and Online Newspaper • Economics • Feedback
  3. 3. 3 HISTORY • Newspapers have had a long history in the US
  4. 4. 4 Journalism in Early America • General features of colonial newspapers – Few newspapers existed – Publishers were printers and postmasters – News was not very timely – “Free press” concept not supported • Noteworthy colonial newspapers – Publick Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick – Boston News Letter – New England Courant – Pennsylvania Gazette
  5. 5. 5 The Beginnings of Revolution • Tension between Colonies and Britain • Truth as libel defense (John Peter Zenger trial) • Political or Partisan press – Newspapers openly support party, faction, cause – Held role in Revolutionary War
  6. 6. 6 The Political Press: 1790-1833 • First Amendment, 1971, guarantees press freedom • Papers grew rapidly, read mostly by wealthy • Anne Royall: first important female political journalist • Freedom’s Journal: first Black newspaper • Cherokee Phoenix and Cherokee Advocate: written in Cherokee and English
  7. 7. 7 Birth of the Mass Newspaper • Prerequisites for mass press – Fast, cost-effective printing presses – Critical mass of literate people – Mass audience
  8. 8. 8 The Penny Press • In contrast, other newspapers cost 6 cents • Examples – New York Sun, New York Herald – New York Tribune, New York Times • The Penny Press changed – Basis of newspaper economic support – Distribution pattern – Definition of news – How news was collected
  9. 9. 9 Newspapers Become Big Business • Civil War and development of telegraph changed how stories were written – Lead – Inverted pyramid • Huge growth in US population, and newspaper readership • Key players in the newspaper industry – Joseph Pulitzer – E.W. Scripps – William Randolph Hearst
  10. 10. 10 Yellow Journalism • Yellow journalism: increased use of sex, murder, self-promotion, and human interest stories • Positive impact – Enthusiasm and energy – Professional writing – Aggressive reporting and investigative journalism – Layout and display elements that characterize modern journalism
  11. 11. 11 The Early Twentieth Century • Consolidation of the newspaper industry • Circulation and profits increased, but number of daily papers declined due to – Equipment and supply costs – Advertiser preference for big chain newspapers – Growth of chain newspapers • Jazz journalism – Tabloid size, lavish use of photographs
  12. 12. 12 The Impact of the Great Depression • Social and economic impact on newspapers – Many dailies went out of business – Radio emerged as competitor for advertising dollars
  13. 13. 13 Postwar Newspapers • After World War II, economic forces affected the newspaper industry – More consolidation – Growth of chain newspapers – Few cities with competing newspapers – Media conglomerates control print and electronic media – Television emerged as competitor for advertising dollars
  14. 14. 14 Contemporary Developments • 1980s: USA Today influenced – Graphics and colors – Short stories – Graphs, charts, tables – Factoids • Decreasing circulation • Competition from web and new media • Shifts in social and market conditions
  15. 15. 15 NEWSPAPERS IN THE DIGITAL AGE • The newspaper industry is still experimenting with how best to incorporate an online presence
  16. 16. 16 Online Newspapers • Vary in size and complexity • Advantages over print newspapers – Not limited by news hole size – Can be updated continuously – Interactive – Provide visual and audio content – Can offer social networking – Can feature user-generated content
  17. 17. 17 Replica Editions • Not the same as online editions – Look the same as traditional editions, with same content – Read on a computer screen – Advantages and disadvantages
  18. 18. 18 Mobile Media • Newspapers can be delivered to a person rather than a place • Cell phones, PDAs, laptops • Advertising and marketing potential significant
  19. 19. 19 User-Generated Content • Citizen reporters • Workshops teaching readers about reporting • Citizen journalists may not be objective or knowledgeable
  20. 20. 20 DEFINING FEATURES OF NEWSPAPERS • Diverse array of content • Conveniently packaged • Local • Historical record • Watchdog role • Timely
  21. 21. 21 ORGANIZATION OF THE NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY • There are various ways to categorize the newspaper industry, including by their publication frequency and their appeal
  22. 22. 22 Print Dailies • Circulation decline continues • Circulation = subscription + vending/newsstand sales • Categories of newspapers – National newspapers – Large metropolitan dailies – Medium-sized dailies – Small-town dailies
  23. 23. 23 Print Weeklies • Number of weeklies has remained stable • Circulation totals have increased • Rising production costs
  24. 24. 24 Recapturing Readers • Eye appeal • Writing style • Story content • Giving free tabloids to younger readers
  25. 25. 25 Special-Service and Minority Newspapers • African-American press • Spanish press • Varied ethnic newspapers • College press
  26. 26. 26 Organization of Online Papers • Paid access • Registration access • Free access
  27. 27. 27 NEWSPAPER OWNERSHIP • Consolidation is increasing. • The biggest newspaper group owners are the Gannett Company, the Tribune Company, the New York Times Company, McClatchy Company, and Advance Publications
  28. 28. 28 The Decline of Competition • Increasing concentration of ownership • Decreasing number of cities with competing papers • Joint-operating agreements (JOAs) allow competing papers to merge all departments except editorial staffs – Requires approval of Justice Department
  29. 29. 29 The Pros and Cons of Group Ownership • Cons – Less diversity of opinion – Absentee ownership – Less local concern – Profit motive – Avoid controversy • Pros – More resources support more staff and facilities – Can do more public service
  30. 30. 30 PRODUCING THE PRINT AND ONLINE NEWSPAPER • Convergence has appeared in print and online newspapers
  31. 31. 31 Departments and Staff • Departments – Business – Production – News-Editorial • Operational Convergence • Staff – City editor – Wire editor
  32. 32. 32 Prepublication Routine • Sources of news – Local reporting – Wire services • News hole • Print papers are laid out and printed • Online newspapers – News hole not applicable – Deadlines and limits on graphics not applicable • Convergence: reporters prepare stories for online and print
  33. 33. 33 ECONOMICS • Business model is changing • Two main revenue sources – Advertising – Circulation • Cost-cutting • Online readership up
  34. 34. 34 Advertising Revenue • Print versions of newspapers – Local advertising – Classified advertising – Preprinted inserts – National advertising • Online versions of newspapers – Banner advertising – Display advertising – Classified advertising
  35. 35. 35 Circulation Revenue • Subscription and single-copy sales – Distributors receive some of the cover price – Price of newspapers may hurt circulation – Online newspapers can charge subscription fees – Online newspapers can charge for access to back issues
  36. 36. 36 General Expenses • News and editorial costs • Generating advertising sales • Mechanical costs • Printing costs • Circulation/distribution costs • General administration • Online papers – Minimal production/distribution costs – Software, hardware, server costs
  37. 37. 37 FEEDBACK • Circulation figures are very important to the newspaper industry
  38. 38. 38 The Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) • ABC audits about ¾ of all US and Canadian print media • Nielsen/NetRatings report on online audience size
  39. 39. 39 Newspaper Audiences • US total newspaper circulation: about 53 million copies daily • Declining since 1970 despite population growth – Especially 18-44, urban, lower education – Reasons for decline include • increased mobility • increased prices • decreased literacy • competition from other media
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