3. What is Literary Theory?
Literary theory asks you to
examine literature from a
different viewpoint, usually
quite different than your own.
To do this, you have to be open-
minded and objective, willing to
step outside of your comfort
In other words, different literary
theories ask you to put on
different pairs of glasses through
which to see what you read, and
in general, the world around
4. Archetypal Literary Theory
• An archetype is a recurring pattern
of images, situations, or symbols
found in the
mythology, folklore, fantasies, reli
gion, art, literature, and dreams of
cultures around the world.
Carl Jung (pronounced „yoong‟), a
psychologist and student of Sigmund
Freud, first applied the term archetype to
5. Archetypal Literary Theory
Recognizing archetypes in literature
brings these patterns that we all
unconsciously respond to in similar
ways to a conscious level.
For example, the hero archetype is
present in a vast array of mythologies
and cultures from past to present
time. We all know what a hero is, and
we can all connect to that idea.
6. Brainstorming Session
Please spot a “far partner”
across the room from you and
go sit by that person.
You will need something to
7. Character Archetypes (10 minutes)
This chart asks you to come up
with examples from
movies, TV, literature, comics, etc
. of various character archetypes.
Be ready to share!
8. Hero Archetypes (10 minutes)
1. Hero as Warrior
2. Hero as Lover
3. Hero as Scapegoat
4. Transcendent Hero
5. Romantic/Gothic Hero
6. Proto-Feminist Hero
7. Apocalyptic Hero
9. Defiant Anti-Hero
10. The Unbalanced Hero
11. The Denied Hero
12. The Superheroic
10. from Fight Club
Narrator: If you could fight any
celebrity, who would you fight?
Tyler: Alive or dead?
Narrator: Doesn't matter, who'd
Tyler: Hemingway. You?
Narrator: Shatner. I'd fight
12. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
Hemingway was born in Oak
He was a journalist (1917), then a
volunteer ambulance driver and
active duty soldier (1918) during
In 1921, he married the first of his
four wives and left the U.S. to join
the growing band of artists and
writers who were gathering in
13. Ernest Hemingway
14. The Lost Generation
This name was given to a group of
authors and artists who came of age
The phrase was coined by writer Gertrude
Stein. She told Ernest Hemingway, “That is
what you are. That is what you all are. You
are a lost generation.”
This group included The Great Gatsby
author F. Scott Fitzgerald and T.S.
Eliot, the author of “The Love Song of J.
15. “Indian Camp”
◦ Nick Adams
◦ Uncle George
◦ Nick‟s father/the doctor
◦ Indian Man
◦ Indian Woman
16. Hemingway‟s Code Hero
Hemingway defined the Code
Hero as "a man who lives
correctly, following the ideals
of honor, courage and
endurance in a world that is
sometimes chaotic, often
stressful, and always painful."
17. Code Hero Attributes
1. He is disciplined.
He chooses to live a very
structured life amidst a
2. He acts without emotion.
He is a doer, not a talker.
He doesn’t brag about his
3. He desires women and
These indulges especially
occur at night to counteract
the fear of the dark.
18. Code Hero Attributes
4. He is often afraid of the
The dark reminds him of
5. He faces death
He faces death with dignity
because that is the only
guarantee a hero can hope
6. He does not believe in
He believes in Nada, the
Spanish word for
19. Apprentice Heroes
In Hemingway stories, code
heroes are those characters who
have recognized and accepted
the reality of nada and who live
in compliance with the code.
Apprentice heroes are those
characters who are either
struggling with the
20. Literary Term: Style
Style is the literary
describes the ways
that the author uses
21. Hemingway‟s Style
Hemingway’s style consists of:
1. simplicity – His sentences and
vocabulary are short and sparse, even
though they deal with important
2. reporting – He presents sensory
details to the reader as facts, just as a
newspaper reports the facts in a story.
3. understating – He employs the
“iceberg principle” by revealing only
1/8 of the story and leaving readers
to uncover what‟s underwater.
22. Hemingway vs.
Style Cage Match
With a partner, take a look at the
excerpts on “Being at a Party.”
1. Read each excerpt.
2. Whose artistic style do you like better?
3. Why? Try to put your thoughts into
23. “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”
This story was
published in 1933.
◦ old, deaf man who is
drinking at the café
◦ young waiter who
late, waiting for the
old, deaf man to
24. “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”
1. Read this short story independently.
2. While you read, annotate (mark and
label) your story for the following items:
a) The 6 Attributes of Hemingway‟s
b) The 4 Attributes of Hemingway‟s
3. Turn in your packet of stories when you
are finished with your name on it.
25. Quote Incorporation
In academic writing, you will
often use another person‟s
writing as evidence/support in
your own writing.
This helps to prove your topic
sentence to be true or right.
26. Quote Incorporation Formula
Use the sandwich method!
Sentence 1: Introduce the quote with
Who is speaking? To whom?
What is the situation in which Mr. X is
Sentence 2: Insert the quote word for
word, then use an internal citation.
Sentence 3: Explain how the quote
helps support your topic sentence.
27. Paragraph Prompt
Which element of
Hemingway‟s code hero is
most apparent in “A Clean
28. My Topic Sentence
Ernest Hemingway uses
his short story, “A Clean
Well-Lighted Place” to
illustrate his code hero‟s
fear of the dark.
29. Your Turn
1. Write your topic sentence.
2. Find a direct quote from the story
that provides support for your
topic sentence. Underline it, so you
can easily find it.
30. My Quote Sandwich
Ernest Hemingway uses his
short story, “A Clean Well-Lighted
Place” to illustrate his code hero‟s
fear of the dark. The old waiter
wants to keep the café open late
into the night. He explains, “Each
night I am reluctant to close up
because there may be some one
who needs the café” (Hemingway
290). This statement proves that the
older waiter understands the need
for some men to have a well-
31. Your Turn
3. After the topic sentence, write a
sentence that effective
introduces your quote with
4. Copy down the quote with an
5. After the direct quote, write a
sentence that explains how the
quote proves your topic
32. Quote Incorporation Proficiency Scale
4 Along with 3, in response to the given topic, the student uses
precise internal documentation for his/her direct quote.
3 In response to the given topic, independently, the student is
able to seamlessly incorporate a direct quote that effectively
supports/explains his/her topic sentence.
2 In response to the given topic, the student is able to
incorporate a direct quote but without a smooth
introduction and/or a proper connection to the topic
1 In response to the given topic, with help, the student is
unable to incorporate a direct quote.
0 Even with help, no understanding of quote incorporation is
33. Hemingway vs. Twain
Style Cage Match
Now, let‟s take a look at the
excerpts on “Being on a Body of
1. Read each excerpt.
2. Whose artistic style do you like
3. Why? Try to put your thoughts into
34. The Iceberg Principle
“I always try to
write on the
principle of the
iceberg. There is
seven-eighths of it
under water for
every part that
you know you can
35. “This Is Just To Say”
by William Carlos Williams
I have eaten
that were in
you were probably
they were delicious
36. “Hills Like White Elephants”
The story takes place at a train
station in the Ebro River valley
The two main characters are a
man (only referred to as “the
American” and his female
companion (referred to as “Jig.”)
37. Allusion: White Elephant
An allusion is a brief
reference to another piece of
event, etc. The author
assumes that the reader will
get the reference.
A white elephant is an
idiom for a valuable but
burdensome possession of
which its owner cannot
dispose and whose cost
(particularly cost of upkeep)
is out of proportion to its
usefulness or worth.
38. The Iceberg Principle
in this story?
39. Symbolism of the Setting
40. SONG OF SOLOMON
BY TONI MORRISON
41. The fathers may soar
And the children may
know their names
42. Literary Term: Epigraph
An epigraph is a suitable
quotation at the beginning of
the book, chapter, etc.
Epigraphs are like little
appetizers to the great entrée of
a story. They illuminate
important aspects of the
story, and they get us headed in
43. Unit Goal
Students will be able to
identify multiple themes
in a text and summarize
progression of the book.
44. Literary Term: Folktale
A folktale is a tale or legend
traditional among a people (or
folk), one that becomes part of
the oral tradition of those
45. “The People Could Fly”
Song of Solomon is based on
this African-American folktale
about slaves who can fly back
to Africa when they choose.
Morrison fictionalizes this
folktale through the character
of Solomon, the title character.
Let‟s read the folktale together.
46. Literary Term: Magical Realism
is a genre of
writing that asks
the reader to
47. Literary Term: Setting
The setting of a work of
literature is the time and place.
This novel is set in an unnamed
city in Michigan (Detroit?)
Detroit, Michigan (1950)
48. Literary Term: Protagonist
A protagonist is the central
character in a work of
literature. The plot revolves
Our protagonist is Milkman
Dead, the great-grandson of the
title character, Solomon.
49. Ch. 1 of Song of Solomon
Ch. 1 throws you deliberately into
the thick of Milkman‟s world
without a lot of deep explanation
from the narrator.
Let‟s read p. 3-9 of Ch. 1 together.
DO NOW: Draw a picture of the
scene outside the hospital. Be sure
to include all of the important
(nameless?) characters and events.
50. Homework for Monday
1. Finish reading Ch. 1 of Song of
2. Answer the questions for
51. Literary Term: Point-of-View
Point-of-view deals with whom
narrates a story.
1. Omniscient – the narrator is not a
character in the story and almost
never refers to himself or herself
2. First-person – the narrator is a
character in the story who talks to
the readers using the pronoun „I‟
3. Third-person limited – the narrator
zooms in on one character but talks
about that character in third-person
The narrator gets into the
minds of all of the characters—
he/she is “all knowing”—but is
mostly interested in one
53. Literary Term: Theme
Theme #1: Flight is a means of
escape but also abandonment.
54. Literary Term: Theme
Theme #2: Names are important.
Morrison is very particular about
her characters‟ names.
Many of them are biblical allusions
or Greek mythology allusions.
Many of her characters share
personality traits with the
characters they share their names.