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Assistive Technology Presentation

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  • 1. Children who have special educational needs have difficulty in the classroom, which can be the result of one or more of the following: • • • • • “physical disorders, psychiatric disorders, emotional problems, behavioral problems, learning disorders (or disabilities)” American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (March 2011). Services in school for children with special needs: What parents need to know Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Services_In_School_For_C hildren_With_Special_Needs__What_Parents_Need_To_Know_83.aspx
  • 2. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) • covers all special education services that are provided for students in the United States • to be eligible for accommodations, students must be diagnosed with one of the following: o “serious emotional disturbance o learning disabilities o mental retardation o traumatic brain injury o autism o vision and hearing impairments o physical disabilities o other health impairments.” American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (March 2011). Services in school for children with special needs: What parents need to know Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Services_In_School_For_C hildren_With_Special_Needs__What_Parents_Need_To_Know_83.aspx
  • 3. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 • Prohibits the discrimination of children with disabilities and requires • • • that they receive reasonable accommodations Governs all programs that receive federal funding, public or private Students covered under this statute have disabilities that are typically less severe than those covered under IDEA Definition of “disability” is broadened to include anything that limits a major life activity American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (March 2011). Services in school for children with special needs: What parents need to know Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Services_In_School_For_C hildren_With_Special_Needs__What_Parents_Need_To_Know_83.aspx
  • 4. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) • Requires that all secular educational programs accommodate the • • needs of children diagnosed with psychiatric disorders Prohibits the denial of educational services to students with disabilities Prohibits discrimination against students with disabilities American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (March 2011). Services in school for children with special needs: What parents need to know Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Services_In_School_For_C hildren_With_Special_Needs__What_Parents_Need_To_Know_83.aspx
  • 5. Be aware of the characteristics of learning disabilities, which may include a student who displays one or more of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Has poor auditory memory—both short term and long term. Has a low tolerance level and a high frustration level. Has a weak or poor self-esteem. Is easily distractible. Finds it difficult, if not impossible, to stay on task for extended periods of time. Is spontaneous in expression; often cannot control emotions. Is easily confused. Is verbally demanding. Has some difficulty in working with others in small or large group settings. Has difficulty in following complicated directions or remembering directions for extended periods of time. Has coordination problems with both large and small muscle groups. Has inflexibility of thought; is difficult to persuade otherwise. Has poor handwriting skills. Has a poor concept of time.” Teacher Vision. (n.d.). Teaching students with special needs. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://www.teachervision.com/special-education/new-teacher/48460.html
  • 6. If a student appears to be having difficulty in school: 1. Notify the school counselor 2. Gather information about the student’s academic performance: a. Discuss concerns with the student’s parent(s) b. Meet with the student c. Observe the student d. Analyze the student’s academic performance 3. Determine alternatives that will aid student success 4. If unsuccessful, test the student for specific learning disabilities a. If the student does have a disability that impairs academic performance, the student is eligible for services b. Eligibility is determined by professionals The Nemours Foundation. (n.d.). Individualized education programs (IEPS). Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html#
  • 7. • • • Teachers may be the first to observe academic difficulties that suggest learning disabilities Parents should remain informed through the entire process of identification and evaluation; the decision to test a child for learning disabilities is theirs Other professionals who may help to determine eligibility for special services: o o o o o o o a psychologist physical therapist an occupational therapist a speech therapist a special educator a vision or hearing specialist others, depending on the child's specific needs The Nemours Foundation. (n.d.). Individualized education programs (IEPS). Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html#
  • 8. Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) • • • According to IDEA, parents play an integral role in determining their child’s educational needs, and how those needs will be met Parents can work with educators to develop an Individualized Education Program designed to help their child succeed The IEP allows parents and teachers to set educational goals and determine the technology needed to meet those goals Assistive Technology (AT) • • • Tools that allow students to participate in daily activities independently AT ranges from no- or low-tech to high-tech By becoming aware of the wide array of ATs available, teachers can integrate them more successfully into their curricula as necessary National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education (2006). Help for young learners: How to choose AT?. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/8088 The Nemours Foundation. (n.d.). Individualized education programs (IEPS). Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html#
  • 9. Most services can be delivered in the school environment: • • Some services can be in the classroom If many students need the same services, they may work together in a special resources room In more extreme circumstances, IEPs should be delivered in a special school environment: • • Students may need more individual assistance Teacher typically has more specific training and certifications The goal is to teach all children in the “least restrictive environment,” meaning that it is preferable for students to be in a standard school environment as often as possible The Nemours Foundation. (n.d.). Individualized education programs (IEPS). Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html#
  • 10. After collecting the pertinent information, several steps help educators and parents to create the best possible IEP 1. Identify activities in which the student can participate. 2. Consider the educational goals for the individual student. Which activities will assist the student the most? 3. Create a list of potential AT solutions based on the student’s needs, frequency of use, and availability. 4. Implement the IEP, observing if and how the AT helps the student to reach his or her educational goals. 5. Evaluate the IEP and make adjustments as needed. National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education (2006). Help for young learners: How to choose AT?. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/8088
  • 11. When working with children who have special needs, there are times when accommodations and/or modifications need to be made. While similar, there are specific distinctions between the two terms that should be understood: Accommodation: “a device, material, or support process that will enable a student to accomplish a task more efficiently” Modification: “changes to the instructional outcomes; a change or decrease in the course content or outcome” Teacher Vision. (n.d.). Teaching students with special needs. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://www.teachervision.com/special-education/new-teacher/48460.html
  • 12. Assistive Technology does not cure students of their LDs, but it can help them to better perform academically because it allows them to utilize their strengths and avoid areas of weakness. Better performance may also be assisted by the student receiving remedial instruction. The benefits of AT are not limited to academics, however. Many students who use AT also become more self-reliant and independent than they were without AT services. Stanberry, K. & Raskind, M. (2009). Assistive technology for kids with learning disabilities: An overview. Retrieved February 20, 2014 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Assistive_Technology_for_Kids_with_Learning_Disabilities%3A_An_Overview
  • 13. Name Use(s) Tape Recorder Student can record instructor and listen to audio recording as often as necessary Paper-based Computer Pen Student can write on special paper with a pen that records the instructor; by touching a certain area of notes, the student can play back a specific section of the lesson FM Systems A wireless transmitter amplifies the voice of the teacher for the student, often using the same technology as the student’s hearing device; portable Sound Field Systems Teacher uses a microphone that broadcasts through previously installed speakers throughout the classroom; benefits all students, not hearing impaired individually Loop Systems Student wears a hearing loop receiver that picks up amplified sound; removes background noise; used by individual student California Ear Institute. (n.d.). Classroom assistive listening devices. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.californiaearinstitute.com/hearing-device-center-listening-device-classroom-bay-area.php National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders. (June 2012). Assistive devices for people with hearing, voice, speech, or language disorders. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/assistivedevices.aspx
  • 14. Name Use(s) Audiobooks Student can listen to books; may be able to search and bookmark specific pages; public libraries often have access to a variety of audiobooks designed for students with learning disabilities Optical Character Recognition Student can scan a printed page into a computer that can then read the text aloud BoardMaker Student can add printed symbols to adapt a book, then peel off symbols later; leaves the book intact BPS Technology. (December 2010). Assistive technology: Low tech: Visual/Reading supports. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from https://connect.mybps.org/groups/bpsoiit/wiki/9c79a/VisualReading_Supports.html National Center for Technology Innovation. (2008). Reading software: Finding the right program. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Reading_Software%3A_Finding_the_Right_Program Stanberry, K. & Raskind, M. (2009). Assistive technology tools: Reading. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/Assistive_Technology_Tools%3A_Reading
  • 15. Name Use(s) Abbreviation Expanders Student can create abbreviations for commonly used words on word processors to be sure that words are spelled correctly Alternative Keyboards Students can use keyboard overlays that will help them to customize the keyboard according to individual needs Graphic Organizers and Outlining Student can input all information for a given writing assignment in an unorganized way. Later, the software allows the student to arrange the information appropriately Pencil Grips Student can put the grip on the pencil to have a more stable grip and steady hand White Board Student may find it easier to write on this type of surface, as opposed to paper BPS Technology. (March 2012). Assistive technology: Low tech tools. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://connect.mybps.org/groups/bpsoiit/wiki/b3d08/Low_Technology_Tools.html Stanberry, K. & Raskind, M. (n.d.). Assistive technology tools: Writing. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.greatschools.org/special-education/assistive-technology/960-writing-tools.gs
  • 16. Name Use(s) Noise cancelling headphones or ear plugs Student can use either tool to tune out external distractions and focus on the task at hand Adapted Worksheets Student can cover worksheets or fold them to cover all sentences or problems except the one at hand; can be used in multiple subjects Computer programs Student can work more interactively on material and focus on it Talking/Vibrating Watches Student gets a reminder at certain time intervals to remind him or her to stay on task in the classroom or to complete a task or chore Because students with ADHD often have many of the same learning difficulties as those with other learning disabilities, the technology used for other subjects (math, writing, and reading) are also applicable for these students. ADHD Brain. (n.d.). Assistive technology for ADHD. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.adhd-brain.com/assistivetechnology-for-adhd.html U.S. Department of Education. (October 2008). Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Instructional strategies and practices. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/adhd/adhdteaching_pg3.html