Emotional Disturbances, Behavioral Disorders and Physical Challenges. According to the Council for Exceptional children Behavior Disorders/EmotionalDisturbances In recent years’ behavioral disorders have gained more attention thanemotional disturbances. The term Behavioral has less of a negative connotation thanEmotional disturbance does. There are distinct differences between the two however.IDEA (The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) defines emotional disturbance asa condition that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics; Emotionaldisturbances adversely affects educational performance: inability to learn, difficulty withinterpersonal relationships with peers or teachers. Inappropriate behaviors under normalcircumstances, unhappiness and feelings of depression. These individuals developphysical symptoms or fears of school and personal relationships. The Individual that exhibits Behavioral disorders are similar but some of thecharacteristics are: external in nature (acting out, aggressive and disruptive) The Internalbehaviors are (withdrawn, anxious and depressed). Individuals with behavioral disordersalso demonstrate personality disorders (withdrawal, anxiety, physical complaints andimmaturity. These individuals are also frequently involved with socialized Delinquency(involvement in gangs). Emotional disturbances and behavioral disorders have many ofthe same characteristics but the terminology behavioral is not viewed as negatively as theterminology emotional. It is difficult to define a physical disability because there aremany different types. Cerebral Palsy, Muscular dystrophy, Spina bifida, Rhetts syndrome(only seen in girls) to name a few. Cerebral Palsy is seen very frequently in schoolsettings and is sometimes classified as a multiple disability because there may or may notbe mental challenges. Cerebral Palsy can be complex because there are different types.Spastic cerebral palsy is an individual that has a high muscle tone they are stiff. Flaccidcerebral palsy is a low muscle toned individual they appear to be floppy. Athetoids havedifficulty sitting upright because of mixed muscle tone. Mixed cerebral palsy is whenmuscle tone is low in some limbs and too high in other limbs. Cerebral Palsy individuals can also be Quadriplegic which means all four limbs areimpaired the arms and legs. Hemiplgia one side of the body is impaired the right arm or
leg for example. Finally Diplegia Cerebral Palsy the disability is much more severe in thelegs. The ChartTeaching strategies For Emotional Teaching Strategies for Students withDisturbances and Behavioral Disorders. Physical Challenges.The key to teaching these students is Activities of daily living are very importantcollaboration between the counselor, for these individuals ie; hand washing, faceSpecial Education Teacher, Speech washing, putting on and taking off coat etc.Therapist if there is one, and the parents. The Special Education Teacher,The classroom teacher is the most Occupational Therapist, Physical Therapistimportant provider besides the parent and Speech Therapist should all collaboratebecause the student spends 75% of their to help this student with ADL skills. Thetime in this setting and this is the place Speech Therapist should be available towhere the most peer interaction takes place. help with ADL vocabulary expansion skillsThe Speech Therapist can collaborate on the Occupational Therapist should help thepragmatic and social interaction skills in student implement these skills and thethe speech room, but the ideal situation classroom teacher should teach these skills.would be for the Speech Therapist to The physical Therapist should be availableprovide services in the classroom. The to help with the best position for thiscounselor can’t work in the classroom student while these skills are being taught.because of confidentiality issues, but the All team members should work in thecounselor can collaborate through team classroom if possible.meetings with the providers. The parent isthe primary provider because without theirinput the IEP can’t be implemented.Pragmatics and social skills should be Assistive Technology is essential for theseworked on by the counselor and Speech individuals the use of a computer by usingTherapist mainly but collaboration should a switch to use the computer if accessingoccur with all of the team members. These with the hand is possible that is great, butstudents need to learn how to interact with may of these students access with anotherpeers and staff appropriately. body part of the body like the head. If
accessing is an issue then the occupational and physical therapist need to be available. Some students may need Augmentative Alternative communication. Communication boards and electronic voice output devices are available for these students to communicate. These students can take part in all academic areas with the help of Assitive Technology.Academic support needs to be available at What is a voice output device? A deviceall times because if these individuals have that talks for the student with either aacademic problems some of their negative recorded human voice or synthesized voice.behaviors will be displayed because of Pictures or symbols are used for anyfrustration about academic failure. academic or communicative theme. Electronic devices go under the category of Augmentative communication.Assistive Technology can help The use of a Alternative communication are items suchword processor can improve spelling, a as communication boards that don’t useword processor that reads while the student voice they can be made out of oak tag andis typing can help this student so much. Mayer Johnson symbols or google photosAcademic success is what these students can be placed on the board for the studentneed most to decrease negative behaviors. to communicate. Communication symbols can be placed in a students classroom to help with hand washing, clothing, identification and scheduling of their day. Alternative communication symbols should be encouraged by all providers because visual stimulation along with the spoken word increases the student’s abilities.The community is a very important step Lastly there are different types oftoward the growth of students with communication electronic devices on theEmotional Disturbances and Behavioral market. This is based on the student’s
Disorders. Trips to the Post office, abilities cognitively. Low Tech Devices areSupermarket, and other community 1, 2 or 4 message devices. High Techsettings. Allow these students to order food Devices are 8-32 or more symbols withat restaurants because the more that they voice that the student can use academicallyare encouraged to communicate the more and communicatively.appropriate their interpersonal relationshipswill improve with the outside world. Theymust not be isolated but instead should beencouraged to move freely around thecommunity with the support of the schoolstaff.