Gardner, Howard (1993), Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice ,
Reasons for planning
Lesson plans have a positive impact on both learners and teachers
Components of lesson plansDescriptions of the studentsAims and objectivesProceduresAnticipated problemsExtra activities/ materials ( just in case)Material to be used in the lesson
Beginning a classEffective opening of a class is very important:It focuses student’ s attention on what they are about to learn.It can arouse students’ curiosity and interest in the lesson.It helps motivate students to become involved in the lesson.
Rem ber !! emStudents of all ages approach any lesson “what’s in it for me”If the lesson addresses this question Motivated learner
•Strategies to engage students in a lessonLearning begins before the bell rings.Be sure you have everyone’ s attention before you begin.The opening MUST be connected to the main lesson.Avoid beginning a class with routine tasks.
The opening must be connected to the main lesson.Avoid beginning with routine tasks.Vary your openings in order to maximize their impact.
Guidelines for effective lesson planning Outline I. Why plan lessons? II. how to begin planning III. variety, sequence, pacing and timing IV. students talk and teacher talkV. learner centured lessons VS curriculum centured lessons
Why plan lesson? * Lesson planning is a model of teacher’s effectiveness * lessons require deep knowledge of a variety of issues * teachers need to model the way forward others who are weak in need of strengthening and support
how to begin planning: *Preview of the whole curriculum * outlinging, underlining and highlighting key elements * planning step by step * choose suitable exercises and activities
variety, sequence, pacing and timing: * variety of techniques * logical sequence of activities * adequate pacing of exercices & activities
students talk time and teacher talk time * (STT) should be around 80% * (TTT) should be roughly limited to 20% to 30% of the class time
learner centured lessons VS curriculum centured lessons
Format of a lesson planA lesson plan is a framework for a lesson. If you imagine a lesson is like a journey, then in the lesson plan is the map. It shows where you start, where you finish and the route to take to get there.The lesson plan sets out what the teacher hopes to achieve over the course of the lesson and how he or she hopes to achieve it.So, it’s important that all teachers take time to think through their lessons before they enter the classroom.Remember the 5 Ps: Perfect Planning Prevents Poor Performance.
There are some essential elements that a lesson plan should include.Goals:The teacher should identify an overall purpose or a goal that he or she will attempt to accomplish by the end of the end of the class period. He will try to finish the following statement:By the end of the lesson the learners will be able to………..
Objectives:A teacher may have objectives and aims of various kinds for the actual running of a lesson, to do with himself. E.g. Personal aims:” I will talk less and involve students more, I will make my instructions clearer”. Or to do with the classroom :” I will make sure the seating is rearranged appropriately when the activity changes”. Or to do with individuals “I will keep an eye on Maria if she needs help”.
But, the most important aim usually concerns intended student achievements: things they will have learned, skills they have improved and points they will have reached by the end of the lesson.E.g. : By the end of the lesson, students will be better able to learn the names of colours or to practice language for buying clothes.
Materials and equipment:The teacher should be aware of the materials and equipment that he will use at each stage of the lesson. So, a good planning includes knowing what a teacher need to take with him and use it in the classroom. E.g.: CD, cassette player, posters or handouts that he or she will distribute to students.
Stages of the lesson:Any lesson we teach naturally divides into different stages and . For example, at one stage of the lesson, the class may be listening to a dialogue; at another stage, the teacher may be explaining new words and writing them on the board, then encouraging them to do some oral practice.It’s much easier to plan the details of a lesson, if we think in terms of separate stages, rather than trying to think of a lesson as a whole.
Evaluation:The teacher should make sure that the objectives have been accomplished, and students have understood and comprehend the lesson.Evaluation should take place in the course of regular classroom activity in order to help students to improve their memory and remember most of things that take place in the class.
Extra-classwork:Theteacher should always find application or extensions of classroom activity, that will help students do some learning beyond the class hour.For example, using puzzle games, crosswords to help students to practice more English vocabulary and tenses.Or using songs with catchy melodies and chants to teach alphabet or colours to kids.
Gardner and his followers have identified specific sections of the brain that control each of the eight intelligences he proposed:1. Logical-mathematical: verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings, and rhythms of words2. Linguistic: possessing a mastery of language and ability to express oneself rhetorically or poetically3. Spatial: ability to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly4. Musical: ability to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms5. Bodily-kinesthetic: ability to control one’s body movements and to handle objects skillfully6. Intrapersonal: possessing a high degree of self-knowledge, including awareness of one’s own strengths, weaknesses, and inner feelings7. Interpersonal: competent in leadership skills, communication, understanding of others’ feelings8. Naturalist: capacity to detect significant patterns in nature and distinguish and categorize items of various classes (plants, animals, chemicals)
It is crucial not to neglect any student whatever his/her intelligence, as we have to capitalize on their strengths to allow them excel in their scope of interest. The aim is to personalize instruction. One way to figure out students’ inclination is by finding out about their preferred leisure activities, or what they do while misbehaving.
Gardner (1993, p. 178) concludes that “it is extremely desirable to have assessment occur in the context of students working on problems, projects, or products that genuinely engage them, that hold their interest and motivate them to do well. Such exercises may not be as easy to design as the standard multiple-choice entry, but they are far more likely to elicit a student’s full repertoire of skills and to yield information that is useful for subsequent advice and placement.”Eg: A teacher might encourage the musically inclined student to sing the multiplication tables at home as a memory aid.
What can the teacher do?Design items that have easy and difficult aspects or itemsDesign techniques that will involve studentsUse judicious selection to assign groups so that each group has either (i) a deliberately heterogenous range of ability or (ii) a homogenous range to encourage equal participation).Use small-group and pair work time to circulate and give extra attention to those below or above the norm.
Teachers determined to implement multiple- intelligence strategies in their classroom face real- world obstacles. The time and energy needed to redesign instruction can be significant. Not all administrators encourage deviating from the focus on upping standardized test performance.
THIRTY-EIGHT STRATEGIES FOR NURTURINGEMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (I only chose 4) 1. Encourage students to strive for excellence, not perfection. 2. Teach reframing to help students see events from a more positive perspective. 3. Have students rate their feelings on a scale of 1 to 10 as a way to encourage them to think about the intensity of their emotions. They can draw a feeling thermometer to indicate the intensity of their feelings. 4. Frequently use reflection-of-feeling statements to develop empathy with your students. (For example: “You feel disappointed because you didn’t make the quiz-bowl team.”) En-courage students to develop a rich vocabulary for feelings, beyond mad, glad, and sad.
Preferred Learning Modalities (learning styles) Most individuals learn best through a particular sensory or perceptual channel—kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, or visual. Research indicates that visual learners make up 65% of the population. Approximately 30% are auditory learners, leaving about 5% percent as kinesthetic or tactile learners. Sensory preferences are developmental, with younger children being more kinesthetic and tactile. Typically, during the sixth grade, girls become more perceptually mature in the auditory channel, with boys following shortly. At about the eighth grade, girls usually develop greater visual-perceptual acuity, with boys catching up a year or two later.
Research suggests that matching teaching style with students’ learning styles may increase student motivation and improve performance. The research also indicates that teachers almost always teach in their own preferred learning style. *****************************************
Outline1. Homework that works2. Interesting home work3. Making assignment4. The internet and homework5. Collecting and grading homework6. Handling make up work
Homework that helps Homework should: Enhance the students’ learning process.Account for students’ age, abilities, and habitsServe your own instructional objectives.
Attributes Signifying Modality Helpful Instructional Preferences Strategies for Learning Modalities Likes music •Discussions /Debates Enjoys talking •Oral presentations Long, repetitive descriptions •Listening to lectures/music Distracted by noise •Reciting content aloud Auditory Sings Talks to self •Studying with peers •Reading aloud •Verbal directions •Doodles •drawing •Notices details •Note taking •Verbal directions often difficult •Watching videos •Enjoys drawing •DemonstrationsVisual •Vivid imagination •Computer instruction •Solves problems deliberately •Visual mnemonics •Tends to be quiet •Use written directions •Distracted by movements •Use pictures, diagrams, maps, and charts •Flash cards •Independent learning
Attributes Signifying Helpful Instructional Modality Preferences Strategies for Learning Modalities •Likes handling Manipulatives objects Building models •Gestures while Hands-on activities talking Field trips • Often in motion Drama, role playingKinesthetic or Tactile •Tapping feet or Allowing to stretch hands or stand •Likes to try things Making ﬂash cards out Labs •Jumping, pushing Walk-and-talk •Often seems activities impulsive Action games •May be a poor Sculpture speller
Homework advantagespreserves class time for activities that students cannot do independently.Provides students with an opportunity to practice and reinforce new skills.serves an assessment function for the teacher.provides remedial instruction to students who lag in skill development.
Interesting Homework: ideas for worthwhile homework assignments.Write new endings to old stories.Keep a journal.Develop a creative solution to a problemTake sides on an issue;Plan and produce a film or skit.Construct a Web page.Attend a public meeting.Do volunteer work.
some practical suggestions for effectively making homework assignments:The procedures for assigning homework must be taught as part of the classroom routineclarify your expectations regarding homework from the very beginning.Do not compete with student noise when giving oral directions.
homework assignments should be highly structured and have very specific directions to be completed by students.It may be helpful to reserve specific days for regular assignments.Try to be creative in designing some homework tasks.
Collecting and Grading HomeworkNot every homework assignment must be collected and gradedStudents must receive feedback on their homework for it to enhance learning.Vary the approaches to providing feedback: Use a variety of techniques to help students check their own or each other’s assignments.
According to you, why is it necessary for teachers to evaluate a lesson after it is closed?
Teachers should ask these questions at the end of a lesson to see if it worked or not. 1 –Was the lesson successful?2- Did students learn what you had hoped?3- Did the students enjoy it?4- Did they learn anything from it? How do you know?5 -Did any new learning goals emerge during instruction?6-What exactly did they get from the activity?7 -What instructional strategies were the most effective?8 -What one thing might you have done differently which would have made the lesson more effective?9 - What else would you like to change, next time you use this lesson?
What’s wrong if theinstructors do notask themselves thesequestions?
Unless we ( teachers) ask ourselves such questions, weare in danger of continuing with activities andtechniques that either do not work, or, at the very least,are not as successful as they might be with appropriatemodification.
Feedback helps teachers evaluate lessons andactivitiesOne way to judge the quality of a lesson is to get feedback from students .For example, we can ask simple questions like: « Did you like the lesson? Did you find it useful? ». Based on what they say, we judge the lesson, or we can ask them to write their answers down and hand them to us.
Another way to get feedback from students is to ask them once every week to write down two things they want more and two things they want less. The answers we get may prove a fuitful place to start a discussion, and we will then be able to modify what happens in class.Give Ss special evaluation forms where they have to rate different activities with a score and add comments about what they tought.Invite colleagues to observe your class and make suggestions afterwards. ( Peer observation)N.B. it would be great if the teacher who comes into your class does so in order to offer constructive advice rather than to focus on the teacher’s apparent failings.
Get your lesson videoed.Some teachers keep journals in which they record their thoughts about what happened as soon as possible after the lesson has finished.Good teachers also need to assess how well their Ss are progressing ( a variety of measures including homework assignments, speaking activities, frequent small progress tests.
The incorporation of humor inthe class Is humor valued in the classroom?Humor can be a valued tool in the classroom when it is used to motivate students, help students retain information, and create a comfortable, supportive environment.The benefits of using humor as an educational tool may be obvious when the class is full of elementary or middle-school aged students.
Humor can reduce stress and anxiety, create a comfortable learning environment, and increase motivation, comprehension, and retention of information.It may be beneficial for the teacher to incorporate humor at the beginning of class to set the tone.The teacher can use humor during the class time to provide a breather. (a short pause for rest or to relax )Effective teaching and learning is built upon the relationship between the teacher and students, and this interactive relationship can be enhanced with a good sense of humor.The use of humor can help set a tone in the classroom that invites participation and increases learning.to keep students attention
Teachers who incorporate appropriate humor in the classroom are often rated higher and considered to be more credible than teachers who do not make use of humor.Types of humor studied include funny stories or anecdotes, funny comments, jokes, professional humor, puns, cartoons, riddles, sarcasm …etc